New York, NY New, Get Introduced parties and get togethers Connecting New York City singles. New York City (or NYC) -- officially, "City of New York," and affectionately known as "The Big Apple" -- is the largest city of the state of New York and in the United States, and by many measures, one of the most important cities in the world.
New York is also the location of what was, according to many experts, the most devastating act of terrorism in modern history: the September 11, 2001 attack that utterly destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center and several surrounding buildings. New York has had a reputation as a crime-ridden city, partly due to the hundreds of TV and cinematic crime dramas set in it. The current mayor of New York City is Michael Bloomberg, elected in 2001 on the Republican ticket.
Although New York's harbour was first discovered by Giovanni da Verrazano during his expedition of 1524, the history of New York City properly begins with the Dutch settlement of 1624. In 1664, British ships captured the city, with minimal resistance: the governor at the time, Peter Stuyvesant, was unpopular with the residents of the city. Several battles were fought in New York during the Revolutionary War; the British defeated George Washington's troops, and held the city until the war ended. New York was briefly the capital of the new United States of America, in 1789 and 1790, and George Washington was inaugurated as President in New York, then the nation's second largest city.
The building of the Erie Canal, in the 1820s, helped the city grow further by increasing river traffic upstate and to the west. The modern city of New York -- the five boroughs -- was created in 1898, as the merger of the cities of New York (then Manhattan and the Bronx) and Brooklyn with the largely rural areas of Queens and Staten Island.
The building of the New York subway, as the separate IRT and BMT systems, and the later IND, was a later force for population growth and development. The world-famous Grand Central Terminal[?] opened as the world's largest train station on February 1, 1913. As of the census of 2000, there are 8,008,278 people, 3,021,588 households, and 1,852,233 families residing in the city.
The median income for a household in the city is $38,293, and the median income for a family is $41,887. I invite people using message boards saying that I prefer my guests to be 30 - 50 years old but everyone is welcome.
During the reigns of Nero, Galerius, Domitian, and Diocletian there were specific empire-wide persecutions of the Christian Church. Rome was the capitol of the Empire, but it lacked the grandeur of a world-dominating capitol with its narrow streets and wooden buildings.
Legend has it that Nero a€?played his fiddle while Rome burned.a€? History does confirm that during the fire Nero appeared on stage and lamented the fire as another major drama, much like the defeat of the ancient Troy. Nero attempted to deflect the focus from himself through acts of civil charity, opening his palace to house the homeless, and supervising food lines for the hungry. To deflect attention from himself he placed the blame on the Christians in Rome, announcing that the fire was part of a greater plot to overthrow the empire. He instigated a persecution of Christians and systematically, under torture, gained the names of Christians and their leaders from those initially interrogated. Some of the Christians were fed to wild beasts in the colosseum, with Nero, himself presiding as the grand master of the games. The people realized that Christians were being put to death not for starting the fire but to cover Nero's crimes and to sate his appetite for cruelty. They were accused of being atheists, because the God they worshipped could not be seen, there were no statues erected to him by the Christians, and, hence, he probably did not exist. Addressing each other as a€?brothera€? and a€?sistera€? and a€?mothera€? and a€?fathera€? when there were no apparent natural blood ties, and referring to themselves as a€?a familya€? started rumors of incest and crazy relationships. An example of how a civil magistrate responded to Christians is found in a letter by Pliny the Younger (c.
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, Syria was eighty years old when he was put to death in December 107 A.D. As he made his way from Antioch to Smyrna in present-day northern Turkey, Ignatius was greeted by Christians at each stopping point. At the festival of Caesar in Smyrna (near Ephesus in present-day western Turkey) a number of Christians were forced to fight against wild beasts at the local games. Hearing this, Polycarp decided to remain in the city, but the other Christians urged him to leave and hide at a series of local farms.
As he entered the stadium, a voice from heaven said to Polycarp, a€?Be strong, Polycarp, and play the man.a€? The voice was heard by other Christians who were present. The Julian line and their successors attempted at every turn to eliminate the new, radical religion erupting from Jerusalem, with this self-styled a€?King of the Jewsa€? as their fabled leader.
Now with the ascension to the throne of Constantine, the Christian faith had become through the Edict of Milan in AD 313 a legal religion in the empire and by AD 380 was THE religion of Rome. The Christian Faith spread rapidly throughout the Empire after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. Setting the example for the missionary enterprise were the Apostles themselves, each having traveled widely for the remainder of their lives.
Although the Arian doctrine was rejected at the Council of Nicea in 325 AD, it was the version of the Christian Faith that was carried to the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths and to which they were originally converted from heathenism. Constantine struggled with the issue of how the State and Church would relate and interact.
At the early death of Constantine II, the Empire was speedily divided between Constantius and Constans, who rigorously attacked the remnants of pagan worship in the empire and in 346 AD issued a joint edict ordering all pagan temples to be closed, and forbade sacrifices on the pain of death.
Valens and Valentius became emperors of the East and West respectively, Theodocius succeeded them. Leading Christian centers of power and scholarship in the empire were Alexandria, Jerusalem, Damascus, Constantinople, and Rome. Theodocius, to assure orthodoxy, urged all Christians, to especially revere the leadership of the bishops in Alexandria and Constantinople.
Describe and identify where each of the original Apostles went in their missionary travels and what impact they made.
List at least five reasons for the strength and growth of the Christian faith enabling it not only to survive, but also to dominate the empire.
Analyze how the Council of Nicaea stabilized and unified Christianity in the 4th century A.D. Explain the contributions of Constantine and Theodocius on the emerging growth of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Analyze the rejection by the four other Patriarchies of the Church of the claims of superiority issued by the patriarchy of Rome.
Born to a Christian mother, Constantine continued the tolerant approach of his father to the Christians in the West.
Constantine had previously gained an alliance with Licinius by offering his half-sister Constantia as his wife. The night before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Constantine and his troops reported to have seen signs in the sky of Christ and the cross.
Because Licinius was the husband of Constantia, his half-sister, Constantine allowed Licinius to live. Now the sole ruler in the empire, Constantine was sickened by the filth and corruption in Rome. Constantine built several large churches in the city to signify that the new capitol was capitol of a new Christian Roman Empire. Should Christians have preference and priority or not in appointments to government offices and leadership positions in the military? Should the old system that released pagan temples and priests from taxation be continued, and if so, should it be extended to church property and to Christian bishops and priests?
Critics of Constantine have coined the term a€?Constantinisma€? for what they interpret to be undue influence by Constantine in the affairs of the Church. Constantine soon discovered that there were as many disputes, controversies, and even assassinations in the Church as there had been in the pagan empire. The first major problem to be faced was the dispute that had erupted in Alexandria, Egypt between two bishops, Athanasius and Arius. The Council at Ephesus dealt with the question about the relationship between the two natures of Jesus. All three councils affirmed the deity of Jesus and his two natures, and thereby also the doctrine of the Trinity. The image to the left is a symbol devised to explain the decision of Chalcedon concerning the relationship of the three persons who make up the triune Godhead.
The Father is not (non est) the Son, the Son is not the Spirit, the Spirit is not the Father, but all three are (est) God. Constantine has been given the title by historians, a€?Constantine the Greata€? for his many important contributions made, not only for the empire, or the Christian Church, but also for western civilization as a whole. He further strengthened the observance of Sunday by conducting Christian worship services every Sunday in his palace. Freedom of religion was granted, including the legalization of Christianity, through the Edict of Milan in 313 A.D.
Churches and clergy were exempted from taxation, as were priests and sacred buildings of other religions in the empire, thus strengthening the separation of Church and State.
He produced a new concept of a€?Romantitasa€? -- a new Roman society devoid of its basis built upon blood, gore, sacrifice, military prowess.
Slavery, although not abolished (it was too tightly wound into the economy and culture to be abolished completely all at once) was limited, the treatment of slaves was improved, and the process for freeing slaves was greatly modified and facilitated.
Crispus was Constantinea€™s oldest son, whose mother, Minervina, was never married to Constantine.
Both the Catholic and the Orthodox Churches have named Constantine a saint, and therefore they likely have accepted the theory that the report of the illicit affair was true and that Constantine was bound by law to enact the death penalty for both his son and his wife.
Upon the death of his wife, Fausta, Constantine designated his mother, Helen, as Empress Imperatix. Diocletian (293 AD) was the first emperor to divide the Empire into Western and Eastern halves, while at the same time maintaining ultimate authority over both.
Constantine (324 AD) reunited the empire at Constantinople, but prior to his death divided the empire into three sections, giving his three sons authority over each. In 337 AD his sons Constantine II (Orthodox, West), Constans I (Orthodox, Middle), and Constantius II (Arian, East) fought for control and fought over Christian doctrine. On one occasion while in Egypt, Theodocius ordered the destruction of the famed bronze statute of the Greek goddess Serapis, who had been worshipped for generations. Born in Spain, Theodosius, son of a famous general, distinguished himself in the military and then retired from public service. The strength of the Christian Church in the empire by this time can be seen in a sad story that took place during the reign of Theodosius. Several days prior Theodosius awakened to his error and ordered the reversal of his previous dictum. In horror at his own actions, and with the rapid response of Christian leaders condemning his actions, Theodosius shut himself up in his palace and wept for days.
Because of his personal godly virtue and strong administrative leadership, Theodosius, as with Constantine before him, is known to history as Theodosius the Great. Earlier invasions of Italy and of Rome occurred on several occasions in the early part of the 5th century. In Europe, meanwhile, successive waves of Germanic invasions swept through virtually every area. The wars fought by Emperor Justinian from Constantinople in the 6th century in an attempt to gain control of Italy back from the Goths, did further damage to Europe.
Christians were accused of being traitors to the empire because they refused to worship the emperor. 3.A A  Setting the example for the missionary enterprise were the Apostles themselves, each having traveled widely for the remainder of their lives. 6.A A A  Constantine struggled with the issue of how the State and Church would relate and interact. 8.A A A  At the early death of Constantine II, the Empire was speedily divided between Constantius and Constans, who rigorously attacked the remnants of pagan worship in the empire and in 346 AD issued a joint edict ordering all pagan temples to be closed, and forbade sacrifices on the pain of death.
10.A A  Valens and Valentius became emperors of the East and West respectively, Theodocius succeeded them.
11.A A  Leading Christian centers of power and scholarship in the empire were Alexandria, Jerusalem, Damascus, Constantinople, and Rome.
12.A A  Theodocius, to assure orthodoxy, urged all Christians, to especially revere the leadership of the bishops in Alexandria and Constantinople.
Our brothers and sisters who are being persecuted are in urgent need of our prayers to the Lord.
Many of our brothers and sisters around the world are being persecuted and have to cope with incredible life-endangering situations.
