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10.08.2014
In pioneer days, coyotes (Canis latrans) were restricted primarily to the sagebrush lands, brushy mountains, and open prairies of the American West. In Washington, these intelligent and adaptable animals now manage to occupy almost every conceivable habitat type, from open ranch country to densely forested areas to downtown waterfront. At first glance, the coyote resembles a small German shepherd dog, yet its color can vary from animal to animal (Fig.
Grasshoppers and other insects are important to juvenile coyotes learning the stalk-and pounce method of hunting.
Coyotes eat wild species, but they are known to eat pet food, garbage, garden crops, livestock, poultry, and pets (mostly cats).
Coyotes occasionally kill domestic dogs (and foxes) that they consider territorial intruders. The den will have an entrance 1 to 2 feet across, be dug 5 to 15 feet long, and terminate in an enlarged nesting chamber. Coyotes usually have several dens and move from one to the other, minimizing the risk that a den containing young will be detected.
Occasionally, a mated pair of coyotes will live, hunt, and raise pups together for many years, sometimes for life. The young are principally cared for by the female; occasionally a nonbreeding sibling will assist with raising the litter. Juvenile coyotes usually disperse alone or sometimes in groups at six to eight months of age. Coyote numbers are controlled by social stress, diseases, parasites, competition for food, and predators.
Where coyotes are hunted and trapped, females produce more pups per litter than in areas where they are protected. Sightings of coyotes are most likely during the hours just after sunset and before sunrise. When a tree falls across a trail, coyotes have to either go over or under it, depending on their size. When small mammals such as rabbits are eaten, the head, feet, and hide will have been eaten, leaving a scattering of fur at the feeding site. If a coyote ever approaches too closely, pick up small children immediately and act aggressively toward the animal. Where coyote encounters occur regularly, keep noisemaking and other scare devices nearby. If a coyote continues to act in an aggressive or unusual way, call your local wildlife office or state patrol.
From 1988 to 1997 in southern California, 53 coyote attacks on humans-- resulting in 21 injuries-- were documented by a University of California Wildlife Extension Specialist.
Humans increase the liklihood of conflicts with coyotes by deliberately or inadvertently feeding the animals, whether by handouts or by providing access to food sources such as garbage, pet food or livestock carcasses.
However, all coyotes are excellent diggers, and an effective fence needs to extend at least 8 inches below the surface, or have a galvanized-wire apron that extends out from the fence at least 15 inches (Fig. Alternatively, install a commercial device to prevent coyotes from being able to get the foothold necessary to hoist them over a fence (Fig.
To prevent coyotes from accessing birds in their night roosts, equip poultry houses with well-fitted doors and secure locking mechanisms. To prevent coyotes and other animals from accessing poultry during the day, completely enclose outdoor pens with 1-inch chicken wire placed over a sturdy wooden framework. Keep livestock and small animals that live outdoors confined in secure pens during periods of vulnerability. If all efforts to dissuade a problem coyote fail and it continues to be a threat to humans, or animals in their care, the animal may have to be killed.
In suburban areas of southern California, trapping and euthanizing coyotes has been shown not only to remove the individual problem animal, but also to modify the behavior of the local coyote population.
Coyote diseases or parasites are rarely a risk to humans, but could be a risk to domestic dogs in Washington. Canine distemper, a disease that affects domestic dogs, is found in our coyote populations. Parvo is usually spread to coyotes and domestic dogs by direct or indirect contact with infected droppings. If a person is bitten or scratched by a coyote, immediately scrub the wound with soap and water.
I turned our clues into a printable and simply cut the strips apart to include in the envelopes. Toddler sleds with seat belts are an essential piece of weather gear if you live where it snows.
You can create this great luminaries by taking old food cans, a hammer, a nail, and your ideas.
Draw eyes on toilet paper rolls and cut them out with scissors and insert a glow stick or other light source in the t.p.
Despite ever-increasing human encroachment and past efforts to eliminate coyotes, the species maintains its numbers and is increasing in some areas.
They eat any small animal they can capture, including mice, rats, gophers, mountain beavers, rabbits, and squirrels, also snakes, lizards, frogs, fish, birds, and carrion (animal carcasses).


