The Egyptian book of the Dead is one of the oldest and greatest classics of Western spirituality. 10 And the brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas by night unto Berea: who coming thither went into the synagogue of the Jews. 11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so.
12 Therefore many of them believed; also of honourable women which were Greeks, and of men, not a few. 28 And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh.
Stories of a "Dying and Rising God" can be found throughout the myths and legends of the ancient world. This huge can of worms was opened up and entered into the mainstream academic world in 1890 when James G. Frazer's work was hugely influential in secularizing the fields of religious studies and anthropology, and it fit in nicely with the rationalistic modern worldview that was birthed in the Enlightenment and took control over society through the materialistic works of Darwin, Marx, Nietzche and Freud.
In response to this possibility Christians have gone to great lengths to tear down Frazer's thesis, and to demonstrate that the evidence for a pre-Christian "dying and rising god" is actually very thin. Because of this reality skeptics of Christianity continue to have great fun with the "dying and rising god" mythology.
Of course the primary argument of their book, as given in their subtitle, is that the story of Jesus Christ as found in the Gospels is simply another fictional representation of this mythical "godman." The astounding conclusion in all of these anti-Christian studies is that the fictional Jesus was based upon the myths and legends of earlier fictional dying and rising heroes.
Bridging the gap between these two extreme positions is the relatively recent work of Tryggve N. The central figure of the ancient Egyptian Religion was Osiris, and the chief fundamentals of his cult were the belief in his divinity, death, resurrection, and absolute control of the destinies of the bodies and souls of men. So far we have looked at two opposing camps: one side arguing that all of this mythology, including Jesus, is fictional, with another side arguing that Jesus is historical but the pagan mythology is fictional (and unrelated to Jesus).
The modern-day heir to the mystery religions of ancient paganism, which were all built around the "dying and rising god" motif, is the global fraternity known as Freemasonry.
This brings us back now to the provocative quote from Hall featured at the beginning of this article. This expectation is fully in line with what the Egyptians themselves believed about the god that they viewed as their first Pharoah, who was in fact the first Egyptian king to be mummified, which set the precedent for this Egyptian ritual that was carefully maintained down through the ages.
The god Osiris was the central figure of the Egyptian ruling dynasties, and the golden sarcophagus of King Tut (below) was actually a representation of Osiris, who was the god that the king trusted in for eternal life. If we look to Mesopotamian records of this time we find that the builder of the city of Uruk is named in the Sumerian King List as King Enmerkar, who is the heir of a king who left Mesopotamia and established a base in a mountainous region across the sea. In studying the accounts of Osiris as recorded by Diodorus Siculus I found that he was also credited with advancing into India and even establishing a few of his cities there.
These strange connections continue even into the New World, where we find Aztec (Quetzalcoatl) and Mayan (Kukulcan) versions of paganism's Dying God. There is much more to the mystery of the "Dying Gods" than either the critics or the mainstream defenders of Christianity are willing to admit. And in that day will I make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all people; And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem.
We uses Search API to find the overview of books over the internet, but we don't host any files. Until now, the available translations have treated these writings as historical curiosities with little relevance to our contemporary situation. This is a very controversial statement and many heated debates have taken place over the years either promoting or protesting it.


Frazer published his classic overview of ancient mythology, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Building on Frazer's work, James Campbell published his hugely influential examination of ancient myth, The Hero With A Thousand Faces, in 1949. Here is a list of a few of the books that have been written over the past several decades attempting to "debunk" Christianity utilizing Frazer's thesis: Christianity Before Christ, John G. So on one side of this debate you have atheists and skeptics arguing that it's all fiction, while on the other side you have Christians arguing that the pre-Christian "dying and rising" myths do not truly exist, or else they do not fit the precise "dying and rising god" template and can therefore be disregarded as having nothing to do with Jesus. What are we to make, then, of the strange similarities that exist between Jesus Christ and, for instance, the Egyptian god Osiris? The central point of each Osirian's Religion was his hope of resurrection in a transformed body and of immortality, which could only be realized by him through the death and resurrection of Osiris. How could the Osiris cult, which traces back up to three thousand years before Christ, have had so much in common with the most basic and fundamental doctrines of Christianity? If you dig into Masonic research of paganism's "dying and rising god" you will find that they too believe that these various myths all trace back to a singular and historical figure.
Hall (1901-1990), who also traced the origins of paganism's Dying God back to ancient Egypt. It is taken from Hall's magnum opus, a book he published back in 1928 when he was only twenty-five years old, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, from chapter seven on the subject of the Great Pyramid of Egypt.
The Egyptians back then, and the highest initiates of Freemasonry today, actually believe that this figure will rise again to rule the world once more.
My research has taken me back to the time around 3100 BC, which is the date at the very origin of Egypt's First Dynasty.
Historian David Rohl concludes that this king was Cush, who left Mesopotamia and established a base in the mountains of Ethiopia (the biblical land of Cush), while his heir, King Enmerkar of Uruk, can be equated with King Nimrod of Erech (Uruk).
Turning to Indian (Hindu) histories we find the story of Krishna in the epic known as the Bhagavad Gita.
All document files are the property of their respective owners, please respect the publisher and the author for their copyrighted creations. This new version, made from the hieroglyphs, aprroaches the Book of the Dead as profound spiritual text capable of speaking to us today. The Pyramid again shall stand as the ideal emblem of solidarity, inspiration, aspiration, resurrection, and regeneration." Manly P. Like Frazer, Campbell lumped the "Jesus story" in with all of the ancient myths of an overcoming hero, arguing that all of these myths followed the same basic template. Smith published a paper entitled The Death of 'Dying and Rising Gods' in the Biblical World in which he attempted to show that in each alleged case of a pre-Christian "dying and rising god" either the figure was not fully dead, did not rise from the dead, or was not fully divine.
There is definitely a mystery here, and it could be argued that Christians are merely displaying a lack of faith when they fail to face up to it. In fact, Hall explained that the Masonic myth of Hiram Abiff, which is re-enacted within Freemasonry by initiates who are raised to the level of "Master Mason," is in fact simply a version of the Osiris myth. From this quote it becomes clear that Hall believed that one day paganism's Dying God, whom he equated with the Egyptian god Osiris, would rise from the dead (see top). Because the Egyptians believed that one day he would rise from the dead and require the use of his body once again! According to various Egyptologists the first pharaoh of Egypt at this time was a conquering king known as Narmer, whom many scholars equate with King Menes who is featured at the very beginning of Manetho's celebrated king lists of ancient Egypt. My conclusion is that Enmer-kar, Nimrod, and Narmer are similar names (N-M-R) for the same person whose life and death created the basis of the enduring pagan Dying God mythology. Krishna appears as a foreign king instigating a great battle between Arjuna and the rest of Arjuna's family in the great Mahabharata War.


