Food drives these systems, when you kill pests, you are killing the food or host of beneficial insects. Certain dosages of conventional pesticides and insecticidal soaps and oils selectively kill pests and are less disruptive to biological controls. Strip or trap cover crops that are never sprayed offer a field insectary and winter refuge for beneficial insects without harm to market products.
Whatever is done in any field situation is always founded, as far as possible, upon the full knowledge of the interactions and ratios of the pests and their natural enemies. Slight changes in farming to take advantage of the known behaviors of both the pests and the beneficials that attack them can avoid the pest flare-ups taken for granted under conventional chemical farming. The exotic Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (formerly Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr)) can quickly spread over large areas of farms and greenhouses.
When honeydew-secreting insects like aphids, whitefly, and soft scale flourish, they attract more beneficials. The actual decimation of beneficial insect populations is most evident in those plants that are at the interface; in other words, where there are plants both with and without ants. Being an organic grower, biological control was desired and indeed a great deal of biological control activity was present.
The Aphidius parasitoid eventually, temporarily eradicated green peach aphid and saved the peppers, after which a rise in hyperparasites of Aphidius brought the system into equilibrium.
Quick-fix pesticides have disguised the role that ants play in biological control of agricultural crops, so ant research has not been focused on how to suppress ants at tolerable levels.
The commercial insectary is defined as a free enterprise business offering live predatory and parasitic insects (parasitoids) over the counter. The commercial insectary, financially supported by sales of entomophagus arthropods beneficial to agriculture, has grown from humble beginnings into the somewhat sophisticated business enterprise of insect farming and marketing. Evolution of the commercial insectary and its marketing techniques are outlined from inception to a modern practical alternative to the count-and-spray programs of pest management that are advocated by chemical company sales propaganda.
Among the many reasons for culturing entomophagus insects, probably the most straightforward one is that it is common sense to promote biological control.
Those commercial ventures that depend on field-harvested sources for their products have certainly helped to keep alive the concept of biological control throughout an age of massive reliance on chemical pesticides.
Many farmers buy these beetles every year because their experience with them has been good. My experiences in classical biological control research, while employed at the University of California, gave me a strong appreciation for the full, natural enemy complex that can exist on farms not exposed to the adverse effects of pesticides. These experiences helped us to identify the reasons why there was such a difference of opinion among entomologists about biological control. There is little wonder that there exists such a divided opinion among entomologists regarding biological controls. Conclusions on economic thresholds were derived from such fields that were deficient in natural enemies.
Pest control advisors face three kinds of fields each time they check the farms of their clients. Farmers who buy biological control products try to help the natural enemies in these borderline fields.
With the natural enemy complex capable of control, many farmers experienced good results solely with releases of Trichos.
The door was open to begin talking to more and more cotton farmers about biological control. This voluntary, professional-client relationship gave our effort considerable freedom for direction. These professional-client contracts were more like verbal agreements, but they provided enough cash flow to keep the business going.
The arrival of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella Saund., as a new pest species in our cotton marketing area, triggered an eradication effort by state and federal authorities. One group of farmer clients, the Coachella Valley Growers Gin, had been our customers continuously since 1961. Problems encountered by commercial insectaries can best be solved in the free market place. Probably the single most-prevalent problem facing the commercial insectary is the low visibility of biological controls. There seems to be a strong effort to regulate biological control practices as if they were a threat to society similar to the poisons in our pesticides. Other issues that need to be resolved in order to help the commercial insectary industry have to) do with financing.
Like most businesses marketing products with little shelf life, the insectary needs a steady market to) survive; free enterprise insectaries cannot sustain many poor market years.
Most fields can be helped with insectary products only during a few months of the growing cycle. The economic gap is rapidly closing for biological agriculture versus conventional farming that depends mainly on petroleum-based chemicals. The manuscript for this paper was reviewed by my colleagues in Rincon Vitova Insectaries, Inc., and friends elsewhere. Biological control by natural enemies is the only permanent, low-cost way to control insect pests.
A grower-owned insectary could easily obtain and produce this parasite and spread it among its members right away.
Once upon a time, alfalfa hay and pastures provided the permanent refuge areas that were home to a thousand or more species of beneficial insects. Another source of diversity was cover crops that were planted for soil improvement, pollination and green manure. Resistance to pesticides did not develop in that arrangement, because pests not killed by the poisons were controlled by predators and parasites immigrating from the hay fields where pesticides were never used. The picture changed dramatically when the price of alfalfa increased to the point where it became worth spraying. Large, single-crop farms replaced small family farms that had been successful be-cause they produced several crops.
