Enter your email address and we'll send you our weekly magazine by email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life, week after week. Now that youa€™ve developed a strategic plan for Notes-4-You, you need to organize your company so that it can implement your plan. Top managerstop managersThose at the top of the management hierarchy who are responsible for the health and performance of the organization.
As the name implies, middle managersmiddle managersThose in the middle of the management hierarchy who report to top management and oversee the activities of first-line managers. First-line managersfirst-line managersThose at the bottom of the management hierarchy who supervise employees and coordinate their activities.
Identifying the activities that need to be performed in order to achieve organizational goals. Breaking down these activities into tasks that can be performed by individuals or groups of employees. This twofold process of organizing activities into clusters of related tasks that can be handled by certain individuals or groups is called specializationspecializationProcess of organizing activities into clusters of related tasks that can be handled by specific individuals or groups.. The next step in designing an organizational structure is departmentalizationdepartmentalizationProcess of grouping specialized jobs into meaningful units.a€”grouping specialized jobs into meaningful units. A functional organizationfunctional organizationForm of business organization that groups together people who have comparable skills and perform similar tasks.
Large companies often find it unruly to operate as one large unit under a functional organizational structure. Product divisionproduct divisionOrganizational structure made up of divisions based on product lines.
If you had a question about a Johnson & Johnson product, youa€™d be directed to its consumer business customer division. Some companies prefer a customer divisioncustomer divisionOrganizational structure that groups employees into customer-based business segments. If goods move through several steps during production, a company might opt for a process divisionprocess divisionOrganizational structure that groups people into operating units based on various stages in the production process. Geographical divisiongeographical divisionOrganizational structure that groups people into divisions based on location. With these relationships in mind, you can now draw lines to denote reporting relationshipsreporting relationshipsPatterns of formal communication among members of an organization., or patterns of formal communication. Theoretically, you will communicate only with your four direct reports, but this isna€™t the way things normally work.
Now leta€™s look at the chart of an organization that relies on a divisional structure based on goods or services produceda€”say, a theme park. Over time, companies revise their organizational structures to accommodate growth and changes in the external environment.
You can learn a lot about a firma€™s reporting and authority relationships by looking at its organization chart.
There are, however, conditions under which an organization and its employees can benefit by violating the unity-of-command principle. Another thing to notice about a firma€™s chain of command is the number of layers between the top managerial position and the lowest managerial level. As a company grows, however, it tends to add more layers between the top and the bottom; that is, it gets taller.
There are trade-offs between the advantages and disadvantages of flat and tall organizations. Whata€™s bettera€”a narrow span of control (with few direct reports) or a wide span of control (with many direct reports)? Given the tendency toward flatter organizations and wider spans of control, how do managers handle increased workloads? As owner of Notes-4-You, youa€™ll probably want to control every aspect of your business, especially during the start-up stage. If and when your company expands (say, by offering note-taking services at other schools), youa€™ll have to decide whether most decisions should still be made by individuals at the top or delegated to lower-level employees. Leta€™s say that you favor decentralizing Notes-4-You some four or five years down the road, when the company has expanded. Managers coordinate the activities identified in the planning process among individuals, departments, or other units and allocate the resources needed to perform them. Management must develop an organizational structure, or arrangement of people within the organization, that will best achieve company goals. The process begins with specializationa€”dividing necessary tasks into jobs; the principle of grouping jobs into units is called departmentalization. An organizationa€™s structure is represented in an organization charta€”a diagram showing the interrelationships of its positions. This chart highlights the chain of command, or authority relationships among people working at different levels. Finally, identify a top-level management position that youa€™d like to attain later in your career. This is a€?Writing Essays: From Start to Finisha€?, chapter 9 from the book Successful Writing (v.
This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Just as a personal anecdote can be a disorganized mess, an essay can fall into the same trap of being out of order and confusing. Just like a topic sentence summarizes a single paragraph, the thesis statement summarizes an entire essay.
Remember that a thesis is not the topic itself, but rather your interpretation of the question or subject.
Even in a personal essay that allows the use of first person, your thesis should not contain phrases such as in my opinion or I believe. The societal and personal struggles of Troy Maxon in the play Fences symbolize the challenge of black males who lived through segregation and integration in the United States. Closing all American borders for a period of five years is one solution that will tackle illegal immigration.
