The Army will do whatever the Nation asks it to do, from decisively winning wars to promoting and keeping the peace. Today, the Army must meet the challenge of a wider range of threats and a more complex set of operating environments while incorporating new and diverse technology.
Doctrine represents a professional army's collective thinking about how it intends to fight, train, equip, and modernize. FM 7-0 is the Army's capstone training doctrine and is applicable to all units, at all levels, and in all components.
FM 7-0 provides the training and leader development methodology that forms the foundation for developing competent and confident soldiers and units that will win decisively in any environment. Closing the gap between training, leader development, and battlefield performance has always been the critical challenge for any army. FM 7-0 provides the Training Management Cycle and the necessary guidelines on how to plan, execute, and assess training and leader development.
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.
Develop trust soldier-to-soldier, leader to led, unit-to-unit in the Army and grow the warfighting confidence of the force. Ensure that our soldiers are physically and mentally prepared to dominate the next battlefield-no soldier goes into harm's way untrained. Our soldiers must be comfortable and confident in the elements-fieldcraft, fieldcraft, fieldcraft.
Provides a data source for lessons learned and trends to improve doctrine, training, leader development, organization, materiel, and soldier considerations. Commanders and leaders at all echelons use the Principles of Training discussed in this chapter to develop and execute effective training. Develop and execute training plans that result in proficient individuals, leaders, and units. Identify specific individual, crew, and small team tasks that support the unit's collective mission essential tasks. Evaluate training and conduct AARs to provide feedback to the commander on individual, crew, and small team proficiency.
Train leaders, battle staffs, units, and individuals at each echelon of the organization simultaneously. Maintain battle focus by linking individual and collective battle tasks with unit METL tasks, within large-scale training event METL tasks.
In November 1996, I was stationed in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as a new member of the Transportation Corps. As my first assignment, I was to be the first permanently assigned noncommissioned officer with Military Traffic Management Command to the 1311th Medium Port Command and the NCO in charge of the Saudi Arabia Detachment. To prepare me for my new job in theater movement control, the Army sent me to about 14 weeks’ worth of different military schools. As I was out-processing, my battalion command sergeant major requested that I come in for a talk. What he shared with me that afternoon was advice that I have since given to many Soldiers: “Wesson, I don’t know anything about the job you’re heading to, but I do know a few things.
In the complex operating environment that the NCOs of today find themselves in, there seems to be one constant: change.
During the past decade, NCOs have created and refined the knowledge, skills and abilities required for their units’ successful operations.
The institutional domain, also referred to as the generating force, is where the NCO Corps receives functional and professional military education. The continuous learner recognizes these training gaps and that to solve this challenge, the NCO must search for solutions to bridge those gaps. NCOs understand that, in the complex environment in which we operate, the Army requires professionals who are continual learners. Regardless of an NCO’s military occupation specialty, the NCO Creed requires all NCOs to “remain tactically and technically proficient.” The only manner to achieve this end is through continual learning. The continuous learning required to remain tactically and technically proficient is not new.
NCOs have numerous methods to meet the challenge and to gain the education, training and skills required for success. Slide (with photos) illustrating bringing a CES course approach to Will Logan's work with the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management, under the auspices of UNESCO.
Slide illustrating the values and behaviors that contribute to the ways the organization conducts its business and treats its employee, customers, and the wider community. All four seminar leaders found the CES Advanced Course rewarding both professionally and personally.
Paul Wagner presented information about the CES series of courses and then explained that he would use what he learned from the class to listen more effectively, work better in a team environment, and support staff to help position them for opportunities  and effectiveness as future IWR leaders. Janet Cushing focused her discussion around the operational environment and organizational culture and how they influence one another. Will Logan spoke about what he learned from each course problem and how he plans to use the information back in the workplace. Wen Chang suggested that the best reasons for attending the course were the course’s group setting, team building, opportunities to learn from intelligent people you might not have otherwise met, getting outside your comfort zone, and gaining experience to move to the next level professionally. For more information about taking the CES advanced course or other leadership courses or to get copies of the seminar presentations, please contact Paul Wagner or Rich Whittington. While the examples in this manual are principally focused at division and below, FM 7-0 provides the essential fundamentals for all individual, leader, and unit training. Every soldier, noncommissioned officer (NCO), warrant officer, and officer has one primary mission-to be trained and ready to fight and win our Nation's wars.