Join us for a time of fellowship with other single parents to share your challenges, victories and be encouraged to receive the grace which our Lord gives so generously for all who ask. Men, women and children are welcome to join us for indoor soccer played in a relaxed style. Mission StatementAs a management team we take a day or two together every six months to refocus and prioritize what we should be focussing on in the next half year. John is finishing up his first year of university in the States studying architecture - and our two daughters are in high school here in Amsterdam where we live. The Sharing Lives course is to help adjust our attitude attitude towards Islam and Muslims from one of fear to one of grace and to encourage us to develop meaningful relationships with Muslims in our neighborhood in order to share our lives and the Gospel of Jesus Christ with them.The course is given the name Sharing Lives because the main outcome is that we as Christians learn to share our lives with our Muslim neighbors. Do you have a desire to grow in your walk with Jesus but you need support from others in this process? In this series we'll talk about the power, joy and necessity of a deep, authentic relationship with God and with each other. In this Lent series we’re looking at the final words of Jesus from the Gospel of John.
He blessed Abraham to be a blessing to the nations, and ever since God’s people are called to be the same. In recent years the Church [worldwide] has become more aware of the Holy Spirit, not because his nature and mission have changed, but because of his powerful work in the Church. Our goal is to produce the best possible atmosphere for worship services through soundreinforcement. However, it can also be a great time of watching your children grow up to become great adults. Professionals thinking about returning to school to earn an online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership will be happy to hear that there are a wealth of options available to them.
Saint Joseph’s University offers a reliable and credible masters in organizational management degree accessible from any computer online. Saint Joseph’s University understands that leadership is more than a theory – it is a real process of self-discovery, coupled with motivation and inspiration. The University of the Incarnate Word’s accredited online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership is a great choice for anyone serious about furthering their career. In order to contribute effectively to the organizational management of a business, professionals must possess both strong leadership and motivational capabilities.
Work towards a career in the business world at Our Lady of the Lake University by getting an online masters in leadership. Our Lady of the Lake’s master’s degree in organizational leadership can provide a great boost to baccalaureate graduates looking to take their career to the next level. Colorado Christian University offers a reliable masters in organizational management for students seeking to build their careers and learn more leadership skills. This affordable online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership consists of 36 credit hours organized into seven-week long sessions.
Learn more business, leadership, and organizational skills at the University of Wisconsin at Platteville by getting a masters in organizational management.
Students who are truly seeking a university with a great return on investment should consider the University of Wisconsin for their graduate degree needs.
Regis University has an accredited masters in leadership and organizational management online for ambitious students seeking a successful career.
Regis University’s top online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership is available in an accelerated format for those looking to kick their career into high gear. Brandman University offers a credible and reliable online masters in organizational management.
Brandman University, part of the Chapman University system, offers a graduate program in leadership that focuses on critical analysis, change management, collaboration, and ethics.
Work towards a online masters in leadership and organizational management at Thomas Edison State College online directly from any computer.
Organizational Leadership is an important area of focus within Thomas Edison State College’s graduate degree in management program. Learn more about leadership and management at Mount Vernon Nazarene University by getting a masters in organizational management. This university’s online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership is delivered as part of an extensive MBA program. National University offers a reliable masters in organizational management at affordable rates.
This affordable online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership from National University provides a rigorous curriculum to those who are up for the challenge. This 22 month long graduate program caters to working adults who already have some work experience under their belt. California Baptist University offers students an online masters in organizational management at affordable and cheap rates.
California Baptist University’s online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership is designed specifically to help individuals climb the career ladder. Work towards an online masters in leadership at Concordia University Wisconsin at under $10,000 a year. Concordia University at Wisconsin takes a unique approach to organizational leadership, emphasizing a Christian viewpoint in all classes. Colorado State University is ranked 6th on it’s 2015 list for top online colleges and it offers a masters in organizational management at less than $10,000 per year.
Colorado State University’s Global Campus offers a top online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership that can give professionals the boost they need to make it into executive management. Crown College offers a masters in organizational management for students seeking to learn more about leadership and management. This Christian-focused degree program calls itself “significantly different,” training business leaders to be models of Christian ethics in the wider corporate world. Ranked as a top university by Forbes Magazine, Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota offers a credible and affordable masters in leadership. Professionals who have their sights set on a serious pay raise should consider Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota, a school committed to helping students open doors. Work towards an online masters in organizational management at Lincoln Christian University for under $8,000 per year. Lincoln Christian University offers one of the most affordable online master’s degrees in organizational management and leadership. For under $7,000 a year any students can work towards an online masters in leadership at Columbia Southern University. Columbia Southern University is an online college that often attracts students for its incredibly affordable tuition. Iris Stone began her writing career when she started working as a freelance writer and researcher in 2011. A great profit was made by the merchant ships that returned to the Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa filled with the greatly sought-after goods from Asia.
In addition to Venice, Genoa developed into a major port city for ships that carried the new goods to the rest of Europe. According to the accounts published years later by Marco Polo, son of Niccolo, arriving in China in 1265 A.D. They also brought back from the Khan a request to the pope for 100 Christian missionaries to teach the Chinese the Christian faith. In their travels along the Silk Road, the Polos saw many strange animals, heard numerous strange languages, tasted exotic foods, and experienced other sights in a long and difficult three-year trip eastward.
Whether or not Marco embellished his stories with exaggeration, he recorded that the Khan took a strong liking to the young Venetian and sent him on many official tours of his vast kingdom as his representative on commercial and political business. They left China in an entourage of 14 ships and 600 people, most to serve the princess and to impress her new husband. While in prison Marco dictated to another prisoner an account of his travels and experiences in the advanced civilization of the Yuan Dynasty. The account, published under the title, Il Milione, was widely read in Europe and stimulated an even greater interest in the wonders of the Far East.
An extensive world of trade had existed in the Indian Ocean for centuries, to the virtual exclusion of Europe.
Although trade and travel between China and Europe existed even during the Roman Empire, the rise in power of the Ottoman and Persian empires from the 12th century on made travel and trade increasingly difficult for the Europeans. The Persians, as was the case also with the Ottomans, extracted heavy taxes from merchants traveling through their territories. The Ottoman interference in the Mediterranean threatened the commercial survival of Venice, Genoa, and Milan. Of great concern was the increasing blockage of the important slave trade that existed between the Mongols in the Balkans and Eastern Europe who were shipping European slaves to Africa and the Middle East. A new religious fervor spread throughout Europe in reaction to the rapid expansion of Islam into North Africa and the Christian Balkans. A whole generation of young, highly trained soldiers in Spain, after the defeat of the Moors was completed in 1492, were looking for new campaigns.
New technology in ship building created faster, sleeker ships (the caravel), the sternpost rudder which made steering ships much more accurate and easy, arming of ships with the new canon, the magnetic compass, the astrolabe (which enabled captains to plot their travel using latitudinal and longitudinal readings), and more accurate charting methods drove the desire of Europeans to new areas of exploration. The bankruptcy of Spain caused by the long campaign to drive the Moors from Spain, made exploration to find new routes to the Spice Islands and new deposits of gold and silver necessary. The loss of financial revenue in Portugal, the leading merchant fleet linking the Spice Islands to Europe, due to the new Ottoman dominance in the Indian Ocean forced new alternatives to be obtained.
And when these factors resulted in two actual, successful trips to be achieved in 1429 A.D. They traded porcelain, lacquerware, silk, and cotton in exchange for gold, silver, and ivory.
Had the Chinese emperors in the 15th century continued in their quest to develop world trade, the history of the world would be radically different.
However, increasing pressure from the Mongols to the north diverted the attention of the emperors away from trade expansion to defense of the dynasty, and Chinese naval explorations inexplicably ceased.
The Ottoman Empire relied upon Greek sailors and captains from Ottoman-controlled Greece to conduct most of their sea trade during the 15th and 16th centuries. They found something other than shipping to be much more profitable -- the capture of ships, crews, captains and cargo. Their piracy continued on into the 18th century when the Barbary pirates were finally defeated by the fledgling navy of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson.
From the 15th century onward ships sailed from Europe in search of not only new routes to Asia, but also to find the cities of gold that were featured in the fables of European sailors. The Dutch sailed successfully around the tip of Africa into Asian waters and there they competed with the Portuguese and English for control of the spice trade. The Dutch also made a brief attempt to colonize North America where they founded New Amsterdam (now New York), but were soon driven out by the English. The Portuguese were the first to find a route around the tip of Africa to India and then to Asia. To settle the conflict between the two Catholic countries, Pope Alexander VI in May 1493 drew an imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean 480 km (298.25 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. At the time of Alexandera€™s initial intervention, little land in the Americas had been discovered or explored. The major sponsor and encourager of the Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), son of the Portuguese king. With Henrya€™s funding and encouragement over 50 expeditions were sent out, including Vasco da Gama, who in 1498 became the first European to sail around the tip of Africa to India. Several enduring Portuguese colonies were established in Brazil (where the national language is still Portuguese), the Spice Islands (Portuguese East Timor), Macao (a neighbor of Hong Kong), the Portuguese Azores, and the African colonies of Portuguese Angola and Mozambique. England under Queen Elizabeth I developed an expansive trade and exploration campaign, supported by the worlda€™s largest and most powerful navy. One of Elizabetha€™s favorites at the royal court was Sir Walter Raleigh, a daring sea captain who consistently thwarted and badgered the Spanish by seizing Spanish galleons filled with gold and silver on their way to Spain from the colonies in Peru and Bolivia.
One hundred years earlier John Cabot, a Venetian seaman and explorer, sailed under the sponsorship of King Henry VII, Elizabetha€™s grandfather. His son, Sebastian Cabot, was later commissioned to find a Northwest Passage through present-day Canada to the Orient. Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was selected by Queen Elizabeth to lead a sailing expedition around the world. John Cook was a late 18th century English explorer and navigator who sailed three times to the Orient, was the first European to touch Australiaa€™s eastern shore, discovered many Pacific islands, and was the first to sail around present-day New Zealand.
During his travels, Cook created the first accurate maps of the Pacific Ocean and the first accurate maps of the coastlands of Europe. Under Queen Elizabeth I and James I, the first English colonies in the New World were established. Queen Elizabeth I also founded the East India Company in 1600 for the purpose of developing trade with the Dutch East Indies. The Italian, da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag was the first European to locate the bay of New York, reaching it in 1524. In 1603 Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River, traveled south into New England, and in 1609 established the colony of Quebec in the newly formed New France.
By the early 17th century French fur trappers and missionaries traveled as far west as Wyoming, established bases throughout the Great Lakes region, including present-day Chicago and Michigan, and conducted fur-trade along the Mississippi River as far south as present-day New Orleans, establishing there an important trade base and French colony. About a century later, France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Yearsa€™ War (1754-1763), known to Americans as the French and Indian War. The last chapter of the Reconquista was written in 1492 when the last of the Moors were driven from Grenada in southern Spain. The article below, a€?Why Did Columbus Sail?,a€? further points out the major events of 1492 in Spain. In 1492, six years before Vasco da Gama of Portugal made his historic trip around the tip of Africa to India, opening up a new sea route to Asia, a sea captain from Genoa, Italy, Christopher Columbus, was commissioned by the king and queen of Spain to explore a new route westward to the Spice Islands. From childhood he was fascinated by the sea and dreamed of becoming a sailor--maybe even one day becoming the captain of his own ship! When he was about twenty years of age, his dream of going to sea was finally realized and saw many different peoples and lands on his voyages around the Mediterranean. After escaping a pirate attack at sea, Columbus settled in the Portuguese city of Lisbon, Europe`s most important center of world navigation. After his marriage to a Portuguese woman, and fathering several children, Columbus became convinced he could reach Asia by sailing westward from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean. A fervent Christian, Columbus also had a burning passion to evangelize peoples along his route to Asia. Columbus took his plan to Henry VII of England, Francis I of Spain, to the king of Portugal, and was turned down by all three monarchs. Three swift ships were purchased and stocked with supplies for the voyage -- the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria.