Shakespearea€™s use of dramatic irony in Romeo and Juliet spoils the outcome for the audience and weakens the plot. Compared to an absolute divorce, no-fault divorce is less expensive, promotes fairer settlements, and reflects a more realistic view of the causes for marital breakdown. Exposing children from an early age to the dangers of drug abuse is a sure method of preventing future drug addicts. In todaya€™s crumbling job market, a high school diploma is not significant enough education to land a stable, lucrative job. A thesis is weak when it is simply a declaration of your subject or a description of what you will discuss in your essay. Weak thesis statement: My paper will explain why imagination is more important than knowledge. A thesis is weak when it makes an unreasonable or outrageous claim or insults the opposing side. Weak thesis statement: Religious radicals across America are trying to legislate their Puritanical beliefs by banning required high school books. A thesis is weak when it contains an obvious fact or something that no one can disagree with or provides a dead end. The government must expand its funding for research on renewable energy resources in order to prepare for the impending end of oil. In this essay, I will give you lots of reasons why slot machines should not be legalized in Baltimore.
Despite his promises during his campaign, President Kennedy took few executive measures to support civil rights legislation.
Because many childrena€™s toys have potential safety hazards that could lead to injury, it is clear that not all childrena€™s toys are safe.
My experience with young children has taught me that I want to be a disciplinary parent because I believe that a child without discipline can be a parenta€™s worst nightmare.
Your thesis will probably change as you write, so you will need to modify it to reflect exactly what you have discussed in your essay. Working thesis statements often become stronger as you gather information and form new opinions and reasons for those opinions. The best way to revise your thesis statement is to ask questions about it and then examine the answers to those questions. Pinpoint and replace all nonspecific words, such as people, everything, society, or life, with more precise words in order to reduce any vagueness. Revised thesis: Recent college graduates must have discipline and persistence in order to find and maintain a stable job in which they can use and be appreciated for their talents. The revised thesis makes a more specific statement about success and what it means to work hard. Revised thesis: The welfare system keeps a socioeconomic class from gaining employment by alluring members of that class with unearned income, instead of programs to improve their education and skill sets. Replace any linking verbsA verb that connects or links the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective.
Revised thesis: The Kansas City legislature cannot afford to pay its educators, resulting in job cuts and resignations in a district that sorely needs highly qualified and dedicated teachers.
Revised thesis: Teenage girls who are captivated by the sexual images on MTV are conditioned to believe that a womana€™s worth depends on her sensuality, a feeling that harms their self-esteem and behavior. It is true that some young women in todaya€™s society are more sexualized than in the past, but that is not true for all girls.
In the first section of Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?", you determined your purpose for writing and your audience. In your career you may have to write a project proposal that focuses on a particular problem in your company, such as reinforcing the tardiness policy.
Proper essays require a thesis statement to provide a specific focus and suggest how the essay will be organized. A strong thesis challenges readers with a point of view that can be debated and can be supported with evidence. A weak thesis is simply a declaration of your topic or contains an obvious fact that cannot be argued.
Depending on your topic, it may or may not be appropriate to use first person point of view. Revise your thesis by ensuring all words are specific, all ideas are exact, and all verbs express action. If your thesis gives the reader a roadmap to your essay, then body paragraphs should closely follow that map. Recall that when you prewrite you essentially make a list of examples or reasons why you support your stance. The most important change that should occur at my college or university is ____________________________________________.
After you have prewritten about your working thesis statement, you may have generated a lot of information, which may be edited out later. Refer to the previous exercise and select three of your most compelling reasons to support the thesis statement.
Each body paragraph contains a topic sentenceThe sentence in a paragraph that controls the point of the paragraph. As you read in Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?", topic sentences indicate the location and main points of the basic arguments of your essay. Unless your teacher instructs otherwise, you should include at least three body paragraphs in your essay. In Note 9.19 "Exercise 2", you chose three of your most convincing points to support the thesis statement you selected from the list. After deciding which primary support points you will use as your topic sentences, you must add details to clarify and demonstrate each of those points. The following paragraph contains supporting detail sentences for the primary support sentence (the topic sentence), which is underlined. Using the three topic sentences you composed for the thesis statement in Note 9.18 "Exercise 1", draft at least three supporting details for each point.
Print out the first draft of your essay and use a highlighter to mark your topic sentences in the body paragraphs. Reliable sources may include newspapers, magazines, academic journals, books, encyclopedias, and firsthand testimony. A topic sentence presents one point of your thesis statement while the information in the rest of the paragraph supports that point.
When you begin to draft your essay, your ideas may seem to flow from your mind in a seemingly random manner. A solid organizational pattern gives your ideas a path that you can follow as you develop your draft. Chronological orderAn organizational method that arranges events or steps in the order that they have occurred or will occur. For example, if you are writing an essay about the history of the airline industry, you would begin with its conception and detail the essential timeline events up until present day. At some point in your career you may have to file a complaint with your human resources department. When using chronological order, your introduction should indicate the information you will cover and in what order, and the introduction should also establish the relevance of the information. On a separate sheet of paper, write a paragraph that describes a process you are familiar with and can do well. Recall from Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?" that order of importanceA method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance. Most essays move from the least to the most important point, and the paragraphs are arranged in an effort to build the essaya€™s strength. For example, if you were supporting your thesis that homework is detrimental to the education of high school students, you would want to present your most convincing argument first, and then move on to the less important points for your case. Some key transitional words you should use with this method of organization are most importantly, almost as importantly, just as importantly, and finally. During your career, you may be required to work on a team that devises a strategy for a specific goal of your company, such as increasing profits.
