These questions can be tailored to fit almost any team or organizational environment to ensure everyone is working towards the common goal.  The leaders who consistently answer these questions will find themselves on a solid and cohesive team working together and excelling as a unit. Barry Overstreet is somebody who's struggled in the past to make money online, and he's finally started to figure it all out.
This is a€?Leadership and Small Group Communicationa€?, section 14.1 from the book A Primer on Communication Studies (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Throughout human history, some people have grown into, taken, or been given positions as leaders.
Before we move onto specific approaches to studying leadership, leta€™s distinguish between designated and emergent leaders.
A group leader may be formally designated by someone inside or outside the group or may emerge naturally during early group meetings. The trait approach to studying leadership distinguishes leaders from followers based on traits, or personal characteristics.Charles Pavitt, a€?Theorizing about the Group Communication-Leadership Relationship,a€? in The Handbook of Group Communication Theory and Research, ed. The trait approach to studying leaders has provided some useful information regarding how people view ideal leaders, but it has not provided much insight into why some people become and are more successful leaders than others. The emergent approach to studying leadership considers how leaders emerge in groups that are initially leaderless and how situational contexts affect this process.Charles Pavitt, a€?Theorizing about the Group Communication-Leadership Relationship,a€? in The Handbook of Group Communication Theory and Research, ed.
Leaders emerge differently in different groups, but there are two stages common to each scenario.Ernest G. The second stage of leader emergence is where a more or less pronounced struggle for leadership begins.
This final approach to the study of leadership is considered a functional approach, because it focuses on how particular communication behaviors function to create the conditions of leadership. The communication behaviors that facilitate effective leadership encompass three main areas of group communication including task, procedural, and relational functions. Leadership behaviors that contribute to a groupa€™s task-related functions include providing, seeking, and evaluating information.
A group leader with high communication competence can facilitate brainstorming and group discussion to enhance the creativity and quality of group membersa€™ ideas. This can allow the leader to keep his or her eye on the a€?big picturea€? and challenge group members to make their ideas more concrete or discuss their implications beyond the group without adding his or her own opinion. Leadership behaviors that contribute to a groupa€™s procedural-related functions help guide the group as it proceeds from idea generation to implementation.
Leadership behaviors that contribute to a groupa€™s relational functions include creating a participative and inclusive climate, establishing norms of reflection and self-analysis, and managing conflict. Given the large amount of research done on leadership, it is not surprising that there are several different ways to define or categorize leadership styles. Autocratic leaders set policies and make decisions primarily on their own, taking advantage of the power present in their title or status to set the agenda for the group.
Democratic leaders facilitate group discussion and like to take input from all members before making a decision. Laissez-faire leaders take a a€?hands-offa€? approach, preferring to give group members freedom to reach and implement their own decisions. While this is a frequently cited model of leadership styles, we will focus in more detail on a model that was developed a few years after this one. Directive leadersLeaders who provide psychological structure for their group members by clearly communicating expectations, keeping a schedule and agenda, providing specific guidance as group members work toward the completion of their task, and taking the lead on setting and communicating group rules and procedures. A directive leadership style is effective in groups that do not have a history and may require direction to get started on their task. Participative leadersLeaders who work to include group members in the decision-making process by soliciting and considering their opinions and suggestions.
The participative method of leadership is similar to the democratic style discussed earlier, and it is a style of leadership practiced in many organizations that have established work groups that meet consistently over long periods of time.
A supportive leadership style is more likely in groups that are primarily relational rather than task focused.
Achievement-oriented leadersLeaders who strive for excellence and set challenging goals, constantly seeking improvement and exhibiting confidence that group members can meet their high expectations. Achievement-oriented leaders also often possess good instincts, allowing them to make decisions quickly while acknowledging the potential for failure but also showing a resiliency that allows them to bounce back from mistakes and come back stronger.
Do you think Jobs could have been as successful had he employed one of the other leadership styles? Leaders help move group members toward the completion of their goal using various motivational strategies. The very title of leader brings with it legitimate powerPower that flows from the officially recognized position, status, or title of a group member., which is power that flows from the officially recognized position, status, or title of a group member. A group member with expertise in an area relevant to the groupa€™s task may draw on expert power to lead the group. Expert powerPower that comes from knowledge, skill, or expertise that a group member possesses and other group members do not. Referent powerPower that comes from the attractiveness, likeability, and charisma of the group member. Information powerPower that comes from a persona€™s ability to access information that comes through informal channels and well-established social and professional networks.