It evolved this way so that now, when a new pest invades a monoculture environment, farmers have no biological options. In a world where all irrigated crops are grown for market, there is no nonsprayed, permanent sanctuary for insects anymore.
Farmers interested in a transition from conventional pesticides to alternative biological control must create some diversity and provide refugia that keep beneficials on the land. Refugia help keep migrating insects out of the market crops, generating larger numbers of predators at no cost (or damage) to market produce quality. Many of the interferences to biological control such as pesticide drift, honeydew-seeking ants, dust and adverse climate effects can be managed cost-effectively by planting border strips of cover crop plants that affect temperature and humidity, initiating micro-climates favorable to the survival of natural enemies. It is important to consider the pest-inducing effects of ants, dust and radiation, especially at the interface of irrigated farms with dusty field roads and open wild areas.
The intensity and duration of solar radiation on outside rows of market crops is implicated in physiological susceptibility of plants to pest populations.
At the same time as cover crops provide prey for increased numbers of natural enemies, the decomposition from mulching of cover crop mowings (sheet composting) forms other biological systems that breakdown plant and animal life into food chains of alternate prey for soil pests and plant diseases.
Trapping affects increases in such plant-feeding pests which are food for diverse populations of spiders and other predators. Augmentation with some of the key beneficial organisms that are grown commercially becomes very cost-effective on farms where diversity is already present.
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Sometimes a caterpillar spins a silk covering around itself for protection during the pupa stage.
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Boing Boing uses cookies and analytics trackers, and is supported by advertising, merchandise sales and affiliate links. Even seemingly safe pesticides may kill fungi on leaves that is a secondary food for some beneficials.
Parasites live several times longer and destroy more pests when there are weeds or other plants to provide pollen, nectar and refuge.
Therefore, monitoring should involve thorough sampling and observation of relative numbers of pests and all beneficials. These organisms attack different pests, sometimes target specific life stages, and often attack during a particular season.
IPM emphasizes beneficials and seeks to suppress particular pest levels so that rather than pest numbers rising explosively, they stay within tolerable damage levels with minimum loss of beneficials.
Since most of the ants in a colony are beneath the ground surface in the nest working to protect the queen and tending the brood, the applications of pesticides has little direct effect on the colony. We recently saw tomato russet mite in the tomatoes in an organic vegetable greenhouse where Argentine ants were thriving on honeydew from aphids spreading along ant trails. Though some of the aphid species did not have parasitoids, a parasitoid of green peach aphid, Aphidius matricariae, was present on the pepper plants. When the bait is carried to the nest and fed to the brood and poisons the queen, the colony is destroyed. This beneficial phenomenon is taking place; however, it does not warrant that growers try to conserve ants. When the role of ants is not recognized, growers trying to reduce pesticide use and transition to organic farming practices may end up throwing money away on commercial natural enemies. Isolated infestations have been reported from Missouri, Illinois, Maryland, Oregon and Washington.
Foraging ants gather food and then take it back to the nest to feed other members of the colony (trophallaxis). Emphasis is on their commercial marketing and successful use in agriculture, rather than any particular mass production techniques applicable to the entomophagus arthropods offered for sale.
The business has advanced from harvesting hibernating ladybird beetles to using labor-intensive, mass production techniques, which keep all stages of each species of carnivorous predators and the substitute host used as food in continuous production. I exclude from my concept of biological control such expanded meanings as third-generation pesticides or those microbial pesticides that have been registered. It is very difficult to convince them that many other species of predators might be responsible for their good fortune or that the insects they bought probably flew away.
Most of my time was spent in citrus, cotton, and alfalfa fields, comparing various predator and parasite exclusion methods on small plots in unsprayed farms (DeBach, Dietrick, and Fleschner 1949).
Chemical control advocates generally ran their test plots in fields where the target species flourished.
It is difficult to form a good opinion about natural enemies if there are none in the fields chosen for studies.The devastating interpretation of this situation occurred when the untreated check plots in the small plot pesticide screening experiments were referred to as being representative of biological control failures. The lack of any biological control suppression on the pest populations led to the setting of pest density levels that were far too low for fields where natural enemies were allowed to help suppress the pests.
This commonsense idea of periodic augmentation of insectary products in infested fields to help the natural enemy suppression of the pests is the foundation for the use of such biological controls in agriculture. This Australian predator had been mass-cultured for many years by county government insectaries, individual farmer-owned insectaries, and farmer association insectaries (Fisher 1963). We showed them fields where effective populations of predators and parasites destroyed bollworm eggs overnight.
