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05.09.2014
Description: The Wittenberg World Map, more commonly known in English as Daniela€™s Dream Map, is probably the most mystical world map of all time.
This curious map of Europe, Africa and Asia is found in the apocalyptic literature originally emanating from Wittenberg, Germany in 1530, or even 1529.
These later variants partially contrary to the wish of the time for geographical accuracy, increasingly alter the outlines of the continents, with visionary aspects taking precedence over correct cartographic depiction.
In Europe, the Pyrenees can be seen in the west, the Alps in the middle, and the River Don in the far north. The continents are surrounded by a great sea on which, in some later variants, a ship is disappearing off the side horizon. In the depiction of the four animals and their geographical attribution, the artist largely follows the text of the seventh chapter of the book of the prophet Daniel in the Old Testament of the Bible.
As legitimization for a war against the Turks, the Protestants Philip Melanchthon, Justus Jonas and their friend Martin Luther, drew on the prophet Daniel and especially his dream of the four kingdoms. The first kingdom in the dream of the prophet Daniel, symbolized by the lion, is Babylon or Assyria; the bear corresponds to Persia [Iran], while the leopard stands for the kingdom of Alexander the Great of Greece. Unlike the three other powers of world historical importance, the Ottoman Empire is not a power positively ordained by God, but an apocalyptic catastrophe sent by God who will, after this final secular war, sit in judgment on Antichrist on Judgment Day.
The original and most common historical interpretation dates the creation of the seventh chapter of the Book of Daniel to the year 548 B.C.
The first beast, which looks like a lion with eaglea€™s wings, refers to the successor of the Babylonian Medo-Persians. The empire of Alexander if followed by the Roman Empire symbolized by the third beast, a four-headed leopard with four wings. Within a short time of its publication, Daniela€™s Dream Map gained great popularity with the result that it was reproduced by other printers or used, with artistic changes, right up to the mid-17th century. Version Six by an unknown illustrator.a€? From Martin Luthera€™s Eine Heerpredig Wider den Tiireken, Strassburg 1542. A detailed study of the numerous derivatives of Luffta€™s map has been made by Ernst Gallner, Wilhelm Bonacker and Hans Volz, linking the various impressions with the artists AW, H and MS whose monograms appear on some of the other prints in the biblical or religious works quoted. Delano-Smith, Catherine and Elizabeth Morley Ingram, Maps in Bibles, 1500-1600: An Illustrated Catalogue, pp. Version 12 by the illustrator Jacobus Lucius der A„ltere (Jacob von SiebenbA?rgen) in the bible Propheten alle deudsch, 1572, 1576, 1584.
A detailed study of the numerous derivatives of Luffta€™s map has been made by Ernst Gallner, Wilhelm Bonacker and Hans Volz, linking the various impressions with the artists AW, H and MS whose monograms appear on some of the other prints in the biblical or religious works quoted.A  The original 1534 woodblocks for Martin Luthera€™s bible are still extant, and in 1971 pulls of Luffta€™s map were taken from them to celebrate the 450th anniversary of the Reichstag of Worms.
At the time of its first publication as the sixty-first world map to go into print it was, on the one hand, a depiction of the Old World based on the Ptolemaic world view but including a number of recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries, but on the other hand, a visualization of the prophet Daniela€™s apocalyptic dream of the four kingdoms.