As stated in Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?", spatial orderA method of organization that arranges ideas according to physical characteristics or appearance.
Spatial order means that you explain or describe objects as they are arranged around you in your space, for example in a bedroom. The view must move in an orderly, logical progression, giving the reader clear directional signals to follow from place to place. Pay attention to the following studenta€™s description of her bedroom and how she guides the reader through the viewing process, foot by foot. The paragraph incorporates two objectives you have learned in this chapter: using an implied topic sentence and applying spatial order. On a separate sheet of paper, write a paragraph using spatial order that describes your commute to work, school, or another location you visit often. The way you organize your body paragraphs ensures you and your readers stay focused on and draw connections to, your thesis statement.
A strong organizational pattern allows you to articulate, analyze, and clarify your thoughts. Planning the organizational structure for your essay before you begin to search for supporting evidence helps you conduct more effective and directed research.
Order of importance is most appropriate in a persuasion paper as well as for essays in which you rank things, people, or events by their significance. Spatial order describes things as they are arranged in space and is best for helping readers visualize something as you want them to see it; it creates a dominant impression.
Picture your introduction as a storefront window: You have a certain amount of space to attract your customers (readers) to your goods (subject) and bring them inside your store (discussion). Your introduction is an invitation to your readers to consider what you have to say and then to follow your train of thought as you expand upon your thesis statement. First impressions are crucial and can leave lasting effects in your readera€™s mind, which is why the introduction is so important to your essay. Your introduction should begin with an engaging statement devised to provoke your readersa€™ interest. On a separate sheet of paper, jot down a few general remarks that you can make about the topic for which you formed a thesis in Section 9.1 "Developing a Strong, Clear Thesis Statement". Immediately capturing your readersa€™ interest increases the chances of having them read what you are about to discuss. Remember that your diction, or word choice, while always important, is most crucial in your introductory paragraph. In Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?", you followed Mariah as she moved through the writing process.
If you have trouble coming up with a provocative statement for your opening, it is a good idea to use a relevant, attention-grabbing quote about your topic. In your job field, you may be required to write a speech for an event, such as an awards banquet or a dedication ceremony. It is not unusual to want to rush when you approach your conclusion, and even experienced writers may fade. A conclusion that does not correspond to the rest of your essay, has loose ends, or is unorganized can unsettle your readers and raise doubts about the entire essay.


The construction of the conclusion is similar to the introduction, in which you make general introductory statements and then present your thesis.
Contradicting or changing your thesis statement causes your readers to think that you do not actually have a conviction about your topic. By apologizing for your opinion or stating that you know it is tough to digest, you are in fact admitting that even you know what you have discussed is irrelevant or unconvincing.
On a separate sheet of a paper, restate your thesis from Note 9.52 "Exercise 2" of this section and then make some general concluding remarks. Make sure your essay is balanced by not having an excessively long or short introduction or conclusion. On the job you will sometimes give oral presentations based on research you have conducted. A strong opening captures your readersa€™ interest and introduces them to your topic before you present your thesis statement. An introduction should restate your thesis, review your main points, and emphasize the importance of the topic.
The funnel technique to writing the introduction begins with generalities and gradually narrows your focus until you present your thesis.
A good introduction engages peoplea€™s emotions or logic, questions or explains the subject, or provides a striking image or quotation. Carefully chosen diction in both the introduction and conclusion prevents any confusing or boring ideas. A conclusion that does not connect to the rest of the essay can diminish the effect of your paper. Closing with a final emphatic statement provides closure for your readers and makes your essay more memorable. On a separate sheet of paper, choose one of the examples of a proper thesis statement from this chapter (one that interests you) and form three supporting points for that statement.
On a separate sheet of a paper, write an introduction for an essay based on the thesis statement from the group activity using the techniques for introductory paragraphs that you learned in this chapter. A manager engaged in organizingorganizingManagement process of allocating resources to achieve a companya€™s plans.
Think of these layers as forming a pyramid like the one in FigureA 6.6, a€?Levels of Managementa€?, with top managers occupying the narrow space at the peak, first-line managers the broad base, and middle-managers the levels in between. As president, you are, of course, a member of top management, and youa€™re responsible for the overall performance of your company. As a middle manager, this individual focuses on implementing two of your objectives: producing high-quality notes and distributing them to customers in a timely manner.