We train the way we fight because our historical experiences show the direct correlation between realistic training and success on the battlefield. Over two centuries later, the correlation between tough, realistic training and success on the battlefield remains the same. These units trained to their wartime mission, and developed company grade officers, NCOs, and soldiers who knew their jobs and were confident they could act boldly and decisively. In an era of complex national security requirements, the Army's strategic responsibilities now embrace a wider range of missions that present even greater challenges in our training environment. The operational missions of the Army include not only war, but also military operations other than war (MOOTW).
Contingency operations in the 1990s normally followed a sequence of alert, train, deployment, extended build-up, and shaping operations followed by a period of decisive operations. Units train to be ready for war based on the requirements of a precise and specific mission; in the process, they develop a foundation of combat skills, which can be refined based on the requirements of the assigned mission. Resources for training are not unconstrained and compete with other missions and activities. The key to winning on the battlefield is the understanding of "how we fight" and the demonstrated confidence, competence, and initiative of our soldiers and leaders.


Responsibility for success on the future battlefield rests on the shoulders of today's Army leaders at all levels. The purpose of joint training is to prepare the Army to execute missions as a part of a joint force in the conduct of joint military operations and across the full spectrum of conflict.
Commanders of major Army headquarters may serve as the joint force land component commander (JFLCC), a combined forces commander (CFC), or as the joint task force commander (JTFC). Joint training uses joint doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures, and the training involves more than one Service component.
Interagency training is based on applicable standard operating procedures; and, is designed to prepare the Army to operate in conjunction with government agencies. The Army training doctrine contained in this manual provides Army commanders the tools to develop experienced leaders and adaptive organizations prepared to exercise command and control of joint and multinational forces, and to provide interagency unity of effort.
Training is a team effort and the entire Army-Department of the Army, major Army commands (MACOMs), the institutional training base, units, the combat training centers (CTC), each individual soldier and the civilian work force-has a role that contributes to force readiness. The Army Training and Leader Development Model (figure 1-1) centers on developing trained and ready units led by competent and confident leaders. The importance of training the technical skills to develop competent soldiers and leaders must be directly linked to creating confident soldiers, leaders, and units with the will and warrior spirit to dominate in any environment. All of these interrelated activities take place within the Army's culture or shared set of beliefs, values, and assumptions that define for us what is most important.
Competent and confident leaders are a prerequisite to the successful training of ready units.
Leader training is an expansion of these skills that qualifies them to lead other soldiers. Leader development is the deliberate, continuous, sequential, and progressive process, grounded in Army values, that grows soldiers and civilians into competent and confident leaders capable of decisive action. The institutional Army (schools and training centers) is the foundation for lifelong learning. This training provides the basic skills, knowledge, and task proficiency to become a soldier and subsequently to succeed as members of a small Army unit, contribute to unit mission accomplishment, and survive on the battlefield. The unit commander is responsible for the wartime readiness of all elements in the formation.
Key to effective unit training is the commander's involvement and presence in planning, preparing, executing, and assessing unit training to standard.
Unit training consists of three components: collective training that is derived directly from METL and MTPs, leader development that is embedded in the collective training tasks and in discrete individual leader focused training, and individual training that establishes, improves, and sustains individual soldier proficiency in tasks directly related to the unit METL.