For the rest of his life Columbus believed that he had landed on perimeter islands of either India or a€?Cathaya€? (the 15th century name for China). Columbus on this first trip to the New World visited numerous nearby islands, including Cuba, which he made his main base of operations and center of the new colony established.
Why does history say that Columbus a€?discovereda€? the New World, when other peoples had already inhabited North and South America for thousands of years before his a€?discoverya€?? The a€?Ba€? people, however, came to South America probably from Japan and the South Pacific islands via boats. And to complicate the matter further, a fifth haplogroup, labeled a€?X,a€? has been identified, and a€?Xa€? is not found anywhere in Asia!
Recent finds in Oregon (2012) also have located a distinct, heretofore unknown, people who migrated into North America along land bridges that connected Siberia to North America during the Ice Age. Other finds also point to early arrivals in Latin America that pre-date the arrival of migratory peoples from Asia.
A skull was found in 1999 in South-Central Brazil by archeologists and numerous skeletons in a nearby burial site that seem to indicated that these were people with Negroid features. Therefore, the settling of North and South America probably was done in numerous waves of migration into the two continents and from different places in Asia and perhaps the South Pacific and even Europe. If you are interested in DNA studies and current thinking about how and when the ancestors of the Native Americans came to the Americas, see the following articles and videos. If Columbus was a€?the first Europeana€? to have a€?discovereda€? the Americas, why are they called the a€?Americasa€? and not the a€?Columbiasa€??
Between 1497 and 1507 an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, made six trips to South America.
Although his actually landings were few and brief, he later recounted his journeys to a friend, Lorenzo de Medici, who was so fascinated by the stories that he personally published what became very popular and widely-read accounts. The anti-Columbus authors point to the introduction of European diseases into the Americas that decimated whole populations of original inhabitants, that Columbus seized slaves, not only to work for the Spanish but were sent back to Spain for exhibit much as one would an animal, and that he ruled over the new colony as a despot. Political correctness tends to see any claims by any particular religion to be a€?the only waya€? to be absolutist and arrogant. Furthermore, the argument goes, Columbus opened the door to centuries of ill-treatment of the Meso-Americans, as they were to be referred to rather than the supposedly demeaning term a€?Indian.a€? The ill-treatment continued not only through the later Spanish conquistadors, but also through the American settlement of the West and the disruption of the native American cultures.
And so, his detractors maintain, Columbus stands for everything that went wrong as a result of the invasion by Europeans into the Americas. There were no existing university courses or books available on a€?how to best contact a foreign culturea€? or a€?how to best evangelize another people.a€? Columbus and the Spanish put into practice what was common to all European nations at the time. European diseases carried by explorers into the New World was hardly a planned attack on the native population, since there was no knowledge in that day about germs or how contagions developed. The Spanish and Columbus viewed themselves as possessors of a superior Christian culture who had an obligation to treat the native inhabitants more as children to be protected and instructed than as slaves. Columbus showed a great compassion for the peoples he encountered and saw his trips as designed by God for their evangelism. Columbus did sign an agreement with the monarchs of Spain which guaranteed him 10% of the profits from not only his own trips but for all those that followed. The entry of Columbus into the New World opened two continents to European and Asian cultures, civilizations, technologies, medicine, trade, and eventually united an entire southern American continent with one language.
The next morning, Friday, August 3, 1492, at dawn, the Santa MarA­a and its companion caravels caught the ebb tide and drifted toward the gulf. In that Ocean of Darkness, some feared, the water boiled and sea monsters gulped down sailors so foolish as to sail there. Commander Cristoforo Colombo (as he was known in his hometown of Genoa, Italy) was taller than most men; so tall, in fact, he couldna€™t stand inside his cabin on the Santa MarA­a. The textbook answer, as any schoolchild could recite, is that Columbus wanted to find a trade route to the Orient. Columbus was visibly and verbally a€?an exceptionally pious man,a€? writes historian Delno C. His son Ferdinand wrote, a€?He was so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order.a€? He knew his Vulgate Bible thoroughly, and he probably took it (or a collection of Scriptures) on his voyages. A main source for information about Columbus is his contemporary Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas. But only in the last 40 yearsa€”and particularly in the last 10 have scholars examined Columbusa€™s religious motivations. But why explain away his intense religious devotion, when it was obvious to those who knew him and persistent throughout his writings?
On September 23, the ship hit a calm, causing the seamen to complain theya€™d never be able to get back to Spain.
At daylight, the wide-eyed Europeans saw people a€?as naked as their mother bore thema€? and many ponds, fruits, and green trees.
Las Casas agreed that a€?Columbus showed the way to the discovery of immense territoriesa€? and many peoples a€?are now ready and prepared to be brought to the knowledge of their Creator and the faith.a€? As a sign of that work, on every island he explored, Columbus erected a large wooden cross.
After ten weeks of exploring the coastline of Cuba and Hispaniola, continually trading trinkets for gold, Columbus and his men hit a problem.
But what most would have viewed as a calamity, Columbus did not: a€?It was a great blessing and the express purpose of Goda€? that his ship ran aground so he would leave some of his men.
Although the words are recorded only indirectly, God spoke to Columbus and assured him that God would take him to safety. The next day Columbusa€™s men spotted an island in the Azores; less than three weeks later they landed triumphantly on the Iberian peninsula. When Columbus anchored the NiA±a in Palos, seven months after hea€™d left, shops closed and church bells rang. According to Las Casas, a€?The King and Queen heard [Columbusa€™s report] with profound attention and, raising their hands in prayer, sank to their knees in deep gratitude to God. Columbus thought that Ferdinand and Isabella were Goda€™s chosen instruments to recapture Jerusalem and place the Holy City under Christian control. As soon as Columbus had returned to Spain, he told Ferdinand and Isabella he would provide 50,000 soldiers and 4,000 horses for them to free Christa€™s Holy Tomb in Jerusalem.
But much to Columbusa€™s disappointment, the longed-for crusade to recapture the Holy City was never undertaken. In 1499, he said, a€?When all had abandoned me, I was assailed by the Indians and the wicked Christians the Spanish settlers who were rebelling against his inept administration]. In 1518 Carlos of Spain, who was to become Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, signed an agreement to sponsor a journey by Magellan to seek a route around the world, but primarily a route to the Spice Islands in the East Indies from the Pacific side, so as to avoid the confrontations with Islamic pirates in the Mediterranean. His journey around the tip of South America and across the uncharted Pacific Ocean included many dangerous and threatening situations and his crew threatened mutiny on numerous occasions. Several weeks later Magellana€™s crew continued their trip west, eventually visited the Spice Islands, and then continued their journey westward to Europe. Ponce de Leon in 1513 explored the east coast of Florida for Spain in search for gold and what was rumored to be the fountain of youth. Vasco de Balboa in 1513 sailed along the northern coast of South America, and landed in present-day Central America. Hernan Cortes in 1519 landed on the coast of present-day Mexico with a small band of 600 men.
The introduction of European diseases whcih wiped out a vast majority of the native people, the introduction of guns, and mounted soldiers on horseback with their war dogs, resulted in a speedy and complete conquest of the Aztec Empire and surrounding tribes. Francisco Pizarro in 1531 set out from Central America with only 200 soldiers to locate the rumored Inca Empire. The gold and silver from Peru and Bolivia filled the Spanish treasuries with immense wealth and created the numerous routes between South America and Spain. De Soto landed at present-day Bradenton, Florida, just south of Tampa, and began his journey northward.
De Soto traveled up the present-day Route US 10 to Tallahassee, Florida where he made camp for about a year. The survivors eventually decided to attempt to reach Mexico City, first by foot, and then, returning to the shores of the Mississippi, to build rafts to sail down the river, into the Gulf , and on to Mexico City.


He then continued to the west until he reached the Mississippi River, the first European to reach that river. Viceroys: Spanish elite who were appointed by the monarchy to run the five separate regions of New Spain. Creoles: people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, and considered inferior or a€?hicksa€? by the colonists who came to the colonies from Spain. Native Americans: these people had little freedom or were forced into labor on plantations and in mines. Their appeals for change were heard by many, but the change that was instituted was not a response of Christian compassion and love for those they sought to convert, but was rather the decision to ease their work load by bringing into the colonies a larger work force. The clergy fired back with accusations against the viceroys and peninsulares--that they could not care less about the souls of the native Americans and threw them aside when ill or dead as one would trash. Native Americans and African slaves both occupied the very bottom of the social chain in Spaina€™s Ecomienda.
De Sotoa€™s expedition contributed to the founding of what became known as the Columbian Exchange, the exchange of people, animals, foods, plants, and technology between Europe and the New Spain (the Americas). From Europe and Africa pigs, horses, goats, sugar cane, paper, guns, and technology crossed the Atlantic to the America.
The introduction of corn and potatoes into Europe produced a fairly rapid growth in population, which had declined because of the a€?Little Ice Agea€? that began around 1350 A.D. Sugar beets and sugar cane that came to the America from India with Columbus, soon became a huge industry in the Americas, especially in the Caribbean.
Beyond a new commercial exchange between Europe and Africa and the Americas, the gold and silver flowing to Spain opened up new and expanded doors for trade across the Pacific with the Ming Dynasty in China (whose economic system was based on gold and silver) and with the Spice Islands of the Philippines and Indonesia.
In Africa the Portuguese had established economic ties with strong African kings who provided the Portuguese with large numbers of conquered slaves.
As has been the case throughout human history, in general, the treatment of the native and African workers was brutal, harsh, and inhumane.
And Islam was presented with a major problem in Africa in a dispute between the Muslim missionaries and Muslim slave traders.
Therefore, Islamic trade traders justified their behavior in Africa by declaring the tribal groups living south of an arbitrary line drawn across the African continent as sub-humans, pagans eligible for death or slavery!
For this reason, today the continent of Africa is composed of a solidly Islamic north and a majority Christian south where the conversion rate to Christianity is progressing faster than the birth rate.
The system of joint stock companies emerged, in which merchants and investors pooled their resources, sold stock in the new companies, reduced the risk to individual investors, and made available vast amounts of working capital for investments in mining and agriculture, as well as the many ships required to transport goods. A new population of middle class merchants arose, acting as middle men in the new system of trade.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the colonies planted at Plymouth and Jamestown were all made possible by joint stock companies, who expected a return on their investments through new trade for goods and natural resources with the native peoples and the colonists in those areas.
By 1510 50% of all silver from the mines in Bolivia were being shipped to India to purchase tea and cotton and to China for silk and porcelain.
