Communication is effective if it flows freely in a communication loop between the sender(s) and receiver(s).
The barriers to communication that you have identified are much more elaborated compared to the ones I came across in another source.
I would like to adapt this for a chapter on communication (as part of handbook for pharmacists). It is interesting to note that a vast majority of us communicate several messages without using speech quite often. In an oral communication context, the speaker and listener should not only face each other but also maintain correct eye contact. Body language can be studied elaborately under kinesis which makes a scientific and analytic study of the subject. In oral communication situations paralanguage plays an important role while speaking or listening. In oral communication situations, the space between the speaker and the listener is important.
Thanks for a clear and informative explanation about body language, I am a student and i was serving the net looking for some infomation about body language,you save me.
Its good to show people that not everything they know in general is the only truth one some small and simple things are the most important , for me i think that this theory must be appreciate .i know i may be no one , or even not improtant person people must listen to , but everyone must build a chance to let other know who he is .
Please can I have the author’s name as this info is very good and helped towards a presentation for my disabilities studies degree. Aristotle, a great philosopher initiative the earliest mass communication model called “Aristotle’s Model of Communication”. Aristotle advises speakers to build speech for different audience on different time (occasion) and for different effects. Aristotle wrote two thousand four hundred years ago but his clear and logical insights are still foundations for communications theory, as they are in theater (another form of communication ) as well. No one is expected to keep on shaking his head, but appropriate nods and shakes of the head enhance the level of communication.
Oral communication takes place in face to face or one to one situation or when a speaker addresses an audience.
Americans consider that a person who comes very close to him while speaking, say, less than two feet is invading into his privacy.

Iam thankful for every person writes or even help on this u people are the source to inspire people and let them know that the voice is the less important thing to send ur message.
I would recommend that a spell check and proof reading is done though so the information is easier to interpret. He proposed model before 300 B.C who found the importance of audience role in communication chain in his communication model. The speaker must prepare his speech and analysis audience needs before he enters into the stage.
Misunderstanding, Irrelevant response and undesirable reactions are the consequences of a failed communication exercise. However much one tries, his hidden feeling of anger, fear, confusion, uncertainty, enthusiasm and joy will get revealed by the facial expression.
In eastern countries, subordinates or younger people may avoid direct eye contact out of respect or deference, but it will be misunderstood in an international context. The audience may be small as in a group discussion or large in the case of some business meetings. These sounds, though do not have a semantic value (meaning), are in fact important prompters in maintaining an unbroken communication chain. Good listening creates a better understanding and rapport between the speaker and listener. Failure of effective communication results in loss of valuable time, resource, material and even life. Drooping shoulders, sagging in the seat, etc., reveal a feeling of depression and lack of interest. To us, who are used to overcrowded public transport system, the American practice of maintaining space in the elevator will be rather surprising whereas to him our invasion of his personal space revolting. Silence in a particular situation may mean acceptance, agreement and in certain others indifference, apathy or even anger.
You know that in an authoritarian set up, be it a state or a business or even a family, communication is unidirectional and is so fragile that it would snap anytime leading to irreparable damage. A teacher might ask the student if he understood the idea, but he should not wait for an answer.
Though these may be indirect results of communication failure, an effective channel of communication could have reduced the damage.

A lack-lustre bewildered facial expression would reveal that the student has not grasped anything. Our speech is affected by the volume of our voice, the speed of articulation and such sounds made by clicking of our tongue, chuckling, etc. When we say that some one has an open mind, we mean that he is transparent and receptive which in turn means that he is flexible and not rigid. When someone attempts to touch you for a penny, you indicate your denial through words as well as shaking your palm.
In an oral communication context, all the above features of body language play an important role.
If a person inclines towards the speaker, it means that the speaker is not clear either in the message or in his articulation. All these characteristics are related to the mental make-up and communication style of the individual. If you expect to communicate in a relaxed atmosphere, you have to kill and destroy the stiffness with appropriate components of body language. Barriers to communications range from the simple distracting noises to the most complex psychological factors.
Though gestures are culture specific some of them have become universal cutting across cultural boundaries. A communication gap can be bridged but retrieval of a situation, damaged by miscommunication would be rather difficult. You say that some one blinked to mean that he was confused, someone was bleary eyed to mean that he was not focusing and some one kept his fingers crossed to mean that he was eagerly anticipating and so on and so forth. Communication experts point out that only a small percentage of communication is verbal whereas a large percentage is through body language. The following features of one’s bearing or demeanour (way of behaving) is part and parcel of communication.

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