Coercive power, since it entails punishment or negative incentive, can lead to interpersonal conflict and a negative group climate if it is overused or used improperly. As wea€™ve already learned, leaders share traits, some more innate and naturally tapped into than others. As you build up your experience and reputation as a leader, be prepared for your workload to grow and your interpersonal communication competence to become more important.
What communication competencies do you think are most important for a leader to have and why?
Who do you know who would be able to give you constructive feedback on your leadership skills? Designated leaders are officially recognized in their leadership role and may be appointed or elected. Emergent leaders gain status and respect through engagement with the group and its task and are turned to by others as a resource when leadership is needed. The trait approach to studying leadership distinguishes leaders from followers based on traits or personal characteristics, such as physical appearance, communication ability, intelligence, and personality. Leaders also emerge based on communication skill and competence, as certain communication behaviors function to create the conditions of leadership. Directive leaders help provide psychological structure for their group members by clearly communicating expectations, keeping a schedule and agenda, providing specific guidance as group members work toward the completion of their task, and taking the lead on setting and communicating group rules and procedures.
Participative leaders work to include group members in the decision-making process by soliciting and considering their opinions and suggestions. Achievement-oriented leaders strive for excellence and set challenging goals, constantly seeking improvement and exhibiting confidence that group members can meet their high expectations.
Legitimate power flows from the officially recognized power, status, or title of a group member.
Expert power comes from knowledge, skill, or expertise that a group member possesses and other group members do not.
Referent power comes from the attractiveness, likeability, and charisma of the group member. Information power comes from a persona€™s ability to access information that comes through informal channels and well-established social and professional networks.
Reward power comes from the ability of a group member to provide a positive incentive as a compliance-gaining strategy, and coercive power comes from the ability of a group member to provide a negative incentive (punishment). In what situations would a designated leader be better than an emergent leader, and vice versa? Think of a leader that you currently work with or have worked with who made a strong (positive or negative) impression on you. When we launched the USC Project on Presidential Primaries last December, our goal was to create a crowdsourced and comprehensive resource that would illuminate the system of presidential primaries and answer key questions about how primaries work in each state. Each political party has total autonomy over how their primaries are conducted, when they occur, and how delegates are selected and allocated.
For example, the RNC has several opportunities to modify its rules in the coming months in ways that could dramatically alter the electoral equation: during its spring meeting on April 20-22, on the eve of the convention, and during the convention when rules must be approved. If you’re interested in more of the head-spinning details about primary rules, Josh Putnam’s Frontloading HQ blog provides an excellent running commentary on how the rules are changing nationally and state-by-state.
The biggest problem we identified in our research is that there is no single, reliable source where voters and party officials can see all of the most important and up-to-date rules in each state. The resource we started is only as good as the official source material, and unfortunately we found that these official sources at the state and party level are often out of date or in conflict with each other.
For example, we made two calls to the Republican Party in Colorado and got two different answers regarding how their delegates would be allocated at the GOP Convention. Compared to past electoral cycles, the media has paid quite a bit of attention to the party rules during this primary season. The confusion surrounding primary rules allow the parties to make major changes, out of sight and without any input from the public, that have an impact on the outcome of the race and the options before the American public in the general election. Stay tuned for future posts where we will begin to dig into some potential solutions and ideas for reform. This post was researched and written by Soledad Altrudi and Rebecca Mulqueen, with additional editing and research support by Ev Boyle and Justin Chapman. He know what it's like to be new in the industry and he understand what it's like to be totally confused trying to generate an income on the internet.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Scholars in business, communication, psychology, and many other fields have written extensively about the qualities of leaders, theories of leadership, and how to build leadership skills.
The list of ideal traits is not final, because excellent leaders can have few, if any, of these traits and poor leaders can possess many. In one scenario, a leader candidate picks up an ally in the group who acts as a supporter or lieutenant, reinforcing the ideas and contributions of the candidate. This last approach is the most useful for communication scholars and for people who want to improve their leadership skills, because leadership behaviors (which are learnable and adaptable) rather than traits or situations (which are often beyond our control) are the primary focus of study.