In addition to increasing efficiency, for example, it results in jobs that are easier to learn. Depending on the organization and the size of the work units, they may be called divisions, departments, or just plain groups. The structure is simple to understand and enables the staff to specialize in particular areas; everyone in the marketing group would probably have similar interests and expertise.
On the one hand, divisional structure usually enhances the ability to respond to changes in a firma€™s environment.
Having decided that Notes-4-You will adopt a functional structure, you might create the organization chart shown in FigureA 6.8, a€?Organization Chart for Notes-4-Youa€?. Then fill in the level directly below your name with the names and positions of the people who work directly for youa€”your accounting, marketing, operations, and human resources managers.
Behind every formal communication network there lies a network of informal communicationsa€”unofficial relationships among members of an organization.
The top layers of this companya€™s organization chart might look like the one in FigureA 6.9, a€?Organization Charts for Divisional Structuresa€?(a). Ita€™s not uncommon, for example, for a firm to adopt a functional structure in its early years. Under a matrix structurematrix structureStructure in which employees from various functional areas form teams to combine their skills in working on a specific project., for example, employees from various functional areas (accounting, marketing, operations, and so forth) form teams to combine their skills in working on a specific project.
As a rule, new organizations (such as Notes-4-You) have only a few layers of managementa€”an organizational structure thata€™s often called flat. Added layers of management can slow down communication and decision making, causing the organization to become less efficient and productive. Companies determine which trade-offs to make according to a principle called span of controlspan of controlNumber of people reporting to a particular manager., which measures the number of people reporting to a particular manager. The answer to this question depends on a number of factors, including frequency and type of interaction, proximity of subordinates, competence of both supervisor and subordinates, and the nature of the work being supervised.
They must learn how to handle delegationdelegationProcess of entrusting work to subordinates.a€”the process of entrusting work to subordinates. But as the organization grows, youa€™ll have to assign responsibility for performing certain tasks to other people.
The first option, in which most decision making is concentrated at the top, is called centralizationcentralizationDecision-making process in which most decision making is concentrated at the top..
Naturally, there are some decisionsa€”such as strategic planninga€”that you wona€™t delegate to lower-level employees, but you could certainly delegate the management of copy-center operations. Functional organization groups people with comparable skills and tasks; divisional organization creates a structure composed of self-contained units based on product, customer, process, or geographical division. An organization with few layers has a wide span of control, with each manager overseeing a large number of subordinates; with a narrow span of control, only a limited number of subordinates reports to each manager. For each form, identify a type of company that might use it and explain why it would be appropriate for the company. Describe the duties of the job and explain why youa€™d classify it as a first-line management position. Describe the duties of the job and explain why youa€™d classify it as a middle-level management position. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
You probably had trouble following his train of thought as he jumped around from point to point, either being too brief in places that needed further explanation or providing too many details on a meaningless element. That is why writers need a thesis statementA sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay.
It tells the reader the point you want to make in your essay, while the essay itself supports that point.
This idea stems from a topic you have chosen or been assigned or from a question your teacher has asked. For whatever topic your professor gives you, you must ask yourself, a€?What do I want to say about it?a€? Asking and then answering this question is vital to forming a thesis that is precise, forceful and confident. It is specific and focuses on one to three points of a single ideaa€”points that are able to be demonstrated in the body. A strong thesis statement must be precise enough to allow for a coherent argument and to remain focused on the topic. For any claim you make in your thesis, you must be able to provide reasons and examples for your opinion. A thesis statement that is forceful shows readers that you are, in fact, making an argument. In addition to using force in your thesis statement, you must also use confidence in your claim.
Become aware of thesis statements in everyday life by paying attention to peoplea€™s opinions and their reasons for those opinions. Revision helps you strengthen your thesis so that it matches what you have expressed in the body of the paper. By challenging your own ideas and forming definite reasons for those ideas, you grow closer to a more precise point of view, which you can then incorporate into your thesis statement.
The original includes too broad a range of people and does not define exactly what success entails. Readers bring all sorts of backgrounds and perspectives to the reading process and would need clarification for a word so vague. Many girls have strict parents, dress appropriately, and do not engage in sexual activity while in middle school and high school. You then completed a freewriting exercise about an event you recently experienced and chose a general topic to write about. Identify any weaknesses in this sentence and revise the statement to reflect the elements of a strong thesis statement. The proposal would aim to fix the problem; using a thesis statement would clearly state the boundaries of the problem and tell the goals of the project. The reader should be able to predict what follows your introductory paragraph by simply reading the thesis statement. Before you begin to support your thesis in the body, you must find information from a variety of sources that support and give credit to what you are trying to prove.