The marketing partner in Texas decided to build his own insectary with funds collected from farmers and owed to Rincon. We found new markets, diversified our product line, and broadened the areas where we sold these products. The blanket pesticide applications required by this effort immediately created another shock to our struggling insectary business. These farmers chose not to apply the pesticides in the eradication effort, and thus the federal authorities substituted the sterile moth releases as an eradication procedure. Farmers will discontinue acquiring and using pesticides when they are convinced that alternative pest management is cost-effective.
The appropriate ate size firm seems to be one which is small enough to adjust its products and services to) meet local needs. It would greatly help if extension efforts could provide farmers with biological control information with color pictures of the key predators and parasites associated with each crop.
Certainly, no) harm can result from predators and parasites known to attack pests and already established in the area. The insectary is a farming venture without any of the advantages of a farm (production credit, etc.). The insectary personnel must culture these animals 365 days a year in order to) have them available for the few weeks when needed.
The rising energy costs are likely to bring many changes in the future production of food and fiber.
Combined with safety and environmental concerns and the documentation of hundreds of species now resistant to pesticides,. These parasites have been imported and colonized successfully by the University of California biological control specialists.
The technology is known and there are under-employed advocates trained in the science of biological control who would welcome the chance to practice under the leadership and financing of grower organizations. They migrated from the non-irrigated foothills and provided biological control in all vegetable and field crops. When production fields and orchards were sprayed from time to time, the natural enemies which were plentiful in the havens of alfalfa hay and cover crops migrated into the sprayed areas.
Alfalfa was grown for crop rotation, soil improvement, and animal forage and had no economic threshold for pest damage. In addition, maximizing individual crop yields replaced the goal of optimizing total farm production costs. By diversifying crop selection, cover cropping and providing permanent refuges for natural enemies, immigrating pests and their sets of beneficial natural enemies, including pollinators, can be kept on their farms. Augmentation of insectary-reared beneficials in market crops are more cost-effective on farms with diversity. The majority of all crops are grown for market and therefore managed totally with chemicals. Planting refugia is necessary for biological control on farms coming out of monoculture cropping and reliance on chemical pesticides.


Refugia can buffer the impact of insect migrations from the foothills when native plants mature and dry up. Increased numbers and diversity of plants can shade out ever-expanding ant nesting sites and provide a complexity of insect life that increases populations of natural enemies. This important resource of a complexity of plant-feeding prey living on resident weeds and cover crop plants attracts and feeds predators and parasites of pests and keeps them on the farm. Spider-mite populations increase on the hot outside row of plants due to exposure to radiation effects. For example, ephedrid fly maggots that decompose plant material are prey for rover and ground beetles that may contribute to biological control of minor insect pests, such as fleabeetle rootworms, wireworoms, black vine weevils and other pests that over-winter in the soil. The overall effect of managed refugia for enhancement of biological control increases field insectary production of thousands of species of natural organisms interacting to improve efficiency of biological control in the whole agroecosystem.
The mini-book collects illustrated accounts of reproductive cycles—how various flora and fauna create replacements for themselves and how those replacements grow into adults.
So, not only is this an awesome educational resource, but it's an awesome educational resource created by a student. The use of pyrethroids and broad spectrum pesticides is recommended only in extreme cases, as these kill many beneficials as well as pests. Develop a system for scouting and assessing general trends in the change of pests and generalist predators in a given field as a guide for treatment or no treatment. Strip cutting (harvesting alternate strips or fields of alfalfa or cover crops when they begin to bloom), for example, forces a steady migration of beneficials into nearby row crops yielding many times the natural enemies of uniformly cut hay fields or cover crops.
Ideally, releases are started as early in the season as possible, when the first pests enter fields.
Good biological control is not possible unless honeydew-seeking ants are suppressed.It is well documented that large populations of Argentine ants can cause disruption of all the diverse sets of predators and parasites and antagonists involved in biological control. Once they enter ant-infested plants, they are eaten, providing the protein to go with the carbohydrates in the insect honeydew. Ants may even transport certain aphids and other insects or store them in the nest for protection and future use to start new colonies after a crisis.Edward 0.
They are a living web cast out by the superorganism, ready to congeal over rich food finds or shrink back from the most formidable enemies.
Management comes from destruction of all food sources above ground and from residues left that are toxic by contact.
A conventional grower would have sprayed for aphids, reducing the food supply to the ants and slowing down the whole process of ant-induced aphid damage, but might not have sought a root cause that would have prevented the need of pesticide in the first place.
It was able to evade the ants, but it arrived too late and worked too slowly without the help of predators. Where the ants had caused the secondary mite outbreak on the tomatoes, it was a pretty hopeless situation that could have been avoided. It is virtually impossible to eradicate ants and if growers will attack them on all fronts, there will always be plenty left to provide the service of attracting beneficials. If a colony has been starved by effective sanitation measures, baits are also accepted more readily.
