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Rob Drewniak is vice president, strategic and advisory services, for Hayes Management Consulting. John Kotter addresses a major challenge facing modern business leaders - how to act quickly and remain relevant in highly competitive environments. We'll start with a brief introduction to Kotter's 8-step model and quickly move to discover the core changes he proposes in his updated model.
While the article points to the reasons change can fail Kotter also refers to eight phases that are necessary for effective change. It's these eight phases for successful change he explores in his book Leading Change which was published a year later in 1996."Leading Change" remains an authoritative guide to change management and is named by Time Magazine as one of the 25 most influential business management books. Following the success of "Leading Change" John Kotter wrote The Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations (2002). In Our Iceberg is Melting: Changing and Succeeding under Any Conditions (2006) John Kotter and Holger Rathgeber use a metaphor of penguins and their responses to a melting iceberg to illustrate the 8-step process and make the model accessible to a wider audience. Kotter's latest work 'Accelerate: Building Strategic Agility for a Faster-Moving World' (2014) expands on the 8-step model he presented in 1996. Once again, 'Accelerate' began it's life as an award-winning article published in HBR in 2012 and was transformed into a book two years later. Today business must continuously monitor threats and opportunity and take action immediately. According to John Kotter established organizations are restricted by hierarchical structures that limit their agility. John Kotter notes that most businesses begin as very flexible networks which, in the course of time, take on a hierarchical structure in order to manage growth and ensure efficiency. The new Kotter change model proposes a dual system composed of the existing hierarchy and a second operating system that is able to respond quickly to change and opportunities.
The network he proposes is a second system that complements the existing hierarchy and company freeing it to do what it does best. Many people driving important change, not just the usual few appointees: Kotter's vision is to attract a "volunteer army" of employees from the hierarchy who buy in to the message of change and are committed to it. A "get to" mindset, not a "have to" mindset: People must feel they want to be change agents and have permission to do so.
Head and heart driven action, not just head: You must appeal to people's emotions if you want them to contribute to genuine change. Two systems, one organization: The network and the hierarchical organization is an enmeshed partnership, although they operate in very different ways.
Core to the strategy network are eight 'accelerators' which enable the network to function, and which you'll recognize from the 8-step process originally proposed by Kotter in 1996.
Kotter continues to recognize the importance of creating a sense of urgency in order to avoid complacency regarding change.
The Guiding Coalition is central to the network and consists of volunteers representing all levels, departments and skills in the hierarchy.
The vision statement is created and is focused on capitalizing on the identified big opportunity. It's the Guiding Coalition's responsibility to communicate the vision and the strategy in such a way that employees buy into the message, commit to it, and feel motivated to volunteer to be a part of the change. The Guiding Coalition must celebrate and communicate visible and significant short term wins in order to generate motivation and confirm that decisions and actions are benefiting the organization. Kotter believes the sense of urgency around the big opportunity must be maintained with new projects, themes and volunteers in order to invigorate people and the process.
Kotter introduces the concept of the Big Opportunity in Accelerate (2014) as the core around which the 8-step process is focused.
Leave your thoughts below and keep in touch by visiting our Facebook Page and clicking 'Like' to join the community. For example in the chapter dealing with Desire, Hiatt explores four factors that influence a persons' desire to change.