In order to construct a valid argument, good writers conduct lots of background research and take careful notes. The main points you make about your thesis and the examples you use to expand on those points need to be specific.
On a separate sheet of paper, write for at least five minutes using one of the prewriting techniques you learned in Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?". Personal observation is similar to testimony, but personal observation consists of your testimony. Citing relevant information from reliable sources ensures that your reader will take you seriously and consider your assertions.
It is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph and makes the structure of a text and the writera€™s basic argument easy to locate and comprehend. These sentences are vital to writing your body paragraphs because they always refer back to and support your thesis statement. A five-paragraph essay, including the introduction and conclusion, is commonly the standard for exams and essay assignments. These supporting details provide examples, facts, or evidence that support the topic sentence. You can state it at the beginning of the body paragraph, or at the end of the paragraph, or you do not have to write it at all. Make sure they are clearly stated and accurately present your paragraphs, as well as accurately reflect your thesis. Without a clear organizational pattern, your reader could become confused and lose interest. Your readers, who bring to the table different backgrounds, viewpoints, and ideas, need you to clearly organize these ideas in order to help process and accept them. Knowing how you will organize your paragraphs allows you to better express and analyze your thoughts. Using chronological order is a useful tool in describing the events that led up to your filing the grievance. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to begin with your most important supporting point, such as in an essay that contains a thesis that is highly debatable. As the writer, you create a picture for your reader, and their perspective is the viewpoint from which you describe what is around you.
The key to using this method is to choose a specific starting point and then guide the reader to follow your eye as it moves in an orderly trajectory from your starting point.
It is useful for explaining the history of your subject, for telling a story, or for explaining a process. Once you have enticed them with something intriguing, you then point them in a specific direction and try to make the sale (convince them to accept your thesis).
If your introductory paragraph is dull or disjointed, your reader probably will not have much interest in continuing with the essay.
In the next few sentences, introduce them to your topic by stating general facts or ideas about the subject. Boring diction could extinguish any desire a person might have to read through your discussion. Use a search engine to find statements made by historical or significant figures about your subject.
The introduction of a speech is similar to an essay because you have a limited amount of space to attract your audiencea€™s attention.
Indicate which techniques she used and comment on how each sentence is designed to attract her readersa€™ interest. But what good writers remember is that it is vital to put just as much attention into the conclusion as in the rest of the essay. However, if you have worked hard to write the introduction and body, your conclusion can often be the most logical part to compose. In order to tie these components together, restate your thesis at the beginning of your conclusion.
The difference is that in the conclusion you first paraphraseTo restate ideas or information from sources using onea€™s own words and sentence structures., or state in different words, your thesis and then follow up with general concluding remarks. This strong closing statement will cause your readers to continue thinking about the implications of your essay; it will make your conclusion, and thus your essay, more memorable. Relying on statements such as in conclusion, it is clear that, as you can see, or in summation is unnecessary and can be considered trite.
When you raise new points, you make your reader want more information, which you could not possibly provide in the limited space of your final paragraph.
Check that they match each other in length as closely as possible, and try to mirror the formula you used in each.
A concluding statement to an oral report contains the same elements as a written conclusion. It is best to avoid changing your tone or your main idea and avoid introducing any new material.
Start listening closely to the opinions expressed by your teachers, classmates, friends, and family members. See if you can pinpoint the thesis statement as well as the topic sentence for each paragraph and its supporting details.
As you move up the pyramid, management positions get more demanding, but they carry more authority and responsibility (along with more power, prestige, and pay). They set the objectives, or performance targets, designed to direct all the activities that must be performed if the company is going to fulfill its mission. Theya€™re responsible for developing and implementing activities and allocating the resources needed to achieve the objectives set by top management.
Theya€™re less involved in planning than higher-level managers and more involved in day-to-day operations.
You spend much of your time setting objectives, or performance targets, to ensure that the company meets the goals youa€™ve set for ita€”increased sales, higher-quality notes, and timely distribution. To accomplish this task, the operations manager oversees the work of two first-line managersa€”the note-taking supervisor and the copying supervisor. Each employee could take notes in an assigned class, type them up, get them copied, and sell them outside the classroom at the start of the next class meeting.
Traditional groupings of jobs result in different organizational structures, and for the sake of simplicity, wea€™ll focus on two typesa€”functional and divisional organizations.
This form of organization is fairly typical for small to medium-size companies, which group their people by business functions: accountants are grouped together, as are people in finance, marketing and sales, human resources, production, and research and development. But homogeneity also has drawbacks: it can hinder communication and decision making between units and even promote interdepartmental conflict.