Enough residual poison must remain after regurgitation to kill the foragers, and the amount delivered must be concentrated enough to do the job, even if it is spread among a number of larvae.
Like farming, the growing of many different species has great complexity peculiar to each species, and there may be several equally effective ways to mass culture any one of them. A favorable assessment is given for the future expansion of many small businesses composed of pest control advisors working independently for individuals or groups of farmers. The natural enemy complex refers to the full range of organisms, minor pests, decomposers, competitors, and antagonists that are recognizable in biologically balanced, field situations, i.
Nevertheless this receptive response or urge to believe in the benefits of utilizing natural enemies has made it possible for pest control advisors to communicate with farmer clients about biological control and thereby develop a market for other, more-useful species. We measured the effects of pesticides on various species of beneficial insects that controlled certain pests. It was logical that they seek those fields in order to obtain the data needed about the effects of pesticides on those pest species.
Instead of measuring the ineffectiveness of the natural enemies (or lack of them) these entomologists demonstrated the detrimental effects of pesticides on those few predators and parasites that were attracted to these check plots in search of their prey. Pest management with natural enemies can flourish where population monitoring allows for minor pest spots to appear in fields in order to attract and multiply the natural enemy complex that will predictably control the pests and result in a marketable harvest. Dirty fields full of pests with few natural enemies are also quickly managed by making the proper pesticide recommendation. The county effort, which had used tax money for support but gave the insects to farmers free of charge, was discontinued for budgetary economy and other reasons.
We also were able to explain to the farmers that, in those field situations where nearly all bollworm eggs hatched and grew into full-grown worms, there was no buffering natural enemy complex to suppress these pest populations and much cotton was destroyed as a result.
One such market developed in citrus with the use of the golden chalcid parasites, Aphytis lingnanensis Compere and A.
We avoided any business ties that would obligate us to any particular market or dealerships. Adequate natural enemies for this pest were not available, and the eradication procedures advocated for its control were not compatible with our biological pest management programs. This program allowed for biological controls to be used early in the season even though chemical pesticides had to be resorted to in late season. Rising costs for petroleum-based farm chemicals and fuels and narrowing profit margins are forcing farmers to look for more economical solutions than those presently available. Maximum use of habitat management techniques that are capable of trapping pests and increasing the populations of predators and parasites can then be used (Schlinger and Dietrick 1960). The products are perishable, adaptable to agricultural production systems, and as other beneficial farm animals, should not be considered for sales tax: they help the farmer just as any other work animals that are given tax exemptions. All other insectaries operate from other financial bases, but the commercial insectary will be out of business if the farmer clients cannot pay.
Out-of-season production costs with little or no off-season sales can take away much of the profits.There are no proprietary protections for insectary products. The commercial Insectary is already helping farmers to establish biological and cultural controls as the basis for pest management.
Numerous releases have been made experimentally, but there is no money for wide distribution of these new parasites. Considerable effort and money is spent on monitoring pests and on propaganda describing pests and pesticides, but our educational and advisory institutions have ignored the development of informational materials and training in skills of insectary development and management, beneficial insect production systems and in how to best use beneficials in various production settings. At hay cutting time, insects and their beneficials were driven from cut fields restoring biological control in the previously sprayed market crops. When resident weeds overtook the hay stand, the fields were rotated to market crops or were replanted.
Cattle and sheep grazing on the foothills without irrigation destroyed even more insect havens.
Breeding for higher yields and precision planting of more uniform plants eliminated even more natural diversity within a single crop, thereby increasing the chances of pest outbreaks.Into this uniform, monoculture type of production, we started introducing more exotic pests from foreign lands, because there is much more international commerce and travel than before. The poison destroys all existing beneficial organisms that provide biological control of all other pests.
Relatively small areas on the farm can be cost-effectively planted and managed to provide a favorable environment for beneficial insects and their hosts. You can manage with lower numbers of these key species when you are supplementing the resources of hundreds of species of natural enemies for which there is no other source except natural diversity on the farm. Since there are no permanent unsprayed irrigated crops to sustain natural biological control, when chemically resistant and immigrant pests come in, farmers have no choice but to keep spraying. Refugia are not market crops and therefore no limits are placed upon heavy populations of plant-feeding insect pests feeding on those plants.
Most carnivores must be supplied with enough prey or alternate food sources; otherwise, unless they go into diapause, they will leave in search of food.
Cover crop planting and mulching along such borders reduces these pest-inducing radiation effects sufficiently to control many pests and improve fruit quality on these outside rows.
