This briefing note discusses the concept of leadership and its underlying elements of discipline, skills, proficiency, knowledge, decision making and judgment.
Additional detailed data associated with the components of leadership can be found in the following briefing notes: Discipline, Pilot Judgment and Expertise, Communication, Decision Making, Introduction to Airmanship and Risk Assessment. All of these definitions have merit, as does a more comprehensive view of leadership that is a composite of values, attributes and principles. Leadership has historically been an important concept to the military, particularly in wartime.
Conceptual skills: the ability to understand and apply prescribed doctrine and procedures, as well as relevant theories and ideas to get the job done. Tactical skills: the ability to make the right decisions concerning the use of resources including personnel and equipment. Influencing: making decisions, communicating those decisions and motivating people to do the right thing — whatever it takes to get the job done safely and effectively. Operating: executing correctly those actions needed to accomplish a team’s immediate mission. Improving: continuously seeking ways to do things better (safer, faster, cheaper), rather than being satisfied with the status quo.
In their 2003 book Leadership Challenge, Kouze and Posner describe a leadership model (based on data collection from thousands of successful and effective managers on their common practices and behaviors) and introduce the concept of network leadership — that is, focusing on how leadership occurs across members of a network and how leadership is enacted as a distributed responsibility.
Leaders establish principles concerning the way people should be treated and the way goals should be pursued. There are many qualities other than pure intelligence or technical know-how that determine whether or not a leader is successful and effective. Daniel Goleman, in his 1995 book Emotional Intelligence, states that human qualities such as self-awareness, self-discipline, persistence and empathy are of greater consequence than intelligence quotients in much of life. Self-regulation: Managing disruptive emotions and impulses, maintaining standards of honesty and integrity while taking responsibility for personal performance. Social awareness: Sensing other’s feelings and perspective, and taking active interest in their concerns. Social skills: Employing effective tactics for persuasion, sending clear and convincing messages, inspiring and guiding groups and people, initiating and managing change, negotiating and resolving disagreements, developing relationships, working with others toward shared goals, and creating group synergy in pursuing those collective goals.
In summary, one does not necessarily have to be the smartest to be an effective leader, nor is intelligence alone sufficient to ensure effective leadership qualities. Figure 3 demonstrates how the elements of leadership are analogous to the components of a building. The development of leadership has a foundation of values and ethics which support expectations and standards. Self-development enhances a leader’s previously acquired skills, knowledge and experience by focusing on areas that need improvement. Progressive operational assignments (on the job training), increasing in terms of responsibilities and difficulty, are an important part of leadership development.
The Army will do whatever the Nation asks it to do, from decisively winning wars to promoting and keeping the peace. Today, the Army must meet the challenge of a wider range of threats and a more complex set of operating environments while incorporating new and diverse technology. Doctrine represents a professional army's collective thinking about how it intends to fight, train, equip, and modernize. FM 7-0 is the Army's capstone training doctrine and is applicable to all units, at all levels, and in all components.
FM 7-0 provides the training and leader development methodology that forms the foundation for developing competent and confident soldiers and units that will win decisively in any environment.
Closing the gap between training, leader development, and battlefield performance has always been the critical challenge for any army. FM 7-0 provides the Training Management Cycle and the necessary guidelines on how to plan, execute, and assess training and leader development. Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. Develop trust soldier-to-soldier, leader to led, unit-to-unit in the Army and grow the warfighting confidence of the force. Ensure that our soldiers are physically and mentally prepared to dominate the next battlefield-no soldier goes into harm's way untrained. Our soldiers must be comfortable and confident in the elements-fieldcraft, fieldcraft, fieldcraft. Provides a data source for lessons learned and trends to improve doctrine, training, leader development, organization, materiel, and soldier considerations.
Commanders and leaders at all echelons use the Principles of Training discussed in this chapter to develop and execute effective training. Develop and execute training plans that result in proficient individuals, leaders, and units.
Identify specific individual, crew, and small team tasks that support the unit's collective mission essential tasks. Evaluate training and conduct AARs to provide feedback to the commander on individual, crew, and small team proficiency.
Train leaders, battle staffs, units, and individuals at each echelon of the organization simultaneously. Maintain battle focus by linking individual and collective battle tasks with unit METL tasks, within large-scale training event METL tasks. Every pilot should understand the basic concept of leadership because it is a personal quality that can profoundly influence flight safety. While it is difficult to quantify specifically which events were caused by poor leadership, it is not unreasonable to consider leadership as one of the causal factors in the 70 percent of accidents and incidents that are attributed to human factors. Some believe that leadership involves influencing people by providing purpose, direction and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission and improve the organization.
The military, like most goal-oriented institutions, is values-based and emphasizes the need for an individual to set high standards, lead by example, do what is legally and morally right, and influence others to do the same.
In 2003, McKinsey & Company produced a study that summarizes the evolution of leadership theory. They envision the future, creating an ideal and unique image of what the organization can become.
They look for innovative ways to improve the organization or team’s performance; and, in doing so, they may experiment and take reasonable risks.
They actively involve others and understand that mutual respect is needed to sustain extraordinary team efforts.