To rectify this problem, most large companies are structured as divisional organizationsdivisional organizationForm of organization that groups people into several smaller, self-contained units, or divisions, which are accountable for their own performance. This form works well at Bowater Thunder Bay, a Canadian company that harvests trees and processes wood into newsprint and pulp. McDonalda€™s, for example, is organized according to the regions of the world in which it operates. The organization chart shows that if a member of the sales staff has a problem, he or she will report it to the sales supervisor. You might find that over time, you receive communications directly from members of the sales staff; in fact, you might encourage this line of communication.
We see that the president has two direct reportsa€”a vice president in charge of rides and a vice president in charge of concessions.
Then, as it becomes bigger and more complex, it might move to a divisional structurea€”perhaps to accommodate new products or to become more responsive to certain customers or geographical areas.
When youa€™re examining an organization chart, youa€™ll probably want to know whether each person reports to one or more supervisors: to what extent, in other words, is there unity of command? Leta€™s say, for instance, that a member of the Notes-4-You sales staff wanted to express concern about slow sales among a certain group of students. Thata€™s one reason why many of todaya€™s organizations are restructuring to become flatter.
If, for example, you remove layers of management to make your organization flatter, you end up increasing the number of positions reporting to a particular supervisor. For example, youa€™d expect a much wider span of control at a nonprofit call center than in a hospital emergency room.
Youa€™ll also have to accept the fact that responsibility alonea€”the duty to perform a taska€”wona€™t be enough to get the job done. The second option, which spreads decision making throughout the organization, is called decentralizationdecentralizationDecision-making process in which most decision making is spread throughout the organization.. In fact, putting someone in charge of this function would probably improve customer satisfaction, because copy-center customers would be dealing directly with the manager. Your career path at Hershey Foods might follow a typical trajectory: When you finish college, you may enter the business world as a first-line manager.


Start by listing what you imagine to be the duties of a given position; then, explain why these duties qualify it as a top-level management position. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (47 MB) or just this chapter (2 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
Maybe he told the end of the story first, then moved to the beginning and later added details to the middle. It is not enough merely to discuss a general topic or simply answer a question with a yes or no.
As you may recall, the creation of a thesis statement begins when you choose a broad subject and then narrow down its parts until you pinpoint a specific aspect of that topic. If the specific topic is options for individuals without health care coverage, then your precise thesis statement must make an exact claim about it, such as that limited options exist for those who are uninsured by their employers.
You can rely on personal observations in order to do this, or you can consult outside sources to demonstrate that what you assert is valid. Phrases such as I feel or I believe actually weaken the readersa€™ sense of your confidence because these phrases imply that you are the only person who feels the way you do. Salingera€™s character in Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield, is a confused rebel who voices his disgust with phonies, yet in an effort to protect himself, he acts like a phony on many occasions.
Pay attention to your own everyday thesis statements as well, as these can become material for future essays. While your e-mail will be shorter than an essay, using a thesis statement in your first paragraph quickly lets your boss know what you are asking for, why it is necessary, and what the benefits are. By replacing those general words like people and work hard, the writer can better focus his or her research and gain more direction in his or her writing.
Linking verbs are forms of the verb to be, a verb that simply states that a situation exists. After writing the proposal, you may find that the thesis needs revision to reflect exactly what is expressed in the body. They also talk to people knowledgeable about a topic in order to understand its implications before writing about it. Primary support should show, explain, or prove your main argument without delving into irrelevant details.
After prewriting, you are then able to look back at the information and choose the most compelling pieces you will use in your body paragraphs.
Remind yourself of your main argument, and delete any ideas that do not directly relate to it. The statements you choose will be your primary support points, and you will later incorporate them into the topic sentences for the body paragraphs. They can support your stance by providing background information on or a solid foundation for your point of view. It reflects what you know to be true because you have experiences and have formed either opinions or judgments about them. Choosing only the most specific and relevant information to expand upon the steps will ensure that your plan appears well-thought-out and precise.
Use any of the following sources for your essay: newspapers or news organization websites, magazines, encyclopedias, and scholarly journals, which are periodicals that address topics in a specialized field. Topic sentences are linked to the ideas you have introduced in your thesis, thus reminding readers what your essay is about.
If your topic sentence contains information that does not exist in the rest of the paragraph, rewrite it to more accurately match the rest of the paragraph. The way you structure your essay helps your readers draw connections between the body and the thesis, and the structure also keeps you focused as you plan and write the essay. Planning the structure of your essay before you choose supporting evidence helps you conduct more effective and targeted research. When using chronological order, arrange the events in the order that they actually happened, or will happen if you are giving instructions.