Contacts between Europe and Asia--especially China, the Spice Islands, and India--greatly increased in the late 13th century, producing important merchant cities in Venice, Milan, Genoa, Lisbon, and Madrid. Formerly most trade routes were overland, but beginning with the 13th century naval shipping became the major means of trade.
The Persians, Ottomans, and North African Muslims, through harassment, heavy import and export taxes, and seizing of cargo forced Europeans to find new routes to Asia.
Between 1450-1650 several countries became leaders in naval shipping: China, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, and others, like India and Italy, served as middle men in the expanded trade. New technologies in the construction of ships and navigation instruments made long sea journeys possible. The Treaty of Tordesilla in 1491 was negotiated by Pope Alexander VI between Portugal and Spain in an attempt to settle their growing dispute over creating trade routes to the Spice Islands.
Prince Henry the Navigator encouraged and funding trade between Portugal and others countries and continents, leading to new routes to India and the Spice Islands, as well as opening the door to trafficking in slaves from Africa.
Queen Elizabeth and James I were English monarchs who sponsored a great growth in naval power, shipping, and establishing colonies in the New World. Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the first European to set foot in the New World since early attempts by the Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries. Columbus was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 to find a new sea route westward to the Spice Islands. Columbus was a Christian who desired to reach unknown people groups with the Gospel of Christ.
The Americas were named for Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer who sailed six times to the east coast of South America and made fairly accurate maps of the coastline. Ferdinand Magella sailed for Portugal in 1519, successfully made his way around the tip of Africa, across the Pacific, and although he, himself, died in the Philippines, his crew continued the trip westward to Portugal, arriving in 1521, the first known humans to circle the earth by ship. Other Spanish explorers claimed vast areas of North and South America for Spain and established the Columbian Exchange between Europe, Africa, and New Spain. Large gold and silver deposits in New Spain created great wealth in Spain, but ultimately led to its economic decline.
The rapid expansion of shipping, plantation building, and trade produced a new system of joint stock companies to fund the new ventures. Explain the reasons for and the success of the Ottoman Empire in restricting European trade with Asia. Describe the cultural and military collision between the Spanish and the Aztec and the Inca empires and analyze why these empires collapsed.
Explain the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in the Americas and assess the role of the Catholic Church in the colonial administration and policies regarding indigenous populations. Assess ways in which the exchange of plants and animals around the world in the late 15th and the 16th centuries affected European, Asian, African, and American Indian societies and commerce. Analyze why the introduction of new diseases in the Americas after 1492 had such devastating demographic and social effects on American Indian populations, not only in South America but also in Florida and the Caribbean. Assess the effects that knowledge of the peoples, cultures, geography, and natural environment of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life. How did the Crusades and the Renaissance open up Europe for an awakened interest in other lands? What light, fast vessel was popular with the early explorers of the late fifteenth century?
What were maps and other navigational aids like during this period, and how did sailors find their way? What is not found in the textbook: the motivation of Ferdinand and Isabella to fund the voyage by Columbus during the two years prior to 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella has used all their resources to drive the remaining Islamic forces and citizens from Spain. According to the author of the textbook, why had Europeans not discovered the New World sooner?
By the time Magellan was ready to begin his journey in 1519, what had everyone realized about Columbusa€™ earlier trip?
Tell the story of what happened when Magellan with his remaining crew finally reached the Philippine Islands. Tell the story of the miraculous healing of the chief of the island on which Magellan landed.
The city is probably the world's most important financial center, and one of the most important cultural centers of the Western world. Each borough elects a Borough President, but under the current city charter, the Borough President's powers are limited--he or she has a small discretionary budget to spend on projects within the borough. The population of the City of New York is more than eight million (2000 US Census), with the population of the entire metropolitan area at around 20 million. Residents generally refer to New York City (or just Manhattan) as "New York" or "the city". In fact, the city has a high crime rate compared to the United States of America at large, but a relatively low rate compared to other North American cities. Bloomberg had come to prominence as an expert on Wall Street, which had brought him great wealth, but the mayoralty is his first political office. His bid for United States Senator from New York State was aborted by treatment for cancer and controversy over his affair with Judith Nathan. That town, at the southern tip of Manhattan, was called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam), and was the main city of the Dutch colony of New Netherlands. The British renamed the colony New York, after James II of England, who sponsored the takeover and who was at that time the Duke of York. Patrick's Day was celebrated in New York City for the first time at the Crown and Thistle Tavern on March 17, 1756. By 1835 Manhattan overtook Philadelphia as the most populous city and established itself as the financial and mercantile capital of the western hemisphere.
The song gave its name to a film directed by Martin Scorsese (see New York, New York (film)[?]). And the Christian faith spread rapidly throughout the empire, displacing local and empire-supported paganism. True to his visions of immense self-worth, he envisioned himself as the worlda€™s greatest architect -- in addition to being the self-proclaimed best charioteer, artist, musician, and dramatist. Perhaps the clearest example of the madness of Nero and the evil that consumed him was his evening garden parties which he lit by tying Christians to poles, soaking them with oil, and using them as human torches. Compassion for the meek followers of Jesus, whose blameless conduct was apparent to many, led to a new wave of conversions. Stories about how the Christians a€?ate and drank the body and blood of Jesusa€? were usually the basis for this misunderstanding. Further, they refused to join in the worship of the gods that could be easily seen in the local temples.
He hated everything Constantine and his sons stood for and did much to restore paganism in the empire. He was committed to the faith of the West, the anti-Arian postion of Nicea, and with co-emperor Gratian, in 380 A.D. He was not yet a Christian but perhaps in addition to following his fathera€™s lead also wanted to set himself apart from Galerius and his persecution of Christians in the East.
Constantine was told, it was reported, that if he trusted in Christ and became a Christian, as well as his troops, they would win the battle, although greatly outnumbered. However, after a second occurrence of Liciniusa€™ plotting to overthrow and kill Constantine, Constantine sent men to hunt Licinius down and they killed him in northern Greece. Others, however, look more favorably on his involvement by citing the need for major reforms in the judicial and legal systems of the empire and the difficulty of learning how best and to what degree to maintain a separation between the State and the Church. These centered around four matters: (1) local and regional rivalries among Christian, (2) disputes concerning leadership in the churches, (3) doctrinal disputes concerning the deity of Christ and the Trinity, and (4) disputes about how to handle Christians who had caved in under Diocletian and local persecutions.
Arius taught that Jesus was a created being and was not divine in the sense that God the Father was divine. Chalcedon affirmed that in Jesus two natures were united in one manhood, condemned Nestorius and his teachings, condemned another teaching that was circulating affirming that Jesus had only one nature, and affirmed the Nicene Creed. Sexual crimes and sex outside of marriage became crimes against the State because they were viewed as corrupting influences to society and culture.
Crispus was raised in Gaul by his father, given an excellent education by a noted Christian teacher, and when reaching maturity proved himself to be an excellent military leader. Was this factual or was Fausta jealous of Crispus, since she bore three younger sons to Constantine: Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans, in addition to two daughters?
Or, on the other hand, was he duty bound to carry out justice that was prescribed in Roman law, the very law that he helped to write requiring death for adultery and fornication? The Eastern Empire revived under the Byzantine emperors, especially Justinian I, until the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453 A.D.
From that point forward he used his authority to combat the Churcha€™s long-standing second foe, Arianism.
The bishop of Milan, Ambrose, denied Theodosius participation in the Lorda€™s Supper until acts of repentance were carried out. In the West Latin prevailed and the bishop in Rome became the most powerful of Christian spiritual leaders. Goths had made their way to Rome after the defeat of the emperor Valens at Adrianople in 378 A.D.
Under the military leadership of Odoacer the Germanic troops revolted, captured Ravenna, the functional capitol of the Western empire at the time, quickly conquered all of Italy, and captured Rome itself. A messy but deeply captivating love story of a God who keeps pursuing us despite our unfaithfulness.
We will be painting, gardening, doing room makeovers, organizing a nice afternoon for residents of an elderly home or a home for people with special needs. What does it mean for us today to bless others with the blessing we have received in Jesus?1. As you get insight into your own dynamics, you will have practice using the lenses with which to view the personal transformation challenges of others as well.What is my life situation? Spiritual gifts, long neglected by theologians and people in the pew, are now a popular topic of conversation. It is a good idea to start by reviewing the Crossroads requirements for Eldership, which you can find on the Elders page on the Crossroads website.2.
However, the large number of schools with graduate programs in leadership might not fit the bill for everyone. The university has channeled this unique approach to the subject into an online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership. Students enhance their understanding of basic leadership practices while also building practical analytical and problem solving skills.
The online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership at Lewis University accomplishes just those goals. The interdisciplinary program is “firmly rooted in ethics” and takes an interdisciplinary and multicultural approach to the theory and practice of leadership.
Colorado Christian University also provides students with the unique opportunity to to attend a 3-day national leadership conference on its campus in Colorado Springs. Not only does Regis have a great business program, but the entire college was named a “top tier” Western school by U.S. The interdisciplinary nature of this online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership allows students to take elective classes in psychology, criminal justice, education, human resources, and even healthcare administration. 24 credits focus on general principles of management, and then learners enrolled in the accredited online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership concentration take specialty classes in “Contemporary Issues in Leadership,” “Global Management,” “Leading Change in Complex Organizations,” and more. In addition to organizational management, MBA students at Mount Vernon Nazarene University may also seek a speciality degree in Finance, Human Resources, or Healthcare Administration. The program accepts a diverse group of students in order to encourage individuals to gain the skills needed to succeed in an international business environment.
All courses are held online and are accessible from any computer with access to the internet. Students can conveniently take all courses in this master’s degree in organizational management and leadership online, which allows them to apply their newly learned skills to their current job as they move through the program. The department asserts that spiritual principles blended with management training help “empower today’s minds for tomorrow’s world.” The 39-credit online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership can be customized through numerous concentration options, such as Risk Management, Corporate Communication, Public Administration, Environmental Studies, Marketing, Healthcare Administration, Management Information Systems, Human Resource Management, or International Business. Graduates of the program find work in human resources, benefits administration, executive management, industrial and operational supervision, and more. The cheap online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership is available for just $8,000 a year. The online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership is only 20 months long, but crams five semesters of meaningful classes into that time.
At just over $7,000 a year and with a program that takes approximately a year and a half to complete, students can acquire this top graduate degree for less than the cost of a year of undergraduate school at many universities! In addition to being low-cost, CSU is also a great choice for veterans and was named a top military school by Military Advanced Education magazine.
Her freelance business soon took off and she now owns and operates a writing and editing firm that works with clients all across the country.
Venice grew to become one of Europea€™s largest and most prosperous cities, largely as a result of its trade in luxury goods from the Far East. Milan became a major trade center for goods that were carried by land over the Alps into central Europe. Arriving in China, the Polos were welcomed back by the Mongol troops of their old friend, the Khan. Finally, after nearly two decades in the service of the Khan, the Polos were permitted by the Khan to return home, if they would agree to accompany a Yuan princess who had been promised in marriage to a Persian king (probably to create stronger trade ties between Persia and the Yuan Dynasty). They traveled through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and then to their destination in the Persian Gulf.