Although any group member can perform leadership behaviors, groups usually have patterns of and expectations for behaviors once they get to the norming and performing stages of group development. Leaders may want to be cautious about contributing ideas before soliciting ideas from group members, since the leadera€™s contribution may sway or influence others in the group, therefore diminishing the importance of varying perspectives. To review, some of the key leadership behaviors that contribute to the task-related functions of a group include the following:John F.
Some leaders are better at facilitating and managing ideas than they are at managing the administrative functions of a group. By encouraging participation among group members, a leader can help quell people who try to monopolize discussion and create an overall climate of openness and equality. In general, effective leaders do not fit solely into one style in any of the following classifications.
I choose to focus on this later model because it offers some more specifics in terms of the communicative elements of each leadership style. It can also be the most appropriate method during crisis situations in which decisions must be made under time constraints or other extraordinary pressures.
US companies began to adopt a more participative and less directive style of management in the 1980s after organizational scholars researched teamwork and efficiency in Japanese corporations.


This closing line of an article following the death of Steve Jobs clearly illustrates the larger-than-life personality and extraordinary drive of achievement-oriented leaders. Rather than bringing in panels of experts, presenting ideas to focus groups for feedback, or putting a new product through market research and testing, Jobs relied on his instincts, which led to some embarrassing failures and some remarkable successes that overshadowed the failures. In what circumstances would you prefer not to work with an achievement-oriented leader, and why? The types of power leaders draw on to motivate have long been a topic of small group study. For example, the leader of the a€?Social Media Relations Departmenta€? of a retail chain receives legitimate power through the title a€?director of social media relations.a€? It is important to note though that being designated as someone with status or a position of power doesna€™t mean that the group members respect or recognize that power. For example, a transplant surgeon may lead a team of other doctors and nurses during the surgery while a critical care nurse may take the lead during postsurgery recovery. Reward powerPower that comes from the ability of a group member to provide a positive incentive as a compliance-gaining strategy.
While any leader or group member could make threats to others, leaders with legitimate power are typically in the best position to use coercive power. Successful leaders also develop and refine leadership skills and behaviors that they are not a€?born with.a€? Since much of leadership is skill and behavior based, it is never too early to start developing yourself as a leader. Once youa€™re in your career path, you can draw on this previous leadership experience and volunteer or step up when the need arises, which can help you get noticed.
In what ways might they prepare you for more complex and career-specific leadership positions you may have later? While there are usually only one or two official leaders within a group, all group members can perform leadership functions, which are a complex of beliefs, communication patterns, and behaviors that influence the functioning of a group and move a group toward the completion of its tasks. While this approach is useful for understanding how people conceptualize ideal leaders, it doesna€™t offer communication scholars much insight into how leadership can be studied and developed as a skill. Different leadership styles and skills are needed based on the level of structure surrounding a group and on how group interactions play out in initial meetings and whether or not a leadership struggle occurs. This approach is most useful to communication scholars, because in it leadership is seen as a set of communication behaviors that are learnable and adaptable rather than traits or situational factors, which are often beyond our control. For each of these leaders and contexts, identify some important leadership qualities that each should possess, and discuss some of the influences in each context that may affect the leader and his or her leadership style. Through our research, we found some support for each of the critiques above, but we also found some things we didn’t expect.
As Jeff Berkowitz recently explained on Medium, opportunities to change the rules could take on special significance for Republicans this year because of Rule 40. The Call of the Convention is the closest thing each party has to such a resource, but it is incomplete and, as mentioned before, subject to change. Because of this, we resorted to making phone calls to Republican and Democratic officials in each state. First, a party official told us that delegates tend to publicly declare a preference before they are elected, which means they are “legally bound” to that candidate at the GOP Convention. But because the rules are so complicated, the media often misreport the details and distort the reality of how candidates are chosen. While the system of presidential primaries we have in place today is a great deal more democratic than it was in 1968, 1912, and earlier eras, the parties effectively remain in control of which candidates the American people can consider for president – even as outsiders like Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders are challenging their traditional hegemony.
He hopes to be able to clear up some of the confusion so you can start making real money for a change. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (291 MB) or just this chapter (19 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Ita€™s important to point out that although a group may have only one official leader, other group members play important leadership roles.