These systems are part of the complexity of natural enemies that we see working on healthy organic farms that regulate excessive pest population increases. These smart choices of creating refugia can be applied around greenhouses just as well as on production farms and orchards. Plants that die and are buried may turn into fossil fuels made of carbon like coal and oil over millions of years. But humans have burned so much fuel that there is about 30% more carbon dioxide in the air today than there was about 150 years ago, and Earth is becoming a warmer place. You can follow Maggie's adventures in the Ivory Tower by subscribing to The Fellowship of Three Things newsletter. After all, in 1877 physiologist Wilhelm Friedrich Kuhne was able to develop a simple image from an albino rabbit’s dissected eyeball. Repeated use of all classes of chemical poisons on your farm results in pest resistance to the poisons. You don’t have to count all the insects, just observe the ratio of pests to beneficials. While each farm and season is unique, growers and pest control advisors can draw on Rincon-Vitova's reviews of published findings of biocontrol entomologists and experience to build a program tailored to their situation. The IPM method gets easier each year, as a reservoir of natural enemies becomes established.
These ants eat beneficial insects and keep many beneficials away from plant-sucking prey, harvesting the insect honeydew for themselves. Such a balanced diet is so nourishing that the ants quickly produce multiple queens and more colonies. Superorganisms can control and dominate the ground and treetops in competition with ordinary, solitary organisms, and that is surely why ants live everywhere in such great numbers. Ant colony reduction occurs mostly from starvation which forces reduction of the colony through cannibalism on the young to save the integrity of the colony. Plenty of ladybugs came in, but their effectiveness was deterred by ants and their eggs and larvae offered more nutritious food for the ants. When augmentation of natural enemies is an option, it is only cost-effective when ants are excluded.
This takes time which can then be spent disrupting ant nests by irrigation, cultivation, and reduction of old crops, and also repeated trail disruption. Non-repellency might be the most important bait characteristic because if the bait is not taken by foragers, nothing happens at all.Baits must also be readily transferred by trophallaxis. They may or may not own insectary facilities, but they will be applying cost-effective biological controls wherever and whenever it is practical in integrated pest management programs.
Probably the first farmers in history were aware of the more-obvious insect predators that were observed feeding on phytophagous insect pests. We developed methods with the use of pesticides and other habitat-disturbance techniques, e. Most of the advisors' time is spent monitoring the insect populations in the borderline fields, which are not clean of pest species but have a moderately high level of natural enemies. Box 2095, Riverside, CA 92516) vacuum insect sampling equipment, we were able to show customers that most bollworm eggs were destroyed and that the few one-day-old worms that did emerge were victims of predators before they grew to be three to four days old (Dietrick 1961; Dietrick, Schlinger, and van den Bosch 1959). Some farmers wanted to believe in sophisticated pest control advice, and we convinced them to buy the insects. We grew as many insects as possible with the resources available and used them in our pest management or sold them as the market developed.
We were thus able to continue our programs with these farmers.The business lesson we learned from this experience was how to be adaptable. Farmers presently spend millions of dollars every year for chemical pest controls that may not provide any permanent solutions to the problems.
Insect-harvesting equipment can be employed to move the surplus natural enemies from fields where pest populations have been destroyed to fields deficient in predators and parasites (E. Perhaps a periodic newsletter identifying the "good bugs'' and their relationship to) pest management would enhance the visibility of biological controls. This free market allows a free choice to farmers who want to improve their complex of species of predators and parasites by purchasing new strains of biological control products.
Other pest control products can be kept in readiness for problems to) develop, but the insectary must arrange for an orderly delivery of its products as they emerge daily from the production cages.
Anyone can pirate one of our employees, buy our products, and begin his own insectary business at much lower start-up costs than it takes to collect and culture the original colonies obtained from field-collected individuals. Our business has grown out of the failures of existing pesticide-dominated programs that ignore many basic ecological principles.
Despite the potential for solving pest problems biologically, funding is not being allocated to develop and promote reliable biological programs.
There were plenty of irrigated, unsprayed fields where predators, parasites, pollinators, and diseases of insects that served as antagonists to pest development worked together like they do in all diverse natural ecosystems.
There was almost nothing growing or irrigated anymore that was not a market crop with an economic threshold for pesticide use. Government funding for foreign exploration to research natural enemies to immigrant pests, slowed to a virtual standstill. Minor secondary pests become major problems and lead to a dependence on the pesticide treadmill. Edges and corners of fields can be utilized along with limited use of border strips of diverse species of cover crops. The plant-feeding insects are valuable prey for growing predators and parasites, such as ladybugs, lacewings, insect eating spiders, etc.