They arrived during a time of warfare between Genoa and Venice and, probably because they were viewed as possible spies, were imprisoned in Venice. In it he described such Chinese inventions as the magnetic compass, movable type printing, paper making, and the use of paper currency.
Il Milione was translated into several European languages, including English (The Travels of Marco Polo). China, India, and the African kingdoms regularly trades silk, slaves, spices, gold, silver, metalwares, and ivory. The Ottomans controlled all trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Ocean, North Africa (most countries in North Africa by this time had converted to Islam), and the Spice Islands (Indonesia had also converted from Hinduism to Islam). The growing demand for silk, cotton, gold, silver, ivory, textiles, spices, and gun powder became a major concern for European rulers. The Mongol Empire traded European slaves and guns to Venice for trade with Africa for gold, silver, and ivory. A new passion to a€?get there before the Muslims doa€? motivated exploration and discovery of new peoples.
The Chinese were poised technologically to sail around the tip of Africa and to sail westward in search of new trade centers.
Trading partnerships between Venice and the Ottomans established shipping lanes across the Adriatic Sea from Greece to Italy. The semi-autonomous Ottoman states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli made sea traffic through the Mediterranean a dangerous business for European shipping. They also raided the coastal areas of Spain, Southern France, and East Africa to seize slaves for the slave markets in the Middle East.
They colonized what became known as the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) in the mid-16th century and held that colony until 1948. In 1609 an English explorer, Henry Hudson, who was under the employment of the Dutch Republic, reached the harbor of present-day New York, and sailed up the river that now bears his name. Portugal was granted free access to all sea routes to Africa, India, and Asia east of that dividing line, and all previously unclaimed lands east of that line. But when the Portuguese realized the great advantage Spain gained through Alexandera€™s arrangement in potential land in the Americas, they petitioned for an adjustment to Alexandera€™s solution. Because the boundaries of Brazil were poorly defined, the Portuguese pushed for expanded borders without significant opposition from the Spanish. Henry was the prime mover in developing trade between Portugal and other countries and continents.
By 1452 the Portuguese had so successfully developed trade routes circumventing the Ottoman-controlled trade routes, that Portugal became the European trade center for gold and slaves.
They competed with the Dutch and the Portuguese for trade with the Orient, leading to their eventual colonization of India, and, in the 19th century, port cities in China.
Raleigh also forced Phillip II to postpone launching the Armada by raiding the coast of Spain and destroying the seasoned wood that was necessary to construct the water kegs needed by the sailors of the Armada. In 1497 his ships landed in North America, the first Europeans to do so since the Vikings.
Setting sail from Plymouth, England in December 1577 with six ships, Drake sailed to Brazil, then through the dangerous Magellan Straits at the southern tip of South America, up the coast to Panama, then reached as far, possibly, as California, or even Vancouver Island. He later was the first European to discover Lake Champlain, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario, all components of the Great Lakes. Although best known as the year in which Columbus sailed to the New World, several other events also made 1492 A.D. In fact, Columbus had to use the port of Palos instead of the larger port of Cadiz because Cadiz was flooded with ships carrying thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing to the Middle East, North Africa, Italy, and Greece.
And with that voyage Columbus changed the world -- as the Europeans had known it --for all time.
It is perhaps no accident that some of the foremost explorers of the late 1400s and early 1500s were Italians, men who were exposed to the far-reaching cultural awakening that was the Renaissance. He listened eagerly to tales told by seafarers who had sailed the length and breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, bringing back rich cargoes for Genoa`s wealthy merchants. At the age of twenty-five, he had the most exciting time of his life when he sailed aboard a ship that sailed out onto the immense Atlantic Ocean. Columbus spent eight years in Lisbon, working as a mapmaker and receiving the greater part of his education. Most with whom he shared his ideas dismissed him as an idle dreamer, but Columbus was determined and ambitious in his quest. His journals expressed his belief that God had chosen him to carry the Gospel of Christ to the people of Asia. The royal riches had been depleted by the military efforts to drive the Muslim Moors from Spain.
The next day, October 12, 1492, Columbus was the first European to set foot on an island in the present-day Bahamas. He immediately referred to the islandsa€™ inhabitants as a€?Indians.a€? However, he also sent men inland on one larger island to look for the capitol city of a€?the Khana€? (the term used in Spain for the Chinese emperor). We now know from DNA test results that the Siberian people who settled and today live in South America are distinct from the Siberian people who settled and live today in North America. The a€?Ba€? DNA is found today only in aboriginal people in Japan, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. A trawler in the North Atlantic pulled up a mastedon skeleton, and with it a stone spear head or cutting tool probably used to butcher the mastedon. Speculation is that they may have been related to the early Aborigines of Australia who traveled across the Pacific.
And archeologists have long wondered at the great similarities between the pyramids of Egypt and those constructed in Central and South America.
His major contribution to Europea€™s knowledge of the New World were his very accurate maps, primarily of the eastern South American coast. A German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, published Vespuccia€™s map of South America in 1507 and labeled it a€?Americaa€? in honor of Vespucci. Is he a hero or a villain, a Christian missionary or a slave trader, an explorer in search of souls or a merchant in search of financial profits? Who is to say, they maintain, that the original inhabitants Columbus encountered were any less ignorant of a true God than he?
Columbus must be viewed, not through 20th century eyeglasses, but t as a man who lived in a 15th century culture.
In fact, on returning to Spain, the explorers, including Columbusa€™ crews and those that came after, carried back new diseases to Europe contracted in the Americas.
His diaries and letters written both before and after his historic trips contain personal compassion for the natives he encountered and his zeal to seek their conversion to Christ. Such an agreement does not make him necessarily a despicable exploiter but a typical businessman.
Hea€™d had a€?very reda€? hair in his younger years, but since hea€™d passed age 40, it had turned prematurely white. He had sailed the Mediterranean and traveled to parts of Africa, to Ireland, and probably even to Iceland.
Writer Robert Hughes expressed the conventional wisdom: a€?Sometime between 1478 and 1484, the full plan of self-aggrandizement and discovery took shape in his mind.
Whenever he faced a storm, a waterspout (tornado-like whirl of seawater), or rebellious crewmen, he made vows to God. In 1501 Columbus wrote, a€?I am only a most unworthy sinner, but ever since I have cried out for grace and mercy from the Lord, they have covered me completely. He died more than a decade before Martin Luther would post his 95 Theses protesting the abuse of indulgences.
Not until last year was his most important religious writinga€”the Libro de las profecA­as, or Book of Propheciesa€”translated into English. Some scholars attribute his recurring encounters with a heavenly voice to mental instability, illness, or stress. The voyage was immediately beset by calamities a broken rudder, leaks so bad they needed immediate repair, and threatened capture by the Portuguese. But on October 11, the shipa€™s log records, they began seeing signs of shore: seabirds, bits of green plants, stacks that looked they had been carved, a small plank.
Columbus and his captains went ashore in an armed launch and unfurled the royal banner and two flags. As he wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella late in his life, a€?I spent six years here at your royal court, disputing the case with so many people of great authority, learned in all the arts. So he called the Taino-speaking peoples of the Arawak tribes a€?Indians.a€? The name, though flatly wrong, stuck. They had coarse black haira€”a€?almost like the tail of a horsea€?a€”with a€?handsome bodies and good facesa€? painted with black, red, or white paint. In the wee hours of Christmas morning, a sailor decided to catch some sleep and left the tiller in the hands of a boy. Yes, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, but now he had lumbera€”lots of ita€”for building the necessary fort.
On February 14th, Columbus gathered his crew on the heaving and rolling deck to pray and make vows. In his youth, he felt God had promised him that his name would be proclaimed throughout the world. Ferdinand and Isabella, who had just united their kingdoms, soundly defeated the Moors, signaling the end of an Islamic presence in Europe. A new country, militantly united behind Christianity, had arisen and would dominate the world for a hundred years. Zion will come from Spain.a€? For hundreds of years, the holy sites of Jerusalem had been held captive by the infidel Muslims. Augustinea€™s teaching, Columbus knew that all history fell into seven agesa€”and he was in the sixth, the next to last. When he says sincerely,a€?Our Lord in his goodness guides me so that I may find this gold,a€? we cringe. Although Ferdinand and Isabella made military strikes into Muslim-held North Africa, they never mounted a grand crusade. He took three more voyages across the Atlantic, each lasting several years and filled with harrowing storms, crew rebellions, illnesses (at one point his eyes bled), and encounters with native Americans. In May 1493, he asked Ferdinand and Isabella to set aside 1 percent of all gold taken from the islands to pay for establishing churches and sending monks.
Columbus became absolutely wealthy, a€?a millionaire by any standard.a€? But he had driven such a hard bargain with the crowna€”hereditary titles and a€?the tenth part of the wholea€? of gold he founda€”that the monarchs continually had to limit his power and wealth. I found myself in such a pass that in an attempt to escape death I took to the sea in a small caravel. Late in life, with the help of a friend, a monk, Columbus assembled excerpts from the Bible and medieval authors.
But he wasna€™t the first or last Christian to read his personal destiny into a Scripture verse.
It was the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan who in 1519 embarked on a trip which would be the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean--and all the way around the world. He and his crew made a great friendship with their early contacts on the islands and were persuaded to stay several months to recuperate and replenish their supplies of food and water.
Whether urged on by the now Christian chief or due to a threatened invasion, Magellan set sail for their island with 40 of his men.
They had completed their journey around the world, proving once and for all that the earth was a sphere and that trade with Asia was possible via a route across the Pacific. In 1539 De Soto returned to the New World, this time as leader of an expedition of nine ships, 620 men, 220 horses, and numerous priests, craftsmen, engineers, and farmers who came from Cuba and various sections of Spain. Hearing of gold deposits in the north, in 1540 De Soto made his way north through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee, seeking gold.
They distributed land to the peninsulares, who, in turn, were expected to protect the native Americans as parents would their children, and instruct them in the Christian faith. Because not born in Spain, they were refused access to leadership positions in the government, but because born to Spanish parents, had full access to education and business.
They were at the bottom of the pecking order, and were especially mistreated by the creoles, mestizos, and mulattos. In many cases they were treated worse than animals, because they were replaceable while animals like horses were less so. What they had in mind was not more colonists from Spain, but, rather, the introduction of slave workers from Africa! The clergy were accused of attempting to create a Church-dominated kingdom with the clergy in charge of the kingdom.
From the Americas corn, potatoes, yams, squash, beans, cocoa, peanuts, gold, and silver flowed to Europe. The earlier supply of Islamic slaves from Spain and Christian slaves from Eastern Europe in the slave markets of Europe and the Middle East dried up after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492. Up until this time slavery was identified with conquest and victory in war -- not ethnicity or skin color. Increasingly African slaves were identified as descendants of Ham, one of the sons of Noah.
In England the Muscovy Company for trade with Russia and the East India Company for trade with India were created. The easy acquisition of silver and gold from Peru and Bolivia resulted in a major miscalculation that severely damaged the economic future of Spain.