In some indigenous cultures, shamans are considered leaders because they are believed to be bridges that can connect the spiritual and physical realms. Designated leadersLeaders who are officially recognized in their leadership role and may be appointed or elected by people inside or outside the group.
Additionally, these traits are difficult to change or control without much time and effort. If there are no other leader candidates or the others fail to pick up a supporter, the candidate with the supporter will likely become the leader.
As wea€™ve already learned, any group member can exhibit leadership behaviors, not just a designated or emergent leader. Many groups only meet one or two times, and in these cases it is likely that a designated leader will perform many of the functions to get the group started and then step in to facilitate as needed.
Likewise a leader may want to solicit evaluation of ideas from members before providing his or her own judgment.
So while a group leader may help establish the goals of the group and set the agenda, another group member with more experience in group operations may step in to periodically revisit and assess progress toward completion of goals and compare the groupa€™s performance against its agenda.
Leaders want to make sure that people dona€™t feel personally judged for their ideas and that criticism remains idea centered, not person centered.
Instead, they are able to adapt their leadership style to fit the relational and situational context.Julia T. The four leadership styles used in this model are directive, participative, supportive, and achievement oriented.Robert J. Although this is most similar to the autocratic leadership style mentioned before, it is more nuanced and flexible. When groups have an established history and are composed of people with unique skills and expertise, a directive approach may be seen as a€?micromanaging.a€? In these groups, a more participative style may be the best option.
When group members feel included, their personal goals are more likely to align with the group and organizationa€™s goals, which can help productivity. Japanese managers included employees in decision making, which blurred the line between the leader and other group members and enhanced productivity.
They want to support group membersa€™ welfare through a positive and friendly group climate. While maintaining positive relationships is an important part of any groupa€™s functioning, most task-oriented groups need to spend more time on task than social functions in order to efficiently work toward the completion of their task. These leaders often engage in systematic social comparison, keeping tabs on other similar high-performing groups to assess their expectations and the groupa€™s progress. Jobs, who founded Apple Computers, was widely recognized as a visionary with a brilliant mind during his early years at the helm of Apple (from 1976 to 1985), but he hadna€™t yet gained respect as a business leader. Although Jobs made unilateral decisions, he relied heavily on the creative and technical expertise of others who worked for him and were able to make his creative, innovative, and some say genius ideas reality. How might the achievement-oriented leadership style be well suited for a technology company like Apple or the technology field in general?
For example, even though all the workers in the Social Media Relations Department have experience with computers, the information technology (IT) officer has expert power when it comes to computer networking and programming.
As we learned earlier, more physically attractive people and more outgoing people are often chosen as leaders.
We have already learned that information networks are an important part of a groupa€™s structure and can affect a groupa€™s access to various resources.
Whether you are planning to start your first career path fresh out of college, youa€™ve returned to college in order to switch career paths, or youa€™re in college to help you advance more quickly in your current career path, you should have already been working on your leadership skills for years; ita€™s not something you want to start your first day on the new job. Of course, you have to be able to follow through on your commitment, which takes discipline and dedication.
It turns out that the process of picking our presidential candidates is even more opaque and incoherent than most Americans realize. Originally designed to protect Mitt Romney from challengers in 2012, now Rule 40 could result in Donald Trump being the only candidate on the ballot at the GOP Convention in July. That’s why we created this spreadsheet of the relevant rules, dates, and delegate counts for each state. Sometimes these calls helped us clarify discrepancies, and other times they led to more confusion.
But in a follow-up call, a different official told us that unpledged delegates are not bound to any candidate in any official or legally-binding way. For example, because they don’t effectively distinguish between delegates and superdelegates, most major media outlets continue to suggest that Hillary Clinton has secured almost twice as many delegates as she actually has, when in reality the race between her and Bernie Sanders is still quite close.
This narrowing of options is not only about the DNC and RNC rules around primaries and delegates. Many early kings, queens, and military leaders were said to be approved by a god to lead the people. Some traits that leaders, in general, share are related to physical appearance, communication ability, intelligence, and personality.John F.
Because these traits are enduring, there isna€™t much room for people to learn and develop leadership skills, which makes this approach less desirable for communication scholars who view leadership as a communication competence. In a second scenario, there are two leader candidates who both pick up supporters and who are both qualified leaders.