I have found that there are five areas of focus for successful change management: communication, sponsorship, coaching, education, and understanding resistance. Understanding resistance helps deflect the defensiveness around change, which facilitates moving ahead.
These five components should be part of any change and should be an everyday theme for the organization.
Kotter's 2014 book 'Accelerate' updates the influential 8-step process for change to support the needs of modern organizations.
The article was "Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail" in which Kotter discusses eight mistakes organisations make that result in unsuccessful change.
The penguin metaphor worked well and you'll still see pictures of penguins associated with John Kotter's material and on his website. It makes sense for an authority in the area of change management to acknowledge that change is constant - and that even the best model of change is not immune to this.
I really recommend you read the HBR article 'Accelerate' to get to the core of Kotter's updated 8-step model of change. Hierarchies support efficient and effective day-to-day business procedures but they struggle to manage change at the speed demanded of them. While this is practical and gets the job done hierarchical organizations cannot respond quickly to threats or opportunities. This complementary system focuses on continual assessment, reflection of the company within its existing ecosystem, and an ability to remain agile enough to react quickly and with creativity to change and opportunities in its sphere. The energy associated with volunteers is essential and can only be utilized if people feel that this is something they 'get to' do rather than something they 'have to' do.
Managers are the core of a successful hierarchy, but the network needs visionary leadership aimed at seeking opportunity and taking quick action.
John Kotter still refers to these on the Kotter International website as the 8-step process for Leading Change.
The the concept of the 'Big Opportunity' is introduced as a focus that the organization should align with and constantly reinforce.
Kotter sees suitably qualified and skilled members of the network volunteering to deal with an identified barrier and then implementing the solution within the hierarchy. It needs to be normalized in the culture of the organization and the link made between the change and organizational success. High risk change, where speed, agility and innovation are required to deal with threats or take advantage of opportunities are dealt with by the network using the 8 accelerators. Focusing action on a big opportunity helps attract the 'volunteer army' of those employees who are motivated to make a difference in this area and sustains the sense of urgency needed to accomplish the vision.The big opportunity should be rational, emotionally compelling and memorable in order to attract motivated volunteers. The two operating systems work side-by-side and are both essential for the success of the business.The network uses the 8 accelerators in order to lead change. If you use the words “modify,” “improve” or “alter,” it does not create the same stress level. To communicate well, healthcare leaders and project managers should create a communication plan with milestones and a timeline. If there is not strong leadership behind the change, resistance will keep it from happening. Aging change management models are open to the criticism that they've lost relevance in the modern world and Kotter acknowledges this in his current work. You have to delve deeper to understand how John Kotter aligns the eight-step model to today's competitive and demanding business environment. This reality led Kotter to propose that the structure of modern organizations does not allow them to manage rapid change.
They are slow to take advantage of opportunities and respond slowly to threats to the business. Methods to ensure leadership development and succession need to be integrated in the organization. Action is focused around the Big Opportunity and motivated volunteers are recruited within the network to realize the vision.


Learn to inspire and influence others using relationship management and emotional intelligence. Since the BPRE team has other commitments, it is advisable to form a small team responsible for change management and to assist the team leader in reengineering efforts. Many of our clients have been successful using tools such as town hall sessions, newsletters, e-mails, social media, etc. It is effective to have senior leadership coach management, who can then coach their staff members. While it is important to provide functional knowledge transfer, it is also important to talk about change management coping techniques.
People are used to doing their job one way and are concerned about how the change will impact their work and their experience of work. Yet as trust is established and change is experienced as making things better, more people will become change agents. It is imperative that as management, we become positive change agents so that our staff members receive the direction that they need. These activities build trust and acceptance of change, predominantly because they facilitate the behavior change.
For example, it is important to let staff know the reason that the change is happening and what is in it for them. A healthcare organization’s ability to flex and adapt to change will become a competitive advantage as well. This mission statement gives a new direction to the organisation,(iii) Preparing the organisation for change: The message of change must be communicated to the employees at all levels of the organisation. When people know ahead of time (again, try to eliminate any surprises), there will be less resistance than if it is forced into place in a hurry.
The change management team should communicate face-to-face to small groups of front-line supervisors about the urgency of introducing major changes.
Also the supervisors in turn keep the workers informed of the change initiatives taken up by the BPRE team. Also, develop appropriate committees and messengers that can communicate to the organization at different and varying levels. Each team is headed by a “process owner” and is responsible for implementing a reengineered business process.Because reengineered processes are cross-functional, each reengineering team represents people from different departments. They should be willing to face and handle employee resistance during the implementation of reengineered processes. The BPRE teams must be provided with adequate resources and authority to implement the changes required to achieve drastic improvements. The team members must be empowered to take decisions and must be given enough autonomy to work on their own.
Many drastic modifications of many existing systems may have to be incorporated as per the recommendation of reengineering teams.
Since the resistance to change creates a road block to the implementation of the recommendations of the reengineering team, the change management team should help to remove these road blocks.It may be necessary to counsel and train those who resist change to convince them about the need for change and give them a clear picture of the things that are going to be changed. Resistance to change and BPRE may be expressed overtly or covertly by executives at any level of management.
This will lead to more and more employees identifying themselves with process and not functions or departments. They are held responsible for the whole process and not for specific discrete functions or jobs they perform as a part of the process. Also, the organisation needs to invest substantially in training to impart new skills, values and attitudes to employees. The new system must focus on team work, process-orientation and customer satisfaction.Further to above changes, BPRE also brings about major changes in organisational communication.




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