To keep hope and determination alive, leaders regularly recognize contributions made by their team members.


Knowing one’s strengths and limits and their consequences: sureness about one’s self-worth and capabilities. Being comfortable with and open to novel ideas and new information, flexible in handling change. Aligning with goals of the group while maintaining readiness to act on opportunities, and maintaining persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks.
Emotional maturity and credibility also play important roles in how well one provides leadership inside an organization.
The figure illustrates the inter-dependencies among the elements that determine leadership and shows that while all elements are necessary, none alone is sufficient to ensure excellence. These form the basis for effective improvement through training, operational experience and self-development. Self-development is based on personal motivation, is performed continuously on a day-to-day basis and relies on the individual’s self-discipline. These opportunities allow leaders to broaden their knowledge and refine the skills they have learned from institutional training and previous assignments. September 2006, U.S Army Transformation Leadership, A study of core competencies for civilian leadership. While the examples in this manual are principally focused at division and below, FM 7-0 provides the essential fundamentals for all individual, leader, and unit training. Every soldier, noncommissioned officer (NCO), warrant officer, and officer has one primary mission-to be trained and ready to fight and win our Nation's wars.
We train the way we fight because our historical experiences show the direct correlation between realistic training and success on the battlefield. Over two centuries later, the correlation between tough, realistic training and success on the battlefield remains the same. These units trained to their wartime mission, and developed company grade officers, NCOs, and soldiers who knew their jobs and were confident they could act boldly and decisively.
In an era of complex national security requirements, the Army's strategic responsibilities now embrace a wider range of missions that present even greater challenges in our training environment. The operational missions of the Army include not only war, but also military operations other than war (MOOTW).
Contingency operations in the 1990s normally followed a sequence of alert, train, deployment, extended build-up, and shaping operations followed by a period of decisive operations. Units train to be ready for war based on the requirements of a precise and specific mission; in the process, they develop a foundation of combat skills, which can be refined based on the requirements of the assigned mission. Resources for training are not unconstrained and compete with other missions and activities. The key to winning on the battlefield is the understanding of "how we fight" and the demonstrated confidence, competence, and initiative of our soldiers and leaders. Responsibility for success on the future battlefield rests on the shoulders of today's Army leaders at all levels. The purpose of joint training is to prepare the Army to execute missions as a part of a joint force in the conduct of joint military operations and across the full spectrum of conflict.
Commanders of major Army headquarters may serve as the joint force land component commander (JFLCC), a combined forces commander (CFC), or as the joint task force commander (JTFC).
Joint training uses joint doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures, and the training involves more than one Service component.
Interagency training is based on applicable standard operating procedures; and, is designed to prepare the Army to operate in conjunction with government agencies.
The Army training doctrine contained in this manual provides Army commanders the tools to develop experienced leaders and adaptive organizations prepared to exercise command and control of joint and multinational forces, and to provide interagency unity of effort. Training is a team effort and the entire Army-Department of the Army, major Army commands (MACOMs), the institutional training base, units, the combat training centers (CTC), each individual soldier and the civilian work force-has a role that contributes to force readiness. The Army Training and Leader Development Model (figure 1-1) centers on developing trained and ready units led by competent and confident leaders. The importance of training the technical skills to develop competent soldiers and leaders must be directly linked to creating confident soldiers, leaders, and units with the will and warrior spirit to dominate in any environment. All of these interrelated activities take place within the Army's culture or shared set of beliefs, values, and assumptions that define for us what is most important. Competent and confident leaders are a prerequisite to the successful training of ready units.
Leader training is an expansion of these skills that qualifies them to lead other soldiers. Leader development is the deliberate, continuous, sequential, and progressive process, grounded in Army values, that grows soldiers and civilians into competent and confident leaders capable of decisive action. The institutional Army (schools and training centers) is the foundation for lifelong learning. This training provides the basic skills, knowledge, and task proficiency to become a soldier and subsequently to succeed as members of a small Army unit, contribute to unit mission accomplishment, and survive on the battlefield. The unit commander is responsible for the wartime readiness of all elements in the formation.
Key to effective unit training is the commander's involvement and presence in planning, preparing, executing, and assessing unit training to standard. Unit training consists of three components: collective training that is derived directly from METL and MTPs, leader development that is embedded in the collective training tasks and in discrete individual leader focused training, and individual training that establishes, improves, and sustains individual soldier proficiency in tasks directly related to the unit METL. The goal of unit training is to develop and sustain the capability to deploy rapidly, and to fight and win as part of a combined arms team in a variety of operational and organizational environments. Leader, individual soldier, and unit training and development continue during operational missions and major training events. Major training events such as situational training exercises (STX), EXEVALs, and deployment exercises provide feedback to assist commanders in assessing the effectiveness of their leader, individual soldier, unit, and maintenance training programs. The CTC Program, consisting of the National Training Center (NTC), Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC), Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Battle Command Training Program (BCTP), and other CTC-like training provides highly realistic and stressful joint and combined arms training based on current doctrine. Operational missions-whether they are combat operations, such as in Afghanistan, or stability operations, such as in Bosnia-continue training and leader development. Self-development is continuous and should be emphasized in both institutional and operational assignments. These commands, whether oriented along operational, functional, or specialty missions, have unique responsibilities for managing and supporting training. The corps' and divisions' fundamental basis for organization and operations is combined arms operations. Army training has one purpose-to produce competent, confident, adaptive soldiers, leaders and units, trained and ready to fight and win our Nation's battles. Commanders delegate authority to NCOs in the support channel as the primary trainers of individuals, crews, and small teams.