Coyotes are also very protective of their young and will attack dogs that get too close to their den and pups.
Undisturbed and hungry coyotes will hunt during daylight hours, and may be seen following farm machinery, catching voles and other small prey.
These moves also help to prevent an accumulation of fleas and other parasites, as well as urine, droppings, and food refuse. After a gestation (pregnancy) of 63 days, an average of four pups are born from early April to late May. Because food requirements increase dramatically during pup rearing, this is a period when conflicts between humans and coyotes are common. In the wild, few coyotes live more than four years; the majority of pups die during their first year. Their sense of smell is remarkable, and their senses of sight and hearing are exceptionally well developed. To view a coyote, locate a well-used trail and wait patiently from an area overlooking a canyon, ravine, or other area.
At about this time, female coyotes train their offspring to search for food, so it is not unusual to observe a family group. A mother’s protective instincts can make her dangerous if she has young in or nearby the den. A starter pistol can be effective; so can a vinegar-filled super soaker or a powerful spray of water from a hose. In April 2006, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife officers euthanized two coyotes in Bellevue (King County)after two young children were bitten while their parents were nearby. When people provide food, coyotes quickly lose their natural fear of humans and become increasingly aggressive. To prevent conflicts with coyotes, use the following management strategies around your property and encourage your neighbors to do the same. If there are coyote sightings in your area, prepare your children for a possible encounter. Coyotes that are fed by people often lose their fear of humans and develop a territorial attitude that may lead to aggressive behavior. Keep garbage can lids on tight by securing them with rope, chain, bungee cords, or weights.
Two electrified wires, 8 and 15 inches above ground and offset from an existing wood fence by 12 inches will prevent coyotes from accessing the fence. If you must feed your pets outside, do so in the morning or at midday, and pick up food, water bowls, leftovers, and spilled food well before dark every day. Coyotes will eat bird food and are attracted to the many birds and rodents that come to feeders. If left outside at night in an unprotected area, cats and small to mid-size dogs may be killed by coyotes. Shrubs and trees should be pruned several feet above ground level so coyotes can’t hide in them.
Coyotes don’t leap fences in a single bound but, like domestic dogs, they grip the top with their front paws and kick themselves upward and over with the back legs. To prevent them from trying to go under the fence, stake the bottom of the fence flush to the ground, or line the bottom of the fence with bricks, fence posts, or similar items.
Various ways to install a barrier to prevent coyotes from digging under chicken coops and similar places.
If your property is the home territory of coyotes that don’t harm livestock, they will keep away other coyotes that are potential livestock killers. When humans remove a few coyotes, the local population may regain its fear of humans in areas where large numbers of humans are found. Have your dogs vaccinated for canine distemper to prevent them from contracting the disease. Mange is caused by a parasitic mite that causes extreme irritation when it burrows into the outer layer of the animal’s skin.
I divided the pieces up into ten separate envelopes and created rhyming clues for all the places I'd hide them. And oh was he puzzled when he opened up the box and found an envelope instead of the pieces! My promise to you is that although I earn an income from some of my recommendations, I'll never promote anything that I don't believe you will gain value from. Coyotes have since taken advantage of human activities (including the reduction of gray wolf populations) to expand their range throughout North and Central America.
Note: The list of killers of domestic cats and dogs includes other dogs and cats, vehicles, bears, cougars, bobcats, foxes, disease, and furious neighbors!
The greater the amount of food available in a given area, the closer the juveniles will stay to their den.
The normal track is about 2 inches wide and 2½ inches long, with the hind track slightly smaller than the front.
Den sites, and coyote activity, should be observed with binoculars or a spotting scope from a distance that does not visibly disturb the animals. Their trails are often found along draws, fence lines, game and livestock trails, next to roads, in the middle of dirt roads, and on ridge tops.


Signs of digging occur where coyotes follow promising scents and excavate prey, including moles, voles, and gophers.
If necessary, make yourself appear larger by standing up (if sitting) or stepping up onto a rock, stump, or stair.
Try to educate your friends and neighbors about the problems associated with feeding coyotes. Note: Other killers of poultry include foxes, skunks, raccoons, feral cats, dogs, bobcats, opossums, weasels, hawks, and owls. To add to the life of the barrier, spray on two coats of rustproof paint before installation.
The barrier forces coyotes to begin digging farther out and they will most likely give up in the process. Coyotes also benefit ranchers and other property owners by helping control populations of mice, rats, voles, moles, gophers, rabbits, and hares.
The mite causing mange is fairly species-specific, and thus it would be difficult for a human to contract mange from an infected wild animal.
Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1994.
We recently kicked the learning and fun up a notch by throwing in a scavenger hunt and counting. My clues were easy and focused on the places in our home rather than the numbers he'd be finding, so you could use the clues for any type of indoor scavenger hunt!
We want to share some easy crafts and tricks to get you in the holiday spirit, as well as your home in a hurry. You can print out an image of a spider or other ghoulish images and cut them out as a template.
Coyotes also have shorter, bushier tails that are carried low, almost dragging the ground, and longer, narrower muzzles than their dog cousins. Also, you could watch a coyote’s feeding area, such as a livestock or big game carcass.
Unfamiliar or new human activity close to the den, especially within one-quarter mile, will often cause coyotes to move, particularly if the pups are older, if the adults see you, or if the den is in an open area with little protective cover.
Also look for coyote hairs on a wire fence where a trail runs next to or under the fence. These coyotes’ unusually aggressive behavior likely resulted from being fed by people.
If you belong to a homeowner’s association or neighborhood watch, bring up the subject during one of the meetings.
To prevent tipping, secure the side handles to metal or wooden stakes driven into the ground. An effective fence extends below the surface, or has a wire apron in front of it to prevent digging. An old hockey stick, broom, or a pile of stones near the play area can help prepare children for an encounter and will remind them of effective encounter behavior. A 5-foot woven-wire fence with extenders facing outward at the top of each post should prevent coyotes from climbing over (Fig. Digging under electric fences usually doesn’t occur if the bottom wire is electrified.
Do not use remote pastures or holding areas, especially when there has been a recent coyote attack.
He found pieces in the refrigerator, on his bed, in his box of musical instruments, and more. Simply take some scratch paper and make a ball, put the tissue around the ball and tie the ribbon ribbon around the neck.
A solid walking stick, pepper spray, or paintball gun are powerful deterrents at close range. Once a coyote stops hunting on its own and loses its fear of people, it becomes dangerous and may attack without warning. If your pet is bitten, follow the same cleansing procedure and contact your veterinarian. Except for bona fide public or private zoological parks, persons and entities are prohibited from importing a coyote into Washington State without a permit from the Department of Agriculture and written permission from the Department of Health.
Ensure that young animals have a healthy diet so that they are strong and less vulnerable to predators.
Some breeders offer various guarantees on their guard animals, including a replacement if an animal fails to perform as expected.
Persons and entities are also prohibited from acquiring, selling, bartering, exchanging, giving, purchasing, or trapping a coyote for a pet or export (WAC 246-100-191). Those resulting from a diet of cherries, apples, blackberries, huckleberries, elderberries, or other fruits tend to crumble (Fig.



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