Even the vast majority of atheist scholars agree that He must have existed, and the deniers of the "Historical Jesus" remain on the fringe of the academic world. Whether you agree or disagree, we encourage you to post your feedback by using the reply button. These writings suggest that the divine realm and human realm are not altogether separate; they remind us that the natural world, and the substace of our lives, is fashioned from the stuff of the gods. Even today, for those secular moderns who are even somewhat familiar with either Frazer's or Campbell's work, the "Jesus story" is often casually dismissed as simply another twist on the ancient "dying and rising god" genre.
Smith's scholarly work may be enough to convince Christians that Jesus was unique, but Smith's work, and indeed all scholarly rebuttals of Frazer's well-known thesis, have remained largely unnoticed by mainstream academics and by society at large.
His work, which was published in 2001, is entitled, The Riddle of Resurrection: "Dying and Rising Gods" in the Ancient Near East.
The ancient pagans themselves believed that their "dying and rising" gods were actually historical. The famous Narmer Palette (right) depicts his conquest of Upper and Lower Egypt, along with decapitated bodies, various prisoners, and an execution scene where the king strikes an "Orion" pose, holding up a mace ready to crush the skull of a victim. The Hindu's believed that the death of Krishna in 3102 BC marked the beginning of the epic period known as Kali Yuga. However, there is also a pagan "Savior figure" who appears on the historical record, who lived over three thousand years before Jesus.
For them, the very existence of a pre-Christian "dying and rising god" mythology is evidence against the existence of a "historical" Jesus. As a professor of Hebrew Bible it might be expected that his work would be the usual Christian attempt to debunk the "dying and rising god" genre along the lines of Mark S.
In fact, many of their historians, especially after Alexander the Great conquered the Near East, began to see similarities in all of the myths of the various cultures and put forth the idea that the similar stories of a dying god were actually based upon a singular historical figure.
The dates certainly line up because Hindu scholars, after analyzing the ancient epics, have concluded that Krishna was killed in a "hunting accident" on February 18, 3102 BC, thirty-six years after the Mahabharata War. Did Mayan priests perform their own calculations from their memory of this Dying God to mark the starting point for their own calendar? He ruled as a great conqueror in the ancient Near East and his legacy was remembered by every culture from that region, in some form or other. Mettinger shows the many similarities between Melqart, Eshmun and Adonis, and the Greeks themselves directly equated Osiris with Dionysus. In addition to these sources we find that the Septuagint chronology of Old Testament history places the career of Nimrod and the Tower of Babel exactly around the same time range of 3100 BC, give or take a few decades (see the calculations of Barry Setterfield).
This brings to the table the distinct possibility that both Jesus Christ and paganism's Dying God were both historical! All of these connections to the time period around 3100 BC (in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, Mayan culture, and in the Greek version of the Old Testament) seem beyond coincidental. Mettinger is actually highly critical of the Christian impulse to eagerly dismiss the similarities between the ancient myths and the life story of Jesus.
Not so fast, he says, as he begins his own even-handed analysis of the ancient Near Eastern gods including Baal, Melqart, Adonis, Eshmun, Dumuzi, and Osiris.
I give an overview of Mettinger's analysis in my article The Saviors of the Ancient World from 2005.



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