It is better to increase prey in sacrificial refugia on the farm rather than sustain them by taking damage on the market crops. Conventionally sprayed plants look more beautiful, especially immediately following sprays. When humans burn fossil fuels, most of the carbon quickly enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. In fact, ice cores show us that there is now more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than there has been in the last 420,000 years. The natural enemies of pests are also killed, or are starved away from the fields, and, therefore, do not have an equal chance to develop resistance as do the pests. Sunflower and sorghum borders are particularly good habitats for growing lacewing and other natural enemies on the farm. A colony is a super organism, an assembly of workers so tightly knit around a mother queen as to act like a single, well-coordinated entity. Releases of green lacewing to help the ladybugs and aphid parasitoids, only provided additional protein for the ants.
Biological control by natural enemies cannot be evaluated fairly in the presence of Argentine ants any more than it can in the presence of dust and pesticide drift.Argentine ants form new colonies rapidly wherever scouts mark out food sources. Finally, an assessment is made of the existing situation, with suggestions that would help this kind of business to develop. Conversely, entomologists interested in biological controls ran their studies in fields that had relatively large populations of predators and parasites compared to pests. There is time to watch and wait, because the pest populations do not Increase as quickly where natural enemy suppression is occurring. The low survival rate of these eggs and small worms was shown to be a measure of the effectiveness of biological control. The method of payment for insects came long after harvest and the delivery of our products, but the insectary borrowed the money to set the cultures six months in advance of the market.


These species attack the number one pest of citrus, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (DeBach 1969). Other farmers wanted to believe in the augmentative releases of predators and parasites, so we sold them the insect products and tried to follow up with advice where possible. We had solved the problem of how to be compensated for all the insects that flowed daily from the production units, at least during the summer growing season. When farmers buy chemical pesticides, their support goes to further the development of more chemicals.
Marketing strains that are known to mate with indigenous strains may increase the genetic capability of certain biological control agents (Bartlett and van den Bosch 1964). Whenever possible, we must find enough farmer clients to buy the insectary products as part of a regular inoculative release program. This satellite insectary can operate seasonally, closing the rearing operations in the off season.
As long as pesticides were inexpensive and the repeated applications ultimately succeeded when the customary one or two failed, the alternatives available to farmers seemed fraught with unacceptable danger. Current status of research on the production and use of biological agents for controlling agricultural insect pests.
The increasing cost of land and water forced farmers to focus on the bottom-line by maximizing production using total chemical pesticide management.
Less and less research was done to colonize new beneficial species to attack exotic pests, even though we have more immigrant pests that are difficult to keep out. These unsprayed cover crop plantings, along with resident weeds, are more than just shade and ground cover. These predators will forage beyond the refugia, searching for pests in the market crops thus preventing or stopping pest invasion when it first starts. An alternative to poisons is water washing that may be advised in some situations to satisfy aesthetic needs. Predators and parasites do not leave completely, but their numbers are significantly reduced compared to pest numbers. Corn and alfalfa borders and interplantings of flowering plants can also increase Trichogramma parasitism of moth eggs in the crop. A wasp or other solitary insect [a natural enemy] encountering a worker ant on its nest faces more than just another insect.
They prefer sun-baked soil to nest under and may even clean the nest area of vegetation in order to warm their nests. The physical state of the food is not a problem with larvae, as they are able to eat either solids or regurgitated liquids.
In spite of considerable efforts to discredit the practice, the mountain-collected ladybird beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin, is still the most-marketable product sold by commercial insectaries. DDT checks, dust checks, and ant checks, to encourage the buildup of pest populations by selectively destroying the natural enemies. Their experimental requirements needed fields free from pesticide and other habitat interferences to explore the effects of natural enemies and specific biological control agents on their host populations.Clearly, these were two different kinds of field situations. Some of these develop sufficient natural enemies for the pests to be biologically controlled and the use of pesticides can be avoided. The weak endorsement for these inoculative-type releases from nearly all agricultural researchers, coupled with the euphoria for chemical pesticides, almost completely stopped the use of this product. These observations eventually resulted in economic thresholds being raised for untreated cotton fields. The live insect products were grown, delivered, and released on the farms throughout the growing season. One of the farmer cooperative insectaries contracted with Rincon to buy 5 million of the red scale parasites. We contacted other independent pest control advisors and found a few of them willing to use our products as part of their advice programs. Perhaps a financially viable biological control industry can also influence further research and development in classical biological control. Rising production costs and narrowing profit margins are forcing farmers to look seriously at pest management that is based on natural enemies and the help that commercial production of these entomophagus insects can give. Farmers specializing in specific crops in particular areas can benefit by spreading costs among themselves.