Therefore leadership behaviors are important for all of us to understand even if we dona€™t anticipate serving in leadership positions.John F. In group situations where creativity is needed to generate ideas or solutions to a problem, the task leader may be wise to facilitate brainstorming and discussion. Ita€™s also important to check in between idea-generating sessions to clarify, summarize, and gauge the agreement level of group members.
A safe and positive climate typically leads to higher-quality idea generation and decision making.
Wood, a€?Leading in Purposive Discussions: A Study of Adaptive Behavior,a€? Communication Monographs 44, no.
The originators of this model note that a leader can be directive without being seen as authoritarian.
This style of leadership can also aid in group member socialization, as the members feel like they get to help establish group norms and rules, which affects cohesion and climate. These small groups were called quality circles, because they focused on group interaction intended to improve quality and productivity.John F. These leaders are good at reducing the stress and frustration of the group, which helps create a positive climate and can help increase group membersa€™ positive feelings about the task and other group members.
Skilled directive or participative leaders of task-oriented groups would be wise to employ supportive leadership behaviors when group members experience emotional stress to prevent relational stress from negatively impacting the groupa€™s climate and cohesion. This type of leadership is similar to what other scholars call transformational or visionary leadership and is often associated with leaders like former Apple CEO Steve Jobs, talk show host and television network CEO Oprah Winfrey, former president Bill Clinton, and business magnate turned philanthropist Warren Buffett.
As do other achievement-oriented leaders, Jobs held his group members to exceptionally high standards and fostered a culture that mirrored his own perfectionism.
Of the five types of power, however, the leader alone is most likely to possess legitimate power. Because of this, even though the director may have a higher status, she or he must defer to the IT officer when the office network crashes. In many volunteer groups or groups that lack formal rules and procedures, leaders have a more difficult time using coercive power, since they cana€™t issue official punishments. While you may be excited to prove your leadership chops in your new career path, I caution you about taking on too much too fast.
Colorado is unique in that all 37 of its delegates are technically unpledged, so having a clear and consistent answer to this question seems important. It also extends to the media rules governing presidential debates, the barriers to candidates appearing on the ballot in each state, the rules around fundraising and political contributions, and other rules and regulations that serve to disconnect the will of the people from the interests of political parties, media outlets, and other special interests. The leaderA group role that is associated with a high-status position and may be formally or informally recognized by group members. Today, many leaders are elected or appointed to positions of power, but most of them have already accumulated much experience in leadership roles. Designated leaders can be especially successful when they are sought out by others to fulfill and are then accepted in leadership roles. Rather than viewing these traits as a guide for what to look for when choosing your next leader, view them as traits that are made meaningful through context and communication behaviors.
The first stage only covers a brief period, perhaps no longer than a portion of one meeting.
This leads to a more intense and potentially prolonged struggle that can actually be uncomfortable for other group members.


A very skilled and experienced leader may take primary responsibility for all these behaviors, but ita€™s often beneficial to share them with group members to avoid becoming overburdened. Leaders also encourage group members to metacommunicate, or talk about the groupa€™s communication.
Mitchell, a€?Path-Goal Theory of Leadership,a€? Journal of Contemporary Business 3 (1974): 81a€“97.
To do this, directive leaders must be good motivators who encourage productivity through positive reinforcement or reward rather than through the threat of punishment.
When group members participate more, they buy into the groupa€™s norms and goals more, which can increase conformity pressures for incoming group members.
As we will learn later, some group roles function to maintain the relational climate of the group, and several group members often perform these role behaviors. Achievement-oriented leaders are likely less common than the other styles, as this style requires a high level of skill and commitment on the part of the leader and the group.
After his return, Apple reached its height under his leadership, which was now enhanced by business knowledge and skills he gained during his time away from the company.
Constant comparisons to other technological innovators like Bill Gates, CEO of Microsoft, pushed Jobs and those who worked for him to work tirelessly to produce the a€?next big thing.a€? Achievement-oriented leaders like Jobs have been described as maniacal, intense, workaholics, perfectionists, risk takers, narcissists, innovative, and visionary. A leader who has legitimate and expert power may be able to take a central role in setting the groupa€™s direction, contributing to problem solving, and helping the group achieve its goal. The knowledge may not always be official, but it helps the group solve problems and get things done. These two types of power can be difficult for leaders and other group members to manage, because their use can lead to interpersonal conflict. Instead, coercive power will likely take the form of interpersonal punishments such as ignoring group members or excluding them from group activities. Since you may not yet be sure of your exact career path, try to get a variety of positions over a few years that are generally transferrable to professional contexts.