The only variant to occur in a Latin bible is a schematic, abstract, map by Tobias Stinamer. There were four different blocks made of this version and this is Block 4 and comes from the bible, Die Propheten alle deudsch, printed by Lorenz Seuberlich, Wittenberg 1599, 1603, 1604, 1606 and 1610. And it also indicates the reason for the creation of the map, namely, in a striking pictorial depiction, to convey to the Christian world, and especially the illiterate masses, the visionary message of the Bible in the light of the threat to the Western world from an imminent Turkish invasion.
Thus, they interpreted the seventh chapter of the Book of Daniel as an eschatological [the science of the four last things: death, judgment, heaven and hell] prophecy of a victory of Christianity over the Turks, who were viewed as the embodiment of Antichrist. Medo-Persia is followed by the Greek Empire of Alexander the Great which is symbolized by the second animal, a bear with three ribs between its teeth which is tearing the wings off a lion. On the basis of my research there are 14 different versions of the maps with 20 printing blocks. The map itself is a crude woodcut showing the four beasts of Daniela€™s dream and the simplified continents of Europe, Africa and Asia; there are also four wind-heads. Africa is separated from Europe by a broadened Mediterranean, with four islands that cannot be precisely identified. In 1534, however, Hans Lufft included a map amongst the column illustrations for his large folio edition of Luther's German Bible. In 1529 the Turks had conquered large areas of the Occident and in October of the same year were outside the gates of Vienna. The German Empire is regarded as one of the ten successor kingdoms created out of the Roman Empire because the seventh chapter of Daniel speaks of ten horns growing out of the goat-like beast. In his dream he sees four winds sent by God which are directly connected with the Creation and at the same time represent the four directions of the heaven and the earth.
In this context, Flavius Josephus, the historian, reports that on entering Jerusalem, Alexander was shown the prophecy of the four beasts by Jewish scholars. It is powerful and terrible and destroys everything that is cultivated, holy and human, until God himself passes judgment on it, kills it and gives Christianity dominion for all time. A fascinating graphical depiction of the world, based upon Ptolemy, but with all of Africa shown and an open water passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In the northern part of Africa the Atlas Mountains are depicted, while in the south the Moon Mountains are shown as the two sources of the Nile.
In the west of Asia but east of the Caucasus a mounted army with people wearing turbans and carrying banners can be seen.
Luffta€™s rather abstract map comprises a sketchy outline of the three Old World continents with the four mythical beasts seen by the prophet Daniel in his Dream, as related in the Book of Daniel, Chapter 7 (where the map always occurs). Europea€™s rulers, especially the Emperor Charles V, King Francis I and the Pope, were planning a new crusade with the aim of re-conquering occupied territory, and also the Holy Land.


The small horn with the head that subsequently destroys three other horns, stands for the Mohammedan Empire. This fourth beast, depicted as a goat, represents King Antiochus IV of Syria, who symbolizes Antichrist.
From the geographical standpoint the map is of little significance as it only rudimentarily reproduces the knowledge of the earth that already existed at that time. The original version of the map shows a simplified depiction of the three continents which are designated on the map as Europa, Affrica and Asia. On the way northwards, each of the two arms first flows through a lake before joining in a great basin from where the Nile then flows to the Mediterranean. The four Beasts had come to stand for the four empires of Babylon, Medes and Persians, Greece (Alexander and his successors) and Rome but, placed on the map of Asia, Europe and Africa, they seem to have, as Strachan remarked, a€?little or no relation to the accepted interpretation of the four empires which they representa€?. In this time of political uncertainty and frightening change, large sections of the Christian population sought advice and guidance in their faith. Beginning with the Saracens and continuing under the Ottomans, this has conquered and destroyed parts of the old Empire. From a world, political, theological, and social point of view, however, it can be seen as unique.
From this time on, the map appears in a number of Lutheran, German or German-influenced bibles and theological books of the 16th and early 17th centuries and in a book on the history of the Jews by Flavius Josephus. The northern section is evidently based on Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s modern world map contained in the Strasbourg Ptolemy edition of 1513, and the southern section on Apiana€™s heart-shaped world map of 1530.
In Asia the Himalayas can be seen, with the river Indus arising in one direction and the Ganges in the other.
This curious map had already appeared in print and it continued to feature as a column illustration in re-issues of Luffta€™s Wittenberg Bible although no other bible publishers seem to have made use of it. For more than 100 years it was repeatedly reworked by some of the most important artists of the time and published in what is still the most disseminated book today. The island of Taprobana [Sri Lanka] is depicted as a peninsula connected to the mainland by Adama€™s Bridge.
Over the centuries and right up to the present its vision of Judgment Day has been interpreted in the apocalyptic literature with reference to the major historical events.




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