What five groups of people from Europe gradually made their way along the coasts of Africa, Asia, and the New World? In the East Indies, now know as Indonesia, were spices, coffee, rubber and Portugal got there first. If you were looking t the map in 1493 instead of 2008, who would you have thought got the better of the deal, Spain or Portugal?
Why did he go to his death with only a few soldiers and refuse the help of the friendly chiefs?
The United Nations headquarters is in New York City, giving some credence to the city's self-designation as "capital of the world".
In addition, New York has been growing safer for most of the last decade--FBI data indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1967. Bloomberg had been a Democrat until only a short time earlier, but switched to the Republican Party to run for mayor, in order to avoid a crowded Democratic primary.
He handled the aftermath of the World Trade Center disaster well, providing much-needed leadership, and greatly increased his popularity. The Dutch origins can still be seen in many names in New York City, such as Brooklyn (from Breukelen), Harlem (from Haarlem), The Bronx (from Pieter Bronck) and Staten Island. The city grew northward, and remained the largest and most important city in the colony of New York. This holiday has since become a yearly city-wide celebration that is famous around the world as the St. A nearly pure form of capitalism created a large upper-middle and upper class, but its need for manpower encouraged immigration on an unprecedented scale, with mixed results. So intense was the persecution that soon public sentiment swung behind the Christians and the city realized that Nero was merely attempting to cover up his own guilt. At one point Nero disappeared from Rome for a full year, having traveled to Greece to participate as a€?the worlda€™s greatest athletea€? in the Olympic games. There were empire-wide periods of persecution, however, under the emperors Nero, Domitian in the late first century, and Diocletian in the late second century. Because in some areas they had become so numerous that no one shopped at the local meat market where meat was sold for sacrifice to the pagan idols. Because of the Christiansa€™ refusal to worship the local gods and the emperor, the gods poured out their wrath on the community. Even the Roman legions refused to go into battle without first having participated in traditional rituals.
Male and female prostitutes were everywhere, extra-marital affairs were the norm, unwanted pregnancies ended in either abortion or infant exposure easily presumed incestual relationships were being practiced by the Christians. If they admit it I repeat the question a second and a third time, threatening capital punishment; if they persist I sentence them to death. He was a bishop or leader in the Christian Church and one way to attack to whole group is to eliminate their leaders.
Suffer me to become food for the wild beasts, through whose instrumentality it will be granted me to attain to God. When the men sent by the the local sheriff, named Herod, arrived at his hiding place, he talked with them and asked for them to be served food and drink, because it was late in the day. He that granted me to endure the fire will grant me also to remain at the pyre unmoved, without being secured with nails.a€? After he prayed, the fire was then lit. Cited in Documents of the Christian Church, Henry Bettenson, Oxford University Press, 1963, pp.
That night Constantine embraced the faith of this mother and all the troops entered the battle the next day with Christian crosses painted on their shields. While there Constantine and Licinius together issued the Edict of Milan, granting freedom of religion throughout the empire and especially making Christianity one of the legal religions in the empire. He wanted to start with a fresh approach and moved the capitol of the empire from Rome to Byzantium located at the Hellespont. It was a revolutionary leap from the pagan emperors Nero and Diocletian to the Christian emperor Constantine.
While much of his decisions and actions related to these matters were built on solid principles, much had to be learned through trial and error.
Arianism became the dominant view of Christianity that was embraced, for instance, by the Goths and Visigoths, and found adherents in Syria, Persia, and Egypt. It is not one God showing up in three different costumes, as Chalcedon rejected, but three persons, each distinct, yet each sharing in one essence of Godhead. Her loyalty to her husband was proven when she informed Constantine of a plot by her father to kill him.
At his death his cousin, Julian the Apostate (last pagan emperor in the empire) became sole emperor. Theodosius, ruling from Constantinople, issued an edict proclaiming Christianity as the only legal religion in the East. But when the statue fell, rather than the gods responding, a pack of rats ran out from under the base of the statue.
He also opposed Arianism in the West and assisted the famed Bishop Ambrose of Milan in crushing Arianism. In response, Theodosius, instead of hunting down those responsible, took the path of impulsive anger and ordered the death of all people living in the city. After he was restored by the Churcha€™s leaders, Theodosius entered the church in Constantinople and showed his repentance by falling to the floor and crying out to God and to the people for forgiveness. With the demise of the Roman government in the West the people increasingly fell into a primitive feudalism and military strongmen became the civil leaders.


This was the greatest single military loss in Roman history and the Roman legions were left in shambles.
Roman culture survived, chiefly through the presence of the churches and priests in the cities and towns, but the political system and the a€?Pax Romanaa€? was finished.
Throughout its story we see the many different aspects of God's unrelenting love, each calling us for a loving response by turning from our idols and surrendering our all to Him.
Paul has much to bring to our congregation, with his background—as an athlete and triathlon medalist, as a former Youth Pastor, and in his leadership experience of guiding a small, inwardly focused congregation into outreach and growth. The diversity in backgrounds, the picture it is of what God has accomplished by uniting all people together in Christ. Before coming to the Netherlands, I worked for several years in Dallas as a CPA with a major accounting firm.
Or you consider yourself a Christian but you still feel like you could use a fresh take on the basics of Christianity.The Alpha course is an opportunity to explore the Christian faith in a relaxed, non-threatening way over twelve , thought-provoking sessions. What the book of Psalms is to prayer and devotional life, the book of Proverbs is to everyday life.
Whenever we say good bye to somebody, especially for a longer period of time, the words spoken are often very meaningful.
FACEBOOK GROUPBesides that there is a great FB group that keeps us updated what is needed at the different locations also in practical way.
Some are not fully accredited, some are not very affordable, and others simply don’t offer a high grade of education. Here you can see descriptions of 19 cheap online master’s degree programs in organizational and management and leadership – in fact, the very cheapest.
The curriculum provides students with the maximum opportunities for interaction through a dynamic online system. The courses are organized into a format that is convenient for adult professionals, with six sessions of 8-week long courses. The curriculum consists of 37 credit hours in such topics as leadership studies, social responsibility, and conflict management.
Students take all courses for the master’s degree in organizational management and leadership online, supported by a robust network of resources and engaging faculty.
Although this feature requires travel, it is a great experience for students who want to hone their leadership skills and network with industry professionals. The program is also extremely flexible, featuring 100% online courses and a pace that allows students to take up to seven years to complete the program.
Students can choose to take all courses online or can attend classes at one of the university’s West Coast locations. TESC has long been lauded as a leader in distance education, and was given the National University Technology Network “Distance Education Innovation Award” in 2011 for the development of its unique FlashTrack course delivery system. Targeted to current business professionals, the curriculum allows current industry employees to hone their knowledge while learning how to be influential and effective leaders.
The unique program focuses on topics as varied as information technology and service to others, melding the practical with the relational. In fact, Azusa Pacific encourages learners to use their company as a “laboratory for class projects,” combining theoretical knowledge with hands-on practice. News for both its MBA and general business grad programs, making it one of the best online master’s degrees in organizational management and leadership out there. In addition to exploring the theoretical aspects of leadership, CSU online students also practice decision-making and communication, and even study psychology.
What’s more, 98% of students receive some type of scholarship or financial help, making it an especially affordable choice.
The curriculum is based on five adjectives that SMU says describes an effective leader: strategic, global, adaptive, connected, and learning.
Despite the time it takes to run a business she still does much of the writing herself, and her work has included a variety of content related to education policy, colleges and universities, academic programs, and graduates’ careers. However, the ships traveled back and forth between Europe ferrying the Crusaders to the Holy Land brought back to Europe many new and exciting products from Asia through the Middle East. Silk, porcelain, and metalware from China, spices and coffee from Indonesia and the Philippines, tea and spices from India, and a variety of rare new woods never seen before in Europe, were but some of the goods that excited Europe. It was also a description of the cultural practices, the languages, and religious practices of China.
It fueled the interest and imagination of soon-to-be explorers, including John Cabot of England and Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa who would sail to the New World under the sponsorship of the king and queen of Spain.
European industries that produced textiles, wool, and German metalware needed to find new routes to their customers in Africa and Asia. Genoa dominated trade in the Black Sea and Western Mediterranean areas, but were increasingly harassed by the Ottomans. Marco Polo described huge five-masted ships that regularly traded with Ceylon, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Because most of the raiders were from the Berber tribes of North Africa, the north coast of Africa was called the Barbary Coast and the Islamic raiders became known as the Barbary Pirates.
Their raids were so frequent that parts of the coastal areas of southern Spain were abandoned by their original inhabitants. This enabled them to control the production and trade of three crucial spices: nutmeg, cloves, and mace, as well as controlling the exporting of precious woods from Indonesia.
Spain had free access to all routes to the Americas, Asia, and India, and all previously unclaimed lands west of that line. Thus, in June 1494 the line was re-negotiated westward to a new distance of 1,770 km (1,099.83 miles) through the Treaty of Tordesilla, so named for the Spanish town of Tordesilla where the treaty was signed. The company soon controlled the production and exportation of Indian cotton, indigo dye, saltpeter ( nitrate needed in the production of gunpowder), tea, and opium. In 1629 he persuaded Cardinal Richelieu, French regent who served the young king Louis XIII, to encourage French nobility to fund the new colony of Quebec. In 1803, France also lost its land possessions west of the Mississippi River through a sale made by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to the American President Thomas Jefferson. Little by little the control of the Moors was eroding, beginning in the north of Spain where the Kingdom of Asturias was overthrown in 718 A.D. So, there was evident confusion on Columbusa€™ part about where his ships had actually landed. Original studies indicated that four distinct haplogroups migrated into North and Central America in waves across the Bering Sea bridge. It has been found, for instance, in the ancient ancestors of the Basque people in northern Spain. It closely resembles tools made by a migratory group whose remain have been found in Spain and Portugal.
The name stuck and the two continents have been known as the Americas from that point forward. He urged the king and queen of Spain to send priests to work with the people and to instruct them in the Christian faith. After all, he was the one who took the greatest of risks in making his initial trips across the Atlantic.
Inside, in the cool quiet, knelt CristA?bal ColA?n, captain general of three small ships anchored in the towna€™s inlet below. Their missiona€”the wild-eyed idea of their foreigner captaina€”was to sail west, away from all visible landmarks. There, in the land of the Great Khan, houses were roofed with gold, streets paved with marble.
He boasted later in life, a€?I have gone to every place that has heretofore been navigated.a€? He knew the Atlantic as well or better than anyone, and he probably knew more about how to read currents, winds, and surfaces of the sea than do sailors today.
He would win glory, riches, and a title of nobility by opening a trade route to the untapped wealth of the Orient. He saw them as the fulfillment of a divine plan for his lifea€”and for the soon-coming end of the world. I have found the most delightful comfort in making it my whole aim in life to enjoy his marvelous presence.a€? He constantly associated with reform minded Franciscans and spent perhaps five months at the white-walled monastery of Santa MarA­a de La Rabida. Others complain that Columbusa€™s biographers described him as more religious than he really was. A week after losing sight of the Canary Islands, the pilots discovered to their consternation that the compasses no longer worked right. This a€?astonished them,a€? and Columbus compared it to the miracles that accompanied Moses. Each was white with a central bright green cross flanked by a green F and Y for a€?Ferdinanda€? and a€?Isabella.a€? Columbus declared that these obviously inhabited lands now belonged to the Catholic sovereigns.