Increasing labor costs, development of effective but costly farm machinery using more energy, the marketing of more and more powerful synthetic pesticides, concentration on cheap petroleum-based fertilizer, all contributed to decreasing the diversity of plant, animal and microbial life in the soil and crop. Resistant medfly may become the next disaster when eradication fails and this pest becomes firmly established. They provide nectar, pollen, and plant material that a tracts many diverse sets of plant-feeding insects which are the prey for many, many more sets of predators and parasites. He uses it to show farmers the progress of biological control, especially the tiny forms.] Keeping track of the beneficials and seeing the ratios of good and bad bugs makes it possible to predict damage thresholds in time to keep the yields optimum. It faces the worker and all her sisters, united by instinct to protect the queen, seize control of territory, and further the growth of the colony. Cool weather slows ant activity and allows struggling populations of beneficials to destroy pests on many plants. Egg cases of the praying mantids are also harvested, although to a lesser extent than the thousands of gallons of ladybird beetles. We subsequently observed the return of biological control organisms in these plots and monitored the biological suppression and cleanup of these deliberately created pest infestations.
Crypts are still used today by our insectary, and at least one citrus farmer cooperative insectary continues to grow several millions of these beetles each year, as it has for nearly 50 years.
At the same time, we borrowed a program from these farmer cooperatives and began contracting with individual farmers for pest management advice and beneficial insect colonizations wherever they might be located. Even competing insectaries have on occasion purchased our products to help fill their market needs. We helped ourselves by helping cotton farmers in Mexico) and Central America to further their insectary efforts. Biological control importation projects are the main source of beneficial predators and parasites that can be developed as products by commercial insectaries.
Beginning the rearing process again after a few months to clean up and sanitize the various pests that the insectary attracts is a distinct advantage, provided there is some one of the businesses that can provide the new stocks for the coming season. A new method for sampling arthropods using a suction collecting machine and modified Berlese funnel separator. Improvement on self-propelled equipment for collecting, separating, and tagging mass numbers of insects in the field. The Fillmore Citrus Protective District is a well-known example of the farmer-financed insectary.
Corn is more attractive than cotton for corn earworm (=cotton bollworm) so interplant corn with a cotton crop. D-Vac samples placed in alcohol and examined under a dissecting microscope show the progress of the entire natural enemy complex and is practical for decision-making.
Workers are little more than kamikazes, prepared--eager--to die in order to defend the next or gain control of a food source. When old crops that are left in the field are ant-infested, the decaying plant material, which is normally a useful habitat for beneficials, only serves this role for the benefit of ants. Drip irrigation lines provide a perfect source of water and serve like highways for the movement of ants to form new colonies. One definition of delayed action is less than 15% mortality after 24 hour exposure and better than 89% mortality in 20 days (Knight and Rust 1991; Stringer et al. Market demand for both of these species far surpasses the supply in most years, even though neither of these beneficial insects is likely to reduce substantially the populations of any particular target pest.The major problem associated with marketing field-harvested products is their limited availability. We also experimented in fields with pest problems created by ant and excessive dust interference to natural enemies, and then obtained pest control by the elimination of these interferences. Even those natural enemies present were destroyed under the small plot experimental design. Since biological controls were not considered pest controls, they could not be included in the bank loans set aside for chemical pesticides and other production financing. The local insectary can become abase for pest control advisors for such operations along with mass-culturing of certain parasites that can be more economically grown than harvested. Such position papers, presumably based on adequate information, make it very difficult to sell biological control products. Growers organized in the late 1930's to build their insectary to grow the black scale parasite, Metaphycus helvolus (Compere) for control of Saissettia oleae (Oliver).
Trichogramma released on the corn can be found racing up and down silks parasitizing corn earworm eggs. Their deaths matter no more to the colony than the loss of hair or a claw tip to a solitary, animal.
While wet or foggy weather slows ant activity, heavy winter rains will drive ants from rain-soaked fields into greenhouses, houses, and barns.
Various harmful effects of pesticides were investigated in many different crops, and the results were similar to the pest population outbreaks created by our interference experiments. Pesticide drift and interplot migration of the more-mobile predators and parasites adversely affected the biological control that was present. Some farmers simply never paid; after all there was no) proof that releasing Trichos had helped. We began a new line of parasites that helped biological control of pestiferous flies associated with manure accumulations on poultry farms (Legner and Dietrick 1972).