Some leaders are well respected, some are feared, some are hated, and many elicit some combination of these reactions. On the other hand, some people seek out leadership positions not because they possess leadership skills and have been successful leaders in the past but because they have a drive to hold and wield power.
During this first stage, about half of the groupa€™s members are eliminated from the possibility of being the groupa€™s leader. Although the two leader candidates dona€™t overtly fight with each other or say, a€?I should be leader, not you!a€? they both take strong stances in regards to the groupa€™s purpose and try to influence the structure, procedures, and trajectory for the group. To review, some of the key leadership behaviors that contribute to the procedural functions of a group include the following:John F. This can help the group identify and begin to address any interpersonal or communication issues before they escalate and divert the group away from accomplishing its goal. One common way to study leadership style is to make a distinction among autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire leaders.Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lippitt, and Ralph K.
As we learned earlier, this is good to a point, but it can become negative when the pressures lead to unethical group member behavior. With a supportive leader as a model, such behaviors would likely be performed as part of established group norms, which can do much to enhance social cohesion.
Although rare, these leaders can be found at all levels of groups ranging from local school boards to Fortune 500 companies. The fact that Jobs was able to largely teach himself the ins and outs of business practices is a quality of achievement-oriented leaders, who are constantly self-reflective and evaluate their skills and performance, making adaptations as necessary.
These descriptors carry positive and negative connotations but often yield amazing results when possessed by a leader, the likes of which only seldom come around. In groups with a designated leader who relies primarily on legitimate power, a member with a significant amount of expert power may emerge as an unofficial secondary leader. A group member may have referent power if he or she is well respected outside of the group for previous accomplishments or even because he or she is known as a dependable and capable group member. Individuals develop information power through years of interacting with others, making connections, and building and maintaining interpersonal and instrumental relationships. Reward power can be used by nearly any group member if he or she gives another group member positive feedback on an idea, an appreciation card for hard work, or a pat on the back.
In these roles, work on building a reputation as an ethical leader and as a leader who takes responsibility rather than playing the a€?blame game.a€? Leaders still have to be good team players and often have to take on roles and responsibilities that other group members do not want.
Hopefully, your previous leadership experience will give you confidence that your group members will notice.
LeadershipA complex of beliefs, communication patterns, and behaviors that influence the functioning of a group and move a group toward the completion of its task. This brief overview illustrates the centrality of leadership throughout human history, but it wasna€™t until the last hundred years that leadership became an object of systematic study. Many groups are initially leaderless and must either designate a leader or wait for one to emerge organically. Remember that this is an informal and implicit processa€”not like people being picked for a kickball team or intentionally vetted. Group members not involved in this struggle may not know who to listen to, which can lead to low task and social cohesion and may cause a group to fail. A group with a well-established participative and inclusive climate will be better prepared to handle conflict when it emerges. White, a€?Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created a€?Social Climates,a€™a€? Journal of Social Psychology 10, no.
In addition to consulting group members for help with decision making, participative leaders also grant group members more freedom to work independently. Like legitimate power, the fact that a person possesses referent power doesna€™t mean he or she has the talent, skill, or other characteristic needed to actually lead the group.
For example, the group formed to raise funds for the science and nature museum may need to draw on informal information networks to get leads on potential donors, to get information about what local science teachers would recommend for exhibits, or to book a band willing to perform for free at a fundraising concert. Because of limited resources, many leaders are frustrated by their inability to give worthwhile tangible rewards to group members such as prizes, bonuses, or raises. Instead of complaining or expecting recognition for your a€?extra work,a€? accept these responsibilities enthusiastically and be prepared for your hard work to go unnoticed. Emergent leadersLeaders who gain status and respect through engagement with the group and its task and are turned to by others as a resource when leadership is needed.
But there are some communicative behaviors that influence who makes the cut to the next stage of informal leader consideration. In some cases, one candidate-supporter team will retreat, leaving a clear leader to step up.
This can lead group members to feel trusted and respected for their skills, which can increase their effort and output.