In a sense, he would be like the legendary giant Christopher, who carried Christ on his back across a wide river. Waves broke over the ships, sails had to be lowered, and soon they were driven by the wind until they were wildly lost.
They put chick-peas in a cap and had sailors draw to see which one picked the chick-pea with a cross cut into it. And at age 25, he had survived a shipwreck and six-mile swima€”a sign, he told his son Ferdinand, that God had a plan for him.
Columbus had used the port of PalA?s, in fact, because the larger CA?diz was flooded with thousands of fleeing Jewish refugees.
The Crusadersa€™ Book of Secrets, written in the early fourteenth century, said it would take 210,000 gold florins to mount a crusade. They instructed him a€?to win over the peoples of the said islands and mainland by all ways and means to our Holy Catholic Faitha€? and sent 13 religious workers on his second voyage. As a colonial governor, he ruled the farmers and settlers with such a heavy hand they rebelled. Columbus spent his last years in legal battles and worries that his estate would be whitled away. Then the Lord came to help, saying, a€?O man of little faith, be not afraid, I am with thee.a€™ And he scattered my enemies and showed me the way to fulfill my promises. The unfinished work, titled Book of Prophecies, uses Scriptures to show that God had ordained his voyages of discovery and that God would be doing further wonderful things for the church.
Although their commander, Magellan, died in battle in the Philippines, a handful of survivors of Magellan`s well-planned voyage returned home in 1522 after three grueling years at sea.
The Christian chief pleaded with Magellan to accompany him with his warriors, but Magellan refused, stating that if God could raise one chief from the death bed, he could deliver Magellan and prove His power. The intention was to explore the west coast of Florida and the middle of the newly discovered continent. De Soto took male slaves from each area and forced them to carry cargo until they could continue no longer. Frustrated with the results, the expedition headed south to meet two supply ships in the Gulf of Mexico, but they were attacked by the Mobila tribe (present-day Mobile, Alabama). Those who did remain were introduced to European feudalism by means of the Spanish Encomienda System. This caused Catholic missionaries to complain to the viceroys, the monarchy, and even to the Pope in Rome, requesting intervention to make life more humane for the native Americans.
The viceroys and peninsulares dismissed the complaints brought by the clergy as coming from biased, self-seeking opponents. Increasingly Spain depended on native American slaves to work the gold and silver mines and to serve on the sugar plantations. The Dutch East India Company funded and controlled shipping to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and led to the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch. Because of the new wealth Spain did not engage in new methods of production as did other nations in Europe, relying instead on its wealth to purchase the goods demanded by its people. Holiday Party, Office Party, Christmas Party, Divorce Party, Cast Party, Many Types Of Events And Parties. The island of Manhattan was in some measure self-selected as a future metropolis by its extraordinary natural harbor formed by New York Bay (actually an arm of the Atlantic Ocean), the East River (actually a tidal strait) and the Hudson River, all of which are confluent at the southern tip, from which all later development spread. The famed melting pot was brought into being, from which multitudes have since arisen in the successful pursuit of the "American Dream". The common complaint was that the Christians were not loyal citizens of the empire because they refused to participate in emperor worship, signified by sacrifices made in the pagan temples. Groups of street thugs were caught spreading the fire, who claimed that they were operating under orders from a civil authority. He also organized chariot races in Rome and required the public and the Senate to attend, while he raced as a€?the worlda€™s greatest charioteer.a€? There were command performances also featuring Nero as a singer, a harpist, and actor.
The civil authorities did not care what particular religion a person practiced, so long as it included emperor worship. For I do not doubt that, whatever kind of crime it may be to which they have confessed, their pertinacity and inflexible obstinacy should certainly go punished.
I am the wheat of God, and am ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of God.
Maxentius drowned in the Tiber River during the battle and Constantine won the battle of the Milvian Bridge.
Licinius had the support of pagan Goth warriors and represented the old ways of the pagan empire. Arianism is the basic doctrinal basis in the 21st century among Unitarians, Jehovaha€™s Witnesses, and Mormons.
Nestorius taught that (1) Mary should not be referred to as a€?god-bearera€? (theotokos) for this emphasized the deity of Jesus at the expense of his humanity; and, (2) Jesus had two distinct natures that were never united -- divine and human.
However, her relationship was probably put to the test when Constantine defeated her brother, Maxentius, at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, and then paraded his head around the streets of Rome on a spike in 312 A.D. With imperial funds Helen erected churches at various sacred sites, including the Church of the Annunciation in Nazareth, at the cave where Jesus was reportedly born (Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem), and the place of his capture (Church at the Mount of Olives).
This was done in part, perhaps, because it was his uncle, Valens, who had been defeated by the Arian Goths at Adrianople in 378 A.D.
Theodosius set out to crush all doctrine that did not a€?conform to the ancient doctrines delivered by the Apostle Peter to Rome.a€? All known Arians were expelled from Constantinople and all Arian churches were closed in the East. Thessaloniki was home to one of the early churches in Greece and to whom the Apostle Paul had written two New Testament letters.
He officially ordered before his death that the empire would be permanently divided into East and West under the leadership of his two sons.
In the East Greek prevailed, the culture was more prosperous, and the patriarchs in Constantinople, Damascus, Jerusalem, and Alexandria provided the spiritual leadership.
Making their way to Rome, the Goths exacted a cruel and thorough sacking of the city in 410 A.D. Within a short time, however, the Ostrogoths invaded Italy and their leader, Theodoric the Great, was recognized by Zeno. We are particularly drawn to his ability to be an inspiration for spiritual growth and a catalyst for building community.Catherine, is currently serving as a principal and first grade teacher in a school for children with learning challenges.
I took a leave of absence to do a Discipleship Training School with YWAM in Amsterdam and was planning on pursuing a MBA after that. More than 2 million people worldwide have found it a worthwhile experience, completing the Alpha course in churches, homes, schools, universities and prisons. Although some are more expensive than others (they range from about $6,000 to $14,000 a year, with the more expensive programs listed first) and they all take a little bit different approach to management education, you will be glad to hear that they all offer great academics and a price tag that will fit most budgets. Learners complete group assignments and team building exercises, and are required to attend a four week residency program in “Change Leadership” on the SJU campus. Online learners can take just two classes at a time and still complete their degree in the traditional time frame.
Students also get to choose from one of five specially-designed concentrations: Higher Education, Not-for-Profit Management, Organizational and Leadership Coaching, Training and Development, or Organizational Management.
The diverse program is useful for students interested in anything from healthcare management to education to the military.
College Prowler survey participants reveal that 90% of students would choose CCU again, and nearly 75% found the career center very helpful. Core courses cover all the basics of leadership and business, including organizational behavior and communication, theory and practice, research, strategic thinking, and motivating change. The department describes itself as “intensive,” and requires applicants to hold both a bachelor’s degree and at least two years of related work experience.
Many graduates of the program have successfully entered the increasingly competitive workforce and found rewarding jobs as project, staff, and operations managers. Classes include “Ethics and Classic Theories,” “Leadership in the 21st Century,” and “Conflict and Power Dynamics,” and includes an optional specialization in Community Development. The school has committed itself to creating quality curricula, and since 1964 has earned nearly 20 separate general and program-specific accreditations, including one from the prestigious International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education.
Students benefit from advanced training in decision making, conflict resolution, organizational change, human resource management, and leading multicultural organizations.
The vast majority of students who completed surveys on College Prowler reported being very satisfied with CUW and the knowledgeable professors there.
Many consider CSU a premier provider of distance education, and TheBestColleges.org ranked it 6th on its 2015 list of top online colleges. Religious students also appreciate that the school was named one of the “Top Online Christian Colleges” in 2013.
Forbes rates the university in its top 500 schools nationally, and also includes SMU on its list of top schools in the Midwest. By taking courses back-to-back, online learners move through the degree efficiently, getting to know 12-15 students in their cohort as they go.
Her interests actually span far beyond writing, and she is currently studying to be a physicist!
Genoa provided the sailors, ship captains, and the know-how for the later Portuguese and Spanish explorations. Food that was spoiled or even rotten became palatable when the rich spices of the Orient were added.
They were four to five times larger than European ships and possessed a technology not known to Europeans.
At other times they extorted large payments in order to allow merchant ships to pass through their waters.
He was especially interested in exploring the west coast of Africa, which became the key area for providing African slaves to Portugal -- now the key European slave market.
Some believe it was in Nova Scotia, others in Newfoundland, and some believe it might have been in Maine. He then successfully sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian islands, westward through the Indian Ocean to the tip of Africa, and then northward to England where he arrived in 1580. Later colonies were established at Plymouth (1620) by Pilgrim settlers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629, and the Connecticut Colony in 1636.
Because India had traditionally served as a middle man in trading Chinese products, especially porcelain and silk to Africa and Italy, the company gained control of that industry as well.
Columbus seemed to them to be a means by which new wealth could be acquired from a new route to the Spice Islands as well as confiscation of the fabled gold deposits in the New World.
They were offered one alternative to emigration, and that was conversion to the Christian faith. He and the crew immediately gave thanks to God for a safe arrival in a worship service and he planted both the royal banner of Spain and a wooden cross on the beach of the island he named a€?San Salvadora€? -- Holy Savior. Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of Sao Paulo, who made the initial discovery along with an Argentine colleague, Hector Pucciarelli. Not to mention Egyptian mummies and German skeletons that show strong amounts of nicotine in their remains, people who died long before the European voyagers of the 16th century began shipping tobacco from the New World to Europe. But we do know that from the traditional European perspective, the explorer who first a€?discovereda€? the New World in modern times was Christopher Columbus.
However, towards the end of the 20th century other voices began to question and attack his motives and his treatment of the islandsa€™ original inhabitants.
Did not Christ die for their salvation as well as for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italians? With Columbus saying confession and hearing mass, were some ninety pilots, seamen, and crown appointed officials.
They would leave behind Spain and Portugal, the a€?end of the world,a€? and head straight into the Mare Oceanum, the Ocean Sea. And most bizarre of all, we dona€™t knowa€”and will probably never knowa€”the spot where he came ashore. As he put it in 1500, a€?God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St. He read from the Vulgate Bible and the church fathers but, typical for his era, mingled astrology, geography, and prophecy with his theology.
Some protest that Columbus was greedy and obsessively ambitious, so he couldna€™t have been truly religious, as if competing qualities cannot exist in one person.
Few took it as a sign of land, but when the crew gathered to sing Salve Regina (a€?Hail, Queena€?), Columbus instructed his men to keep careful lookout.
In spite of that it later came to pass as Jesus Christ our Savior had predicted and as he had previously announced through the mouths of His holy prophets.a€¦ I have already said that reason, mathematics, and maps of the world were of no use to me in the execution of the enterprise of the Indies.