Weak statements that call for conservation of natural enemies without identifying the species involved, or without specifying which pesticide to use to conserve the predators, are also) nonproductive. Instead, they can buy products from the other insectary to fill in shortages in production or satisfy a particularly good market. However, even a bait toxicant that does not meet these standards may still give relief from an infestation. Also, the product usually has aged or is ready to enter an aggregation or diapause state in its development. Such procedures for fostering pests (DeBach 1974) by the elimination or even selective suppression of natural enemy populations without affecting similar control of the pests showed the value of natural enemies in pest management programs. The latter biological control experimental field situations were isolated from effects of pesticides, and the full range of natural enemies were present.
The problems of late payment and bad debts are enough to make most potential investors shy away from this business. Such cooperation among those who) culture insects will help to promote the industry in the long run, though the short-term effects can be very frustrating.
Reliance on biological control has led to control of ten species of insects that are major pests of citrus in other districts. Costs for production were greater and less reliable in Texas than in Rincon' s coastal climate, and an agreement was reached for Rincon Insectary to grow the insects and the Texas partners to market them.
The charge per ha set by the farmer cooperative insectaries was increased to cover the additional travel costs, the costs of field monitoring advice, and the insectary products. During this time we added production facilities by purchasing another insectary known as Vitova (a contraction for the Latin vita ova meaning live eggs).Research has benefited our insectary a great deal. Limited pesticide treatments, such as for ant control, are made in ways that conserve natural enemy complexes associated with all pests of citrus.
This seasonal contracted market gave our business some stability and provided compensation for all the extra insect products that we grew, but could not sell over-the-counter.
The existence of a commercial insectary challenged researchers to) investigate some of the programs that we intuitively advocated, doing what seemed obvious from our field observations. Thus a large group of farmers with total of 9,400 acres has kept average pesticide treatments below one application per acre per year for over 50 years. Many of these products are extremely tiny, fragile, and require special packaging for containment on the way to market.
The only real difference between our operation and the farmer cooperatives was the voluntary participation on the part of our clients.
Influential farmer clients asked questions in important places, and research money flowed from various commodity groups for university and government researchers involved in such biological control efforts.
One might ask why the existing commercial insectaries are not producing more new and varied biological controls on contract or for sale. Finally, such beneficial insects are poorly understood by most potential customers and by entomologists.
Rearing methods first proposed in the early twenties were resurrected (Flanders l930, l934). My observation about these farmer cooperatives is that it is difficult to please continually all of the individual member farmers.
If you think about it, the vast array of natural enemy complexes are not being marketed, because there is not enough demand. The farmers bought Trichos for the same reason that they bought ladybird beetles: the results were satisfactory, and it was commonsense to help the existing natural controls.
This west Texas cotton-growing area was blessed with large populations of natural enemies, and the use of ladybird beetles, Trichos, or any other species of insects known to help suppress bollworm populations would have satisfied the customers. Losses from variable weather patterns affecting the window for releases, shipping and now the growing administrative costs of compliance with regulatory agencies over the transport of biological organisms not to mention the capital, supply and human resource development costs associated with developing a new mass-rearing system result in little if any profitability. These products were more economical than pesticides and their use lessened the farmers' worry when cotton bollworm moths were reported to be flying.
The fallout of useful knowledge that comes from such ecological experimentation far surpasses any possible effects that any negative findings would have on our business.
When you consider that after all of this investment, the organism is not-patentable and belongs to anybody who wants to buy it and piggyback on the original producers developmental efforts, it is no wonder that new organisms are not arriving in the marketplace the farmers would like.Farmer insectaries avoid many costs of commercial. They provided the pest control advisors a logical alternative product to counteract the fear generated in the farmers by the unrealistic economic thresholds set for bollworms. The problem still lies in finding the funds to study the Implementation of biological controls.
The recommendation to treat for bollworms, when 4 out of 100 cotton plants were infested with eggs of bollworm moths, was clearly set too low for fields that had natural enemies that were destroying these eggs. The Trichos released to) help attack the populations of bollworm eggs was a commonsense approach.
The results were generally favorable in fields that had not received earlier applications of pesticides for such minor pests as thrips, aphids, and mites. The natural enemies in these untreated fields had been allowed to increase their populations on these minor pest problems, thus controlling them biologically. Combining insectary beneficials with monitoring by affiliated entomologists to maximize indigenous natural enemy complexes allows for maximum flexibility and minimum losses.In addition to the mass-rearing and monitoring resources that the growers can fund cooperatively, classical biological projects can also be organized most cost-effectively by cooperatives with technical assistance from universities.
Governments and universities are not obtaining the needed funds to conduct these essential projects to meet demands of increasing numbers of exotic pests being spread around the world by travel and commerce. Even when governmentdoes acquire the money to research and import an exotic beneficial, there is never enough money to mass-produce and distribute them.
The implementation of biological control on farms is up to individual growers working together.



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