You would logically lay out the events in the order that they occurred using the key transition words. You can divide your paragraphs by time (such as decades, wars, or other historical events) or by the same structure of the work you are examining (such as a line-by-line explication of a poem). When writing a persuasive essay, it is best to begin with the most important point because it immediately captivates your readers and compels them to continue reading. As you move deeper into your introduction, you gradually narrow the focus, moving closer to your thesis.
Mariah incorporates some of the introductory elements into her introductory paragraph, which she previously outlined in Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?". Using the same techniques, such as a provocative quote or an interesting statistic, is an effective way to engage your listeners. This helps you assemble, in an orderly fashion, all the information you have explained in the body. These sentences should progressively broaden the focus of your thesis and maneuver your readers out of the essay. Another powerful technique is to challenge your readers to make a change in either their thoughts or their actions.
When you change sides or open up your point of view in the conclusion, your reader becomes less inclined to believe your original argument. Finally, incorporate what you have written into a strong conclusion paragraph for your essay. You should wrap up your presentation by restating the purpose of the presentation, reviewing its main points, and emphasizing the importance of the material you presented. Then, take a survey of the people in your class to find out how they feel about the subject.
Ask them to provide at least three reasons for their opinion and record them in the journal. Successful managers make sure that all the activities identified in the planning process are assigned to some person, department, or team and that everyone has the resources needed to perform assigned activities. Top managers spend most of their time in planning and decision making, while first-line managers focus on day-to-day operations.
Top-level executives routinely scan the external environment for opportunities and threats, and they redirect company efforts when needed.
Common job titles include operations manager, division manager, plant manager, and branch manager. Each first-line manager supervises several nonmanagerial employees to make sure that their work is consistent with the plans devised by top and middle management.
The same person would keep track of all sales and copying costs and give any profita€”sales minus copying costs minus compensationa€”to you. Doing the same thing over and over bores people and will eventually leave employees dissatisfied with their jobs.
The marketing department, for example, might butt heads with the accounting department because marketers want to spend as much as possible on advertising, while accountants want to control costs.
In addition, some companies have found that units tend to focus on their own needs and goals at the expense of the organization as a whole.
Because youa€™ve started out small, neither your accounting manager nor your human resources manager will be currently managing anyone directly. If the sales supervisor believes that the problem should be addressed at a higher level, then he or she will report it to the marketing manager. Some companies might ultimately rely on a combination of functional and divisional structures. To understand why unity of command is an important organizational feature, think about it from a personal standpoint.
To design new products, the company may create product teams made up of designers, marketers, and other specialists with expertise in particular sports categoriesa€”say, running shoes or basketball shoes.
That persona€™s message would have to filter upward through only two management layersa€”the sales supervisor and the marketing managera€”before reaching the president. As a result, they not only overburden themselves with tasks that could be handled by others, but they also deny subordinates the opportunity to learn and develop new skills. Youa€™ll need to grant subordinates the authority they require to complete a taska€”that is, the power to make the necessary decisions. It would also give the manager valuable decision-making experience, and while he or she is busy making daily decisions about the copy center, youa€™ll have more time to work on higher-level tasks. You should form your thesis before you begin to organize an essay, but you may find that it needs revision as the essay develops. For example, health care is a broad topic, but a proper thesis statement would focus on a specific area of that topic, such as options for individuals without health care coverage.
You must further pinpoint what you are going to discuss regarding these limited effects, such as whom they affect and what the cause is.
Be sure your thesis statement contains a point of view that can be supported with evidence. Then revise the weak statements so that they conform to the requirements of a strong thesis.
In short body paragraphs, you can provide the essential information needed to expand upon your request. By asking questions, the writer can devise a more precise and appropriate explanation for joke. Readers might wonder, a€?Why are they not paid enough?a€? But this statement does not compel them to ask many more questions. After you answered these questions, you chose one of the three methods of prewriting and gathered possible supporting points for your working thesis statement. These types of examples give your reader something narrow to focus on, and if used properly, they leave little doubt about your claim.
When faced with lots of information that could be used to prove your thesis, you may think you need to include it all in your body paragraphs. Using detailed support shows readers that you have considered all the facts and chosen only the most precise details to enhance your point of view. Omitting unrelated ideas ensures that you will use only the most convincing information in your body paragraphs. Judgments are more credible than opinions because they are founded upon careful reasoning and examination of a topic.
For instance, if you are one of five children and your thesis states that being part of a large family is beneficial to a childa€™s social development, you could use your own experience to support your thesis.
Like the thesis statement, each topic sentence should be specific and supported by concrete details, facts, or explanations.