The goal of unit training is to develop and sustain the capability to deploy rapidly, and to fight and win as part of a combined arms team in a variety of operational and organizational environments. Leader, individual soldier, and unit training and development continue during operational missions and major training events. Major training events such as situational training exercises (STX), EXEVALs, and deployment exercises provide feedback to assist commanders in assessing the effectiveness of their leader, individual soldier, unit, and maintenance training programs. The CTC Program, consisting of the National Training Center (NTC), Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC), Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Battle Command Training Program (BCTP), and other CTC-like training provides highly realistic and stressful joint and combined arms training based on current doctrine. Operational missions-whether they are combat operations, such as in Afghanistan, or stability operations, such as in Bosnia-continue training and leader development.
Self-development is continuous and should be emphasized in both institutional and operational assignments. These commands, whether oriented along operational, functional, or specialty missions, have unique responsibilities for managing and supporting training. The corps' and divisions' fundamental basis for organization and operations is combined arms operations. Army training has one purpose-to produce competent, confident, adaptive soldiers, leaders and units, trained and ready to fight and win our Nation's battles.
Commanders delegate authority to NCOs in the support channel as the primary trainers of individuals, crews, and small teams.
NCOs continue the soldierization process of newly assigned enlisted soldiers, and begin their professional development.
The Army provides a JFC with trained and ready forces that expand the command's range of military options in full spectrum operations.
The commander of the task-organized force must develop a training plan that addresses two complementary challenges. Functional proficiency requires expertise in a particular BOS function, its capabilities, and its requirements.
Tough, realistic, and intellectually and physically challenging training excites and motivates soldiers and leaders.
Units become proficient in the performance of critical tasks and missions by practicing the tasks and missions. Commanders train and develop adaptive leaders and units, and prepare their subordinates to operate in positions of increased responsibility. Multiechelon training is the most effective and efficient way of sustaining proficiency on mission essential tasks with limited time and resources.
Large-scale training events provide an excellent opportunity for valuable individual, leader, crew, and small unit training.
Once individuals and units have trained to a required level of proficiency, leaders must structure individual and collective training plans to retrain critical tasks at the minimum frequency necessary to sustain proficiency. Sustainment training enables units to operate in a Band of Excellence (figure 2-4) through appropriate repetition of critical tasks. The senior leader's training vision provides the direction, purpose, and motivation necessary to prepare individuals and organizations to win in battle. Since good training results from leader involvement, one of the commander's principal roles in training is to teach subordinate trainers how to train and how to fight.
Commanders must integrate and train to Army standard all BOS, within and supporting their command, on their selected mission essential tasks.
Competent and confident leaders build cohesive organizations with a strong chain of command, high morale, and good discipline. The senior commander resources training and protects subordinate commanders' training time. Commanders create a climate that rewards subordinates who are bold and innovative trainers. The commander who has planned and resourced a training event is responsible to ensure participation by the maximum number of soldiers. Guidance, based on wartime mission and priorities, flows from the top-down and results in subordinate units' identification of specific collective and individual tasks that support the higher unit's mission. Senior leaders centralize planning to provide a consistent training focus from the top to the bottom of the organization.
Battle focus is a concept used to derive peacetime training requirements from assigned and anticipated missions. I had been an infantryman until earlier that year, when an injury and medical reclassification placed me in this new career.


Armed with this and a vague understanding of what was expected of me, I prepared to depart. It was common practice that all staff sergeants and above would “out-brief” prior to departing. Because it establishes a foundation of learning for the NCO Corps, it also tells the Army that the NCO Corps understands that adapting and learning in the operating environment are critical for success.
The operating domain encompasses home-station leader development, training and education activities that NCOs require to prepare themselves, their Soldiers and their units for employment. In the search for a training solution, NCOs bridge the gap and further their professional and personal growth. But has been made more challenging because of the complex operating environment that the Army and the NCO Corps has found themselves in during the past 20 years. These are the lifeblood of the Army and what the Army relies on the NCO Corps to train all Soldiers—officers and enlisted.  However, in this immense effort, the NCO should remember that civilian education can also be a combat multiplier. It provides the science to NCOs that builds and complements their understanding of the art—the skills—they have already been employing. It makes a bold declaration for the Army and the nation that “No one is more professional than I.”  Its declaration is one that many of the NCOs who have helped shape the Army have lived up to. As a continual learner, you gain the arsenal of tools you require to shape yourself, to train your Soldiers and to accomplish the mission.