NCOs continue the soldierization process of newly assigned enlisted soldiers, and begin their professional development.
The Army provides a JFC with trained and ready forces that expand the command's range of military options in full spectrum operations.
The commander of the task-organized force must develop a training plan that addresses two complementary challenges.
Functional proficiency requires expertise in a particular BOS function, its capabilities, and its requirements.
Tough, realistic, and intellectually and physically challenging training excites and motivates soldiers and leaders.
Units become proficient in the performance of critical tasks and missions by practicing the tasks and missions. Commanders train and develop adaptive leaders and units, and prepare their subordinates to operate in positions of increased responsibility. Multiechelon training is the most effective and efficient way of sustaining proficiency on mission essential tasks with limited time and resources.
Large-scale training events provide an excellent opportunity for valuable individual, leader, crew, and small unit training.
Once individuals and units have trained to a required level of proficiency, leaders must structure individual and collective training plans to retrain critical tasks at the minimum frequency necessary to sustain proficiency. Sustainment training enables units to operate in a Band of Excellence (figure 2-4) through appropriate repetition of critical tasks. The senior leader's training vision provides the direction, purpose, and motivation necessary to prepare individuals and organizations to win in battle. Since good training results from leader involvement, one of the commander's principal roles in training is to teach subordinate trainers how to train and how to fight. Commanders must integrate and train to Army standard all BOS, within and supporting their command, on their selected mission essential tasks.
Competent and confident leaders build cohesive organizations with a strong chain of command, high morale, and good discipline. The senior commander resources training and protects subordinate commanders' training time.
Commanders create a climate that rewards subordinates who are bold and innovative trainers.
The commander who has planned and resourced a training event is responsible to ensure participation by the maximum number of soldiers. Guidance, based on wartime mission and priorities, flows from the top-down and results in subordinate units' identification of specific collective and individual tasks that support the higher unit's mission.
Senior leaders centralize planning to provide a consistent training focus from the top to the bottom of the organization.
Battle focus is a concept used to derive peacetime training requirements from assigned and anticipated missions. In addition to safety consequences, poor leadership is likely responsible for many other weaknesses and inefficiencies in aviation operations that lead to poor performance and wasted money. Others believe a person with outstanding leadership possesses the human qualities required to make good judgments and decisions. Army has based its leadership training on what an individual must be (values and attributes), know (skills) and do (actions) to be a good leader.
When looking back (see Figure 2), one sees a succession of theories about what makes effective leadership, as well as a wide range of proposed leadership “styles” that describe how effective leaders operate. When appropriate, they set interim goals so that people can derive encouragement from small “victories” as they work toward larger objectives. Through quiet persuasion, they enlist others into their dreams and get them to see exciting possibilities for the future. Because they know that risk-taking involves an increased chance for mistakes, they accept any resulting disappointments as learning opportunities and also accept responsibility for their decisions. Sensing what others require to develop their abilities by cultivating opportunities through diversity of people. It is important to understand that leader training and leader development are integral parts of unit readiness. Army is its professional NCO Corps who take pride in being responsible for the individual training of soldiers, crews, and small teams. Joint interdependence from the individual, crew, and small team to the operational level requires training to develop experienced, adaptive leaders, soldiers, and organizations prepared to operate with joint, and multinational forces and to provide interagency unity of effort. Commanders have training responsibilities that encompass both BOS functional task proficiency and special staff officer combined arms task proficiency. In order to achieve good leadership, each pilot must understand both the elements of effective leadership and the consequences of poor leadership. Still others define leadership as a professional attitude or a personal aptitude similar to decision making. It is important to note that the values, attributes, skills and actions put forward by the military (see Figure 1) are equally applicable in non-military settings.
Finally, leadership can be defined as an outcome — if others willingly follow you, you are a leader. Training for the warfight, training to maintain near-term readiness is the priority; compliance training and non-mission activities are of lower priority. Special forces teams rode horses with their host nation counterparts-learning to call in tactical air support with devastating accuracy while on the move. If training cannot be conducted, readiness reports are the vehicle to inform the Army's leadership of the risks being assumed. This approach acknowledges that the maneuver commander integrates and synchronizes the BOS. Commanders, at every echelon, focus combined arms training on specific integration and synchronization tasks based on their METL. They train leaders to plan training in detail, prepare for training thoroughly, execute training aggressively, and evaluate short-term training proficiency in terms of desired long-term results. Staffs quickly learned how to integrate Special Operations Forces (SOF) and conventional force operations. Engineer units cleared mine fields that were as old as many of their soldiers involved in the clearing process. Joint doctrine establishes the fundamentals of joint operations and provides guidance on how best to employ joint forces.



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