They also competently provide constructive criticism in order to challenge and enhance group membersa€™ contributions. Groups for which an achievement-oriented leadership style would be effective are typically intentionally created and are made up of members who are skilled and competent in regards to the groupa€™s task. A person could just be likable but have no relevant knowledge about the groupa€™s task or leadership experience. Additionally, the use of reward power may seem corny or paternalistic to some or may arouse accusations of favoritism or jealousy among group members who dona€™t receive the award. Much of what a good leader does occurs in the background and isna€™t publicly praised or acknowledged. Aside from confidence, good leaders also develop dynamism, which is a set of communication behaviors that conveys enthusiasm and creates an energetic and positive climate. In terms of physical appearance, designated leaders tend to be taller and more attractive than other group members.
People will likely be eliminated as leader candidates if they do not actively contribute to initial group interactions, if they contribute but communicate poorly, if they contribute but appear too rigid or inflexible in their beliefs, or if they seem uninformed about the task of the group. But the candidate who retreated will still enjoy a relatively high status in the group and be respected for vying for leadership. Leaders may even instigate productive conflict by playing devila€™s advocate or facilitating civil debate of ideas.
In many cases, the leader is specifically chosen because of his or her reputation and expertise, and even though the group members may not have a history of working with the leader, the members and leader must have a high degree of mutual respect.
Instead, competent leaders know how to draw on other group members who may be better able to exercise a type of power in a given situation.
Some groups actually desire this type of leader, especially if the person is meant to attract external attention and serve as more of a a€?figureheada€? than a regularly functioning group member. Even when the group succeeds because of your hard work as the leader, you still have to be willing to share that praise with others who helped, because even though you may have worked the hardest, you didna€™t do it alone.
Once confidence and dynamism have attracted a good team of people, good leaders facilitate quality interaction among group members, build cohesion, and capitalize on the synergy of group communication in order to come up with forward-thinking solutions to problems.
Likewise, a person who is not recognized as a a€?leadera€? in title can provide excellent leadership. Research has found that leaders with a high task orientation are likely to emerge in both highly structured contexts like a group that works to maintain a completely automated factory unit and highly unstructured contexts like a group that is responding to a crisis. The second-place candidate may become a nuisance for the new emergent leader, questioning his or her decisions.
To review, some of the key leadership behaviors that contribute to the relational functions of a group include the following:John F. For example, a group formed to raise funds for a science and nature museum may choose a former mayor, local celebrity, or NASA astronaut as their leader because of his or her referent power. In the remainder of this section, we will discuss some approaches to the study of leadership, leadership styles, and leadership and group dynamics.
We will now turn our attention to three common perspectives on why some people are more likely to be designated leaders than others and how leaders emerge in the absence of or in addition to a designated leader. As far as communication abilities, leaders speak more fluently, have a more confident tone, and communicate more often than other group members.
Relational-oriented leaders are more likely to emerge in semistructured contexts that are less formal and in groups composed of people who have specific knowledge and are therefore be trusted to do much of their work independently.Fred E. Rather than excluding or punishing the second-place candidate, the new leader should give him or her responsibilities within the group to make use of the group membera€™s respected status. In this situation it would probably be best for the group to have a secondary leader who attends to task and problem-solving functions within the group. Leaders are excellent observers of human behavior and are able to assess situations using contextual clues and nonverbal communication.
Leaders are also moderately more intelligent than other group members, which is attractive because leaders need good problem-solving skills.
Interestingly, group members are not as likely to designate or recognize an emergent leader that they perceive to be exceedingly more intelligent than them.
For example, a group of local business owners who form a group for professional networking would likely prefer a leader with a relational-oriented style, since these group members are likely already leaders in their own right and therefore might resent a person who takes a rigid task-oriented style over a more collegial style. Leaders also have a high degree of emotional intelligence, which allows them to better sense, understand, and respond to othersa€™ emotions and to have more control over their own displays of emotions.
Last, leaders are usually more extroverted, assertive, and persistent than other group members. Last, good leaders further their careers by being reflexive and regularly evaluating their strengths and weaknesses as a leader.
These personality traits help get these group members noticed by others, and expressivity is often seen as attractive and as a sign of communication competence. As you can see, the work of a leader only grows more complex as one moves further along a career path.
But with the skills gained through many years of increasingly challenging leadership roles, a leader can adapt to and manage this increasing complexity.




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