A paragraph without a clearly identified topic sentence may be unclear and scattered, just like an essay without a thesis statement. Choosing your organizational pattern before you outline ensures that each body paragraph works to support and develop your thesis. This method requires you to use words such as first, second, then, after that, later, and finally. Using the order of importance technique also shows that you can create a resolution with logical steps for accomplishing a common goal. Using the funnel approach also introduces your audience to your topic and then presents your main idea in a logical manner. Repeating your thesis reminds your readers of the major arguments you have been trying to prove and also indicates that your essay is drawing to a close. Challenging your readers to see the subject through new eyes is a powerful way to ease yourself and your readers out of the essay. Using the majority vote, ask those people to write on slips of paper the reasons for their opinion.
For obvious reasons, there are far more people with positions at the base of the pyramid than there are with jobs at the other two levels (as you get to the top, there are only a few positions). The job titles vary considerably but include such designations as department head, group leader, office manager, foreperson, and supervisor. The head of an accounting department, for example, will be a senior accountant; the head of a hospital nursing unit will obviously be an experienced nurse.
Marketers might feel that accountants are too tight with funds, and accountants might regard marketers as spendthrifts. Each division functions autonomously because it contains all the functional expertise (production, marketing, accounting, finance, human resources) needed to meet its objectives.
Then, large logs are sold to lumber mills and smaller logs chopped up and sent to Bowatera€™s mills.
Your marketing manager, however, will oversee one person in advertising and a sales supervisor (who, in turn, oversees the sales staff).
The banka€™s organization chart would begin like the one in FigureA 6.9, a€?Organization Charts for Divisional Structuresa€?(b). This could be a good approach for a credit card company that issues cards in both the United States and Europe. How many layers are there, for example, between the top managerial position and the lowest managerial level?
Each team member would be evaluated by both the team manager and the head of his or her functional department.
In turn, two of these managers have positions reporting to them: the advertising manager and sales supervisor report to the marketing manager, while the note takera€™s supervisor and the copiera€™s supervisor report to the operations manager. The more you think about the possibility of decentralizing your company, the more you like the idea. Perhaps youa€™ll keep moving up and eventually find yourself in a top-level management position with a big salary.
Taking an authoritative stance on the matter persuades your readers to have faith in your argument and open their minds to what you have to say.
Each point you choose will be incorporated into the topic sentence for each body paragraph you write. General examples, while they convey the necessary information, are not nearly as compelling or useful in writing because they are too obvious and typical.
For example, the sentence a€?The most populated state in the United States is Californiaa€? is a pure fact, but it may require some explanation to make it relevant to your specific argument. An eyewitness is someone who has direct experience with a subject; he adds authenticity to an argument based on facts. For beginning writers, it is best to not use implied topic sentences because it makes it harder to focus your writing. These transition words guide you and your reader through the paper as you expand your thesis. A strong conclusion also reviews your main points and emphasizes the importance of the topic. Using the data you collect, form a thesis statement based on your classmatesa€™ perspectives on the topic and their reasons. They represent the company in important dealings with other businesses and government agencies, and they promote it to the public.
Remember, given the rapidly changing environment in which businesses operate, a structure that works today might be outdated tomorrow. The challenge is to find the most appropriate way of structuring operations to achieve overall company goals.
Your operations manager will oversee two individualsa€”one to supervise note takers and one to supervise the people responsible for making copies.
Once again, the companya€™s top manager has two direct reports, in this case a VP of retail-customer accounts and a VP of commercial-customer accounts.
Leta€™s say that you remove a layer of management by getting rid of the marketing and operations managers.
Examining job opportunities may be an opportunity to start identifying the kinds of positions that interest you. Your primary supporting points are further supported by supporting details within the paragraphs. Job titles at this level typically include chief executive officer (CEO), chief financial officer (CFO), chief operating officer (COO), president, and vice president.
Thata€™s why you hear so often about companies restructuringrestructuringProcess of altering an existing organizational structure to become more competitive under changing conditions.a€”altering existing organizational structures to become more competitive under conditions that have changed. Think about your school, for instance: mathematics teachers are in the math department, history teachers are in the history department, those who run athletic programs are in the athletic department, and librarians work at the library.
Toward this end, divisions can be formed according to products, customers, processes, or geography.
About 90 percent is sold to other manufacturers (as raw material for home and office products), and the remaining 10 percent is further processed into newspaper print. This person studies the facts and provides commentary based on either facts or judgments, or both. For more information on the placement of thesis statements and implied topic statements, see Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?". In building an organizational structure, you engage in two activities: job specialization (dividing tasks into jobs) and departmentalization (grouping jobs into units). As president, youa€™d now have six direct reports rather than four: accounting manager, advertising manager, sales manager, note-taker supervisor, copier supervisor, and human resources manager.
It would function more efficiently if some employees specialized in taking notes, others in copying and packaging them, and still others in selling them.
Higher-level employees could focus on advertising, accounting, finance, and human resources.



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