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Medical Laboratory Techniques - DoctorKC's FREE medical books online - FREE full text reading and video lessons - Free and Economical Medical Books Catalog.
Modern Physics: The University of Virginia offers the basics of modern physics for those who are just starting out. Modern Technology: Get an idea of the basic scientific method, and an outline of the fundamentals of physics from the University of Winnipeg.
Introduction to Modern Physics: This Tufts University course helps you understand the history behind modern physics, and goes over the principles behind the biggest breakthroughs.
Andes Physics Course: This course is part of the Open Learning Initiative from Carnegie Mellon University.
Visual Quantum Mechanics: Kansas State University offers and interesting journey through the world of quantum physics. Chemistry Classroom: The University of Akron offers a variety of chemistry classes that can help you understand the basics. Chemistry Modules: Vision Learning provides a number of visual learning modules related to different chemistry concepts. General Chemistry Online: Learn about basic chemistry in a visual and interesting way from Frostburg State University. Chemistry and Biochemistry: This offers links to different open courseware from the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada.
Physical Chemistry Lecture Notes: These notes and lectures from Colby College can give you a good start on the concepts behind physical chemistry. Get a basic understanding of the building blocks of life with these biology open courseware classes.
Introductory Biology: MIT provides an introduction to biology, including interesting video lectures. Principles of Biology: Understand the principles behind biology with help from this University of Utah course. Human Biology: The University of Leeds offers a look at the biological makeup of human beings.
Life Sciences in the 21st Century: A look at modern biology and other life sciences from Virginia Tech.
General Biology: The University of Massachusetts Boston provides an overview of the general principles of biology. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Get a look at the basics biochemistry and biology on the molecular level from the University of California Berkeley. Introduction to Astronomy: Learn the basics of the starts, planets and how they are formed from MIT.
The Evolving Universe: The Open University offers an interesting course on galactic formation.
Modern Astrophysics: A look at the physics of space, and how matter behaves in the vast outreaches of the universe. Receivers, Antennas, and Signals: This course from MIT can help you learn about the signals from earth as well as space, and learn how different signals help in astronomy. A Brief History of Astronomy: The University of California San Diego provides an interesting look at astronomy through history. The Galileo Project: A fascinating offering from Rice University detailing the motion of stars and planets. Atmospheric and Ocean Circulations: Get an idea of the way physics affects the air and oceans in this class from MIT. Environmental and Natural Resources Economics: This course from Humboldt State University provides a look at the economics associated with natural resources and the environment. Geology and Science: Get a look at the scientific method, and how it relates to the science of geology from the University of Wisconsin Stevens Point. Geo-Sci Lecture Notes: Cornell University offers some comprehensive lecture notes on geology science.
Introduction to Environmental Engineering: This course from Penn State provides a basic look at the basics surrounding the science of the environment, and attempts to engineering the natural and built. Learn about the basics of the human body, and medical science, with these free open courseware classes.
Human Physiology: Learn the basics of how the human body works from the University of Utah. Biostatistics: Johns Hopkins University offers a number of helpful courses in biostatistics and how they relate to medicine. Genomic Medicine: MIT offers a look at the medicine related to genes, and how gene therapy works. Design of Medical Devices and Implants: Another course from MIT, this provides you with a look at how medical technology is designed, and how it works.


Human Growth and Development: Learn about how humans develop from birth to death from Tufts University. Population Medicine: Another course from Tufts offers a look at how medicine is accomplished today, with larger populations. Introduction to Personality Psychology: This course from the University of Michigan introduces the concept of personality. Brain and Cognitive Sciences: MIT offers a number of interesting and applicable courses related to psychology and cognition. SALMON Psychology: This collection of psychology courses and lectures from the University of Plymouth offers insight into a number of issues. Ambient Intelligence: This MIT course looks at how humans interact with computers and machines, and how it affects their cognition and perception. Communication, Technology and Policy: Learn about how computers aid in communication and their importance from the University of Southern Queensland. Mathematics for Computer Science: This MIT course offers a look at how math can be used in computer science. Advanced Data Analysis: Learn how to analyze data and how to interpret what you find with this Tokyo Tech open courseware class. Machine Structures: This is another helpful Berkeley class that can help you learn about structures, computer memory and other concepts.
Programming Methodology: This course from Connexions offers a basic look at the methodology behind computer programming.
This entry was posted in Education, Science and tagged Chemistry, free classes, free courseware, open courseware, Physics.
Thus, Utah's 4 radiology technician schools put out approximately 250 radiology technicians each year. The top-ranked school in Utah that has a radiology technician program is Weber State University. In 2010, Weber State University graduated 189 students from its radiology technician program. The second-ranked school in Utah that has a radiology technician program is Utah State University-College of Eastern Utah.
Salt Lake Community College, which is located in Salt Lake City, is the third-ranked school in Utah that has a radiology technician program. 50 students graduated with degree in radiology technician from Salt Lake Community College in 2010.
Radiology technician schools in Utah, charge students an average tuition of $3,351 per year.
The US Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that by 2018, an estimated 1,920 radiology technicians will be working in Utah state. The charts and graphs below have additional Utah statistics regarding a career in radiology. Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography. The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air.
The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy). X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem. X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines.
In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose.
To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest.
A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators.
The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens. Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images.


Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised. Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue. Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels.
An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s. The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them. For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier.
Many universities offer open courseware classes that can help you learn the basics of a number of scientific fields. Utah State University-College of Eastern Utah, which was ranked 81st in the country in 2010, is located in Price. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines. The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube.
A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area. The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen.
In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate. You can keep up to date on the latest developments, and learn to understand basic concepts.
The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines.
These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels.
Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images. In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated. After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface. Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory. Whether you want the understanding to help you in your current job, or whether you are preparing to enter a degree program in the sciences, these 50 open courseware classes can help you get a solid handle on science. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel.
In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g.
For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels.
This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event". When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film. Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history. The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource. Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not.



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