It’s compounded further by complex mission sets and in the increasingly complex operational environment that NCOs finds themselves in.  However, it’s not impossible. Wesson is a retired first sergeant with more than 21 years of active duty experience with extensive leadership assignments in the infantry and logistics career fields. Among the purposes of the course is to support the CES mission to deliberately and progressively develop DoD civilian leaders as a diverse cadre of skilled, effective and efficient leaders prepared to excel in joint, interagency and multinational environments.
She talked about how by striving to transform our culture, and thus our operational environment, that we can improve the way we work within our agency and with other agencies to meet emerging societal needs. He illustrated each problem by describing how it pertained to his work with the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM), under the auspices of UNESCO. He referenced a recent note from MG Todd Semonite, Deputy Chief of Engineers, encouraging leadership development throughout USACE.
It is important to understand that leader training and leader development are integral parts of unit readiness. Army is its professional NCO Corps who take pride in being responsible for the individual training of soldiers, crews, and small teams. Joint interdependence from the individual, crew, and small team to the operational level requires training to develop experienced, adaptive leaders, soldiers, and organizations prepared to operate with joint, and multinational forces and to provide interagency unity of effort. Commanders have training responsibilities that encompass both BOS functional task proficiency and special staff officer combined arms task proficiency. The reason for change to a permanent assignment was relayed to me as, “We have problems that can’t be fixed with 90-day TDYs”.
Afterward, I asked him for some additional time and relayed to him my apprehension and concern. If they can’t tell you what the job is, then you figure it out and then tell them what the job is. It further stresses that failure to do either can result in mission failure, and for the NCO Corps, failure is not an option.
Though they are separate and distinct, they overlap and join to ensure that the Army has NCOs who are prepared to train the Army and ready their units for unified land operations.
One of these facts is that structured training activities in formal schools and operational units do not meet every mission requirement or individual need. This growth benefits both the NCO and their unit— not only in their current assignment but also for their future assignments. This environment encourages and demands of its leaders continuous learning as a fact of life and a matter of survival.
This understanding will supplement the NCO with deeper knowledge that will build their self confidence.
However, these methods require a dedication—a dedication to the profession, a dedication to the mission, and a dedication to your Soldiers. He has had numerous overseas deployments that include Central America, Korea, Europe, the Balkans and Southwest Asia. Paul Wagner, Wen-Huei Chang, Janet Cushing and Will Logan shared their experiences with the IWR team at a recent brown bag lunch seminar. The course seems to be a particularly good fit for IWR personnel, many of whom are already involved in joint, interagency and multinational projects.
It also challenges many NCOs because, to an NCO, as stated previously, mission failure is not an option. This self-confidence in turn is relayed to all Soldiers, and those Soldiers become continuous learners also. He is currently a Department of the Army civilian and serves as the deputy director for the U.S. Training for the warfight, training to maintain near-term readiness is the priority; compliance training and non-mission activities are of lower priority. Mike Clowser, Army University Command Sergeant Major, provide updates on Army University during the Association of the United States Army Symposium Oct. Special forces teams rode horses with their host nation counterparts-learning to call in tactical air support with devastating accuracy while on the move. If training cannot be conducted, readiness reports are the vehicle to inform the Army's leadership of the risks being assumed.
This approach acknowledges that the maneuver commander integrates and synchronizes the BOS.
Commanders, at every echelon, focus combined arms training on specific integration and synchronization tasks based on their METL. They train leaders to plan training in detail, prepare for training thoroughly, execute training aggressively, and evaluate short-term training proficiency in terms of desired long-term results.
Staffs quickly learned how to integrate Special Operations Forces (SOF) and conventional force operations. Engineer units cleared mine fields that were as old as many of their soldiers involved in the clearing process.
Joint doctrine establishes the fundamentals of joint operations and provides guidance on how best to employ joint forces.



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