He also, a Christopher, a a€?Christ-bearer,a€? would carry Christ across the wide Ocean Sea to peoples who had never heard the Christian message. That sailor would go on a holy pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary if they landed safely.
That was a mere 155 years away, and much had to happen: all peoples of the world would convert to Christianity, the Holy Land would be rescued from the infidels, the Antichrist would come. If Columbus could find enough gold in the Indies especially if he could find the lost mines of Solomon, which were known to be in the Easta€”he could pay for a Holy Land crusade. Columbus wanted gold not only for himself, but also for a much larger reason: to pay for the medieval Christiana€™s dream, the retaking of the Holy Land.
In his will, Columbus instructed his son Diego to support from his trust four theology professors to live on Hispaniola and convert the Indians. Some have criticized Columbus for the a€?providential and messianic delusions that would come to grip him later in lifea€? and accused him of megalomania. Magellan spent several days with the man and prayed for him, asking God to heal him and to show the islanders His power. He then had them killed and took slaves from the other peoples through whose territories he passed. Rather than covering him and hiding the event, Ham told his brothers, who then went in to cover their father. The steady use of silver and gold by Spain greatly increased the amount available in Europe, drove the value of silver and gold down, and resulted in Spain becoming one of the least financially healthy nations in Europe. Have The Jellin Girls Introduce You To Other Great People In New York City's Top Night Clubs.
Also of prime importance was the presence of deep fresh water aquifers near the southern tip, especially the Collect Pond[?].
But countless others failed to rise, or entire generations were forced to plough themselves under for their children or grandchildren to rise. Locally there was anger against the Christians because they refused to participate in the local pagan religions and rituals, thus bringing, it was feared, the wrath of the gods on the local community.
Peter request was granted to be crucified upside-down, because he was not worth, he said, to die in the same manner as Jesus.
There was always room for one more god in the local temple, so long as it took its place among the other gods worshipped locally. Anything contrary simply rocked the boat and disrupted business as usual and threatened peace and security. There were others who displayed a like madness and whom I reserved to be sent to Rome, since they were Roman citizens.a€? (Plin. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my tomb, and may have nothing of my body.
Constantine and his legions marched on Rome and defeated Maxentius and the famed Praetorian Guard at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312 A.D. The God nature expressed itself through the human nature as an artist would his painting, but remained distinct from it. The Council affirmed that this was a divine mystery, unfathomable by the human mind, but taught in Scripture.
In the same year, however, Constantine had Fausta also put to death for an undetermined reason. This was a courageous move, because the vast Gothic armies were primarily Arians in their faith. Seven thousand people were lured into the citya€™s stadium under the pretense of viewing a chariot race. He left behind an empire that had officially declared for the Christian faith and condemned both paganism and heresy. If you find that you are not able to respond to all of the questions, then do give special consideration to whether you know the candidate well enough to vouch for them being a good Elder candidate.4. It may be the most expensive school on our list, but Saint Joseph’s is nonetheless a great investment: Kiplinger’s Personal Finance named it one of the best private colleges in 2014, and PayScale placed the school on it’s list of top regional business schools for ROI. In addition to other rankings, UIW currently holds a top place on U.S News’ list of the best colleges in the West. According to College Prowler, more than 90% of students consider the professors knowledgeable, while 71% say the administration makes the financial aid application process easy.
The program also allows students to choose a specialization area or even to pursue a dual degree.
Among other recognitions, NU has been praised for awarding a higher than average number of graduate degrees to minority students. The program is also broad enough to be beneficial to professionals in diverse career fields, including education, administration, sports, retail, philanthropy, and politics. The curriculum covers strategic planning, research, organizational communication, and the spiritual roots of effective leadership.
The small setting for classes also allows LCU students to get more attention from faculty and understand the material more comprehensively.
In addition, elective classes allow students to explore employment law, human resource management, and advanced marketing.
The largest ships were over 400 feet long and 150 wide and were protected by a fleet of military vessels manned by over 20,000 soldiers. A second exploratory journey in 1498 was ill-fated and probably returned to England by 1500. Drake was the second European to successfully sail around the world, and achieved what Magellan did not -- he personally completed the entire trip (Magellan died in the Philippines).
The establishment of these colonies resulted in a great wave of English settlers arriving in North America during the decade 1630-1640.
Quebec remained the only significant French land holding in North America, which was quickly engulfed by large numbers of English who founded and settled British Canada.
Thus, in seventy days Columbus completed an historic transatlantic voyage that eventually led to European settlement in what would later be called the New World. The term a€?Indiana€? was decried as a demeaning term, and Columbus was described as a slave trading, gold seeking, ego-maniac.
Later that day they would row to their ships, ColA?n taking his place on the Santa MarA­a, a slow but sturdy flagship no longer than five canoes. But even if they reached the Indies, how would they get back, since currents and winds all seemed to go one way? At least once he appeared in public wearing a Franciscan habit and the ordera€™s distinctive cord. Even when Columbus forcibly subjugated Hispaniola in 1495, he believed he was fulfilling a divine destiny for himself and for Aragon and Castile and for the holy church. Feverish and in deep despair, he wrote, a€?I dragged myself up the rigging to the height of the crowa€™s nest.a€¦ Still groaning, I lost consciousness. Fearing his men would tell the story of the Spanish losses to the Spanish ships, in 1541 he turned westward into Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, then to the banks of the Mississippi River in present-day Mississippi where De Soto died if a high fever.
Holiday Party, Office Party, Christmas Party, Divorce Party, Cast Party, Many Types Of Events And N.Y. In the mid-1800s these antipodes could be found in the fabulously rich stretches of lower Broadway (wealth that would later take up residence on Fifth Avenue[?]) and the almost unbelievably squalid enclave of Five Points (abject poverty later to take up residence in the Lower East Side[?]). But if one refused to participate at all, and further claimed that his or her god was the only true god, that was grounds for execution as a traitor. Some sources speculate that Constantine found Faustaa€™s original story to be a lie and that Fausta was a willing participant in the illicit affair.
Matthew and Bethany see this as a great adventure, and are planning to attend Dutch schools. If we do not participate we miss out and the rest of us misses out as well, we need each other to grow up. So I came back and joined staff with YWAM! One thing that not many people know about me, is that while working in Dallas, one of my clients was the American football club, the Dallas Cowboys. Students must also complete an integrated Capstone Course in order to demonstrate their aptitude and comprehension of the degree material. In the “Best and Worst” section on College Prowler, LCU is recognized happy students and extreme affordability. This online master’s degree in organizational management and leadership also allows students to dive further into an area of particular interest through an applied research project.
Four priests eventually volunteered to travel to China but soon returned to Rome after experiencing culture-shock along the Silk Road. Drake was also a major participant in the active slave trade in which England was a main competitor with the Spanish and Portuguese in the lucrative slave trade which dealt with not only African slaves, but also slaves taken from the Caribbean Islands.
This is considered to be the first Christian victory over the Islamic Moors in Spain, in the long struggle called the Reconquista. How could the Spanish Catholic determine who truly converted and who did so outwardly simply to avoid emigration?
I heard a voice in pious accents saying, a€?O foolish man and slow to serve your God, the God of all!
Church leaders began to identify this curse with skin color -- dark slaves taken from Africa.
She was very interested in early explorers and told her children many of these stories over and over again. Hence, with rumors of vast supplies of gold and silver in the New World, and even the possibility of reaching the Spice Islands from the opposite direction taken by the Portuguese had great promise. The deity of Jesus Christ and the reality of the existence of three persons in the Trinity were affirmed as being those doctrine taught in Scripture as well as embraced by the Church generally since the first century.
They further affirmed that Mary, as the one who bore Jesus, could properly be referred to as Theotokos a€?the bearer or mother of God.a€? By this they did not confer any sense of deity to Mary, but if Jesus was both God and man, and if it is correct to refer to Jesus as God, then she would have been a€?the bearer of God.
Others speculate that Constantine had Crispus put to death believing the word of his wife, Fausta.
One time when I went to visit them, the receptionist mistook me for their #1 draft pick and brand new quarterback, Troy Aikman, who went on to lead the team to three Super Bowl victories.
The years following I have been part of the community serving in several ministries like Women’s, Alpha, Service Design. The continents of North and South America were so large almost anyone could land there sailing from Europe.
Cited in Documents of the Christian Church, Henry Bettenson, Oxford University Press, 1963, p. Later, when finding out that either she had lied or else was a willing participant in an affair, he had her also put to death. Besides the people working for the Leger des Heils, people from the Rode Kruis are also actively engaged.
Following that, the ESC will take this nomination into the annual selection process, starting in the spring.
But to find his way back again to his home port in Spain -- that was a demonstration of his advanced sailing skills.
From the hour of your birth he has always had a special care of you.a€™ a€? The voice continued at length and closed with a€?Be not afraid, but of good courage.
He was nicknamed Henry the Navigator because when he became an influential prince, he spear headed the drive for Portugal to hit the seas and travel to Asia. Then shall I be a true disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world shall not see so much as my body. It is the way to communicate with the people around us--and the key to communicating with cultures in much of the world.
I really appreciate Crossroads' multiculturalness as an international church - where people are welcome from all over the world and from whatever background they may have. We always finish the sessions before 22:00.Invite a friend for Alpha!Do you know someone that would like to do Alpha? In addition to regualarly scheduled staff, there is a need for volunteers to share a cup of coffee, play a game and or listen to the stories that people want to share.Scheduling the volunteers is a logistical challenge.
This process is described in the ESC policy document, and results in recommendations to the Elder Board for new candidate-Elders to start in the summer.6. The service will have a big participation from our teens, such as the youth band playing the worship songs. The Best Singles events in New York City Now internet Audio Personals Help Make Connections 24 hrs A Day! Entrust the Lord for me, that by these instruments I may be found a sacrifice to God.a€? (Ep. I like that we are strong at the core and open at the edge - because that's how I see Jesus. Finally, the course concludes with a study of the fruit of the Spirit, the most important of which is love.OUTLINE AND DATES Of THE COURSE1 - What Are Spiritual Gifts?
Besides a youth service, we are encouraging teens (and parents) to consider to be baptized as well.
The Spanish take credit for naming the Philippine Islands for Philip II of Spain, but their competitor, Portugal, claimed that they named the islands for Philippa, the mother of Henry the Navigator. I spoke to some parents already who are considering this next step in faith with their teenager. We had already two evenings.  If you have a teen that would like to connect with other teens, and you live around Amstelveen, this would be a great place to start! Besides Amstelveen we are actively looking for opportunities to connect and disciple teens.
If you would like to receive a group in your place, please contact me to talk further.Special Socials Coming upBesides the regular teen socials for both FUEL (12+) and FOCUS (15+) we are planning two different socials that also involve the dads. Registration is closed,We are also planning a father-son social which is more related to sports. Besides the socials the programming of XRDS YOUTH has some special events outside as well such as Opwekking,  Walibi and the EO Youth Day. If you sense that God may be calling you for this ministry or you may know someone who does, please let us know!Youth BandSince last year our Youth Ministry started with a Youth Band.
Our Youth band will play on June 14 in the main service as we are organizing a Youth Service.We are however, still looking for more musical talent.



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