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In 1890, Louisiana passed a statute called the Separate Car Act, which stated "that all railway companies carrying passengers in their coaches in this state, shall provide equal but separate accommodations for the white, and colored races, by providing two or more passenger coaches for each passenger train, or by dividing the passenger coaches by a partition so as to secure separate accommodations. The Plessy case was carefully orchestrated by a group of African-Americans who raised $3000 to challenge the law. In the criminal district court for the parish of Orleans, Plessy argued that the Separate Car Act violated the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution.
Plessy appealed the case to the Louisiana State Supreme Court, which affirmed the decision that the Louisiana law was constitutional. This case turns upon the constitutionality of an act of the general assembly of the state of Louisiana, passed in 1890, providing for separate railway carriages for the white and colored races. The constitutionality of this act is attacked upon the ground that it conflicts both with the thirteenth amendment of the Constitution, abolishing slavery, and the fourteenth amendment, which prohibits certain restrictive legislation on the part of the states. Indeed, we do not understand that the thirteenth amendment is strenuously relied upon by the plaintiff.
So far, then, as a conflict with the fourteenth amendment is concerned, the case reduces itself to the question whether the statute of Louisiana is a reasonable regulationa€¦.with reference to the established usages, customs, and traditions of the people, and with a view to the promotion of their comfort, and the preservation of the public peace and good order. We consider the underlying fallacy of the plaintiff's argument to consist in the assumption that the enforced separation of the two races stamps the colored race with a badge of inferiority.
While there may be in Louisiana persons of different races who are not citizens of the United States, the words in the act 'white and colored races' necessarily include all citizens of the United States of both races residing in that state. However apparent the injustice of such legislation may be, we have only to consider whether it is consistent with the constitution of the United States.
The thirteenth amendment does not permit the withholding or the deprivation of any right necessarily inhering in freedom. Justice Henry Brown wrote the majority opinion, which rejected Plessya€™s argument that the Louisiana law conflicted with the Thirteenth Amendment. Justice John Marshall Harlan dissented from the majority opinion.A  In an opinion that later became pivotal in the Brown v. The Plessy case was carefully orchestrated by a group of African-Americans who raised $3000 to challenge the law.A  The Citizens' Committee to Test the Constitutionality of the Separate Car Act joined with the East Louisiana Railroad Company, which sought to terminate the Separate Car Act for monetary reasons, the expense of providing separate accommodations. Speaking for a seven-person majority, Justice Henry Brown delivered the opinion of the court.
4.A A A  According to Justice Brown, social equality must be the result of what three factors? Nous quittons Ahmad pour nous rendre en ville, car nous avons besoin de gaz et cherchons une connexion internet. A A A  Nous quittons Ahmad pour nous rendre en ville, car nous avons besoin de gaz et cherchons une connexion internet. That it does not conflict with the thirteenth amendment, which abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, is too clear for argument.

Gauged by this standard, we cannot say that a law which authorizes or even requires the separation of the two races in public conveyances is unreasonable, or more obnoxious to the fourteenth amendment than the Acts of Congress requiring separate schools for colored children in the District of Columbia, the constitutionality of which does not seem to have been questioned, or the corresponding acts of state legislatures. If this be so, it is not by reason of anything found in the act, but solely because the colored race chooses to put that construction upon it. So that we have before us a state enactment that compels, under penalties, the separation of the two races in railroad passenger coaches, and makes it a crime for a citizen of either race to enter a coach that has been assigned to citizens of the other race.
It not only struck down the institution of slaverya€¦but it prevents the imposition of any burdens or disabilities that constitute badges of slavery or servitude.
Board of Education cases (1954), he argued that segregationist legislation, like the Louisiana law, was based on the assumption that a€?colored citizens are so inferior and degraded that they cannot be allowed to sit in public coaches occupied by white citizens.a€?A  These laws promoted and perpetuated the belief that African Americans were inferior to whites.
The two groups chose a 30-year-old shoemaker named Homer Plessy, who was one-eighth black and a resident of the state of Louisiana, to intentionally violate the law. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. Un parasol lui sert de chambre, et un autre, toujours ouvert, de cuisine-salon-salle-A -manger. I will collect ONE set of responses from each group, but remember that each group member should have a copy to study. Judge John Howard Ferguson was named in the case brought before the United States Supreme Court (Plessy v. Thus, the state regulates the use of a public highway by citizens of the United States solely upon the basis of race. So, I doubt not, it will continue to be for all time, if it remains true to its great heritage, and holds fast to the principles of constitutional liberty. On June 7, 1892, Plessy purchased a first-class passage from New Orleans to Covington, Louisiana and sat in the railroad car designated for whites only. Le spectacle est grandiose, nous sommes juste en face du creux de montagnes au milieu duquel se cache progressivement le soleil, dans une lumiA?re rougeoyante extraordinaireA ! Il faut se requinquer pour la tant attendue promenade A  dos de dromadaires de demain matinA ! Nous recevons la visite da€™un jeune couple da€™Autrichiens en vadrouille, comme nous en camping-car. But in view of the constitution, in the eye of the law, there is in this country no superior, dominant, ruling class of citizens. The present decision, it may well be apprehended, will not only stimulate aggressions, more or less brutal and irritating, upon the admitted rights of colored citizens, but will encourage the belief that it is possible, by means of state enactments, to defeat the beneficient purposes which the people of the United States had in view when they adopted the recent amendments of the constitution, by one of which the blacks of this country were made citizens of the United States and of the states in which they respectively reside, and whose privileges and immunities, as citizens, the states are forbidden to abridge.
The railroad officials, following through on the arrangement, arrested Plessy and charged him with violating the Separate Car Act. Laws permitting, and even requiring, their separation in places where they are liable to be brought into contact do not necessarily imply the inferiority of either race to the other, and have been generally, if not universally, recognized as within the competency of the state legislatures in the exercise of their police power.

Sixty millions of whites are in no danger from the presence here of eight millions of blacks. A well known advocate for black rights, the white lawyer Albion Tourgee, agreed to argue the case without compensation. Des dizaines de pilotes de glass-boats (bateaux A  fond de verre) tentent de nous vendre une excursion, mais nous, on les a vus en vrai, les poissonsA ! Ca€™est vrai que cela surprend de pouvoir garder mains et pieds hors de la€™eau sans coulerA !
The argument also assumes that social prejudices may be overcome by legislation, and that equal rights cannot be secured to the negro except by an enforced commingling of the two races.
But, that amendment having been found inadequate to the protection of the rights of those who had been in slavery, it was followed by the fourteenth amendment . The destinies of the two races, in this country, are indissolubly linked together, and the interests of both require that the common government of all shall not permit the seeds of race hate to be planted under the sanction of law. What can more certainly arouse race hate, what more certainly create and perpetuate a feeling of distrust between these races, than state enactments which, in fact, proceed on the ground that colored citizens are so inferior and degraded that they cannot be allowed to sit in public coaches occupied by white citizens?
Nous passons environ dix check-points militaires trA?s amicaux avant da€™arriver encore plus au nord, A  Umm Qays.
If the two races are to meet upon terms of social equality, it must be the result of natural affinities, a mutual appreciation of each other's merits and a voluntary consent of individuals. That, as all will admit, is the real meaning of such legislation as was enacted in Louisiana.
Legislation is powerless to eradicate racial instincts or to abolish distinctions based upon physical differences, and the attempt to do so can only result in accentuating the difficulties of the present situation. If the civil and political rights of both races be equal one cannot be inferior to the other civilly or politically. If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane.
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