It is a daguerrotype, the first commercially successful way of producing permanent images with a camera, which involved fixing the picture on a copper plate. 1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea.
Following his election as an MSP, he became SNP Business Convenor Chairman of the Party), responsible for chairing Conference, the National Executive and the management and administration of the party. Elected to Renfrewshire Council in 1999 at the age of 21 he was the youngest male Councillor in Scotland at the time.
Elma Murray is currently the Chair of the Society of Local Authority Chief Executives (SOLACE) in Scotland. Elma has a strong interest in change and how to work effectively across public sector boundaries.In her spare time Elma enjoys skiing, walking and travelling. Rosemary Agnew was appointed as Scottish Information Commissioner on 1 May 2012 for a fixed term of six years. Rosemary holds a Masters in Business Administration (dist) from Manchester Business School.
As Scottish Information Commissioner, Rosemary is responsible for the enforcement and promotion of Scotland's freedom of information law. He is a graduate of Glasgow School of Art and has a post graduate qualification in community education. He advises a wide range of public sector clients and those engaging with the public sector on all aspects of procurement law (both contentious and non-contentious), corporate structuring and collaborations, contracting and grant matters, public administrative law, governance and state aid.
Robin's background also includes significant experience in advising clients on European law, competition law and regulatory law.
He also advises a large number of charities and third sector clients and those engaging with the third sector in relation to: charity law and regulation (including advising on regulatory investigations), governance, formation and structuring, contracting and community renewables. Richard has extensive public sector management experience initially working with both Sheffield City Council and Harrogate Borough Council where he had the opportunity to be involved in the development and delivery of international events such as the World Student Games, whilst also experiencing the changing landscape of local government Leisure and Sport Services within a Compulsive Competitive Tendering environment.
In 2000, he moved to Scotland and joined Dumfries and Galloway Council where he now has a wider portfolio responsibility for a range of Community Services. Richard is committed to continuing professional development and has recently completed a post graduate qualification in Organisational Development and Leadership.
On a personal level, Richard is married and has two children, his daughter is undertaking a degree in Dance at the Performing Arts Studio Scotland and his son attends Northwood School, Lake Placid, USA on a Sports Scholarship programme. As Chief Executive and head of paid service in the council he is responsible for carrying out the agreed policies of the council and the overall management of council services.
When John Cable was finishing his PhD while working in industry he never thought of becoming the head of an academic program. He adds, “Studying Project management in an academic environment gives you a distinct competitive advantage.
As there is a focus on individual projects, it seems the program is aimed at getting engineers into team leadership roles. Just as this is a labour of love for Director Cable, his teaching staff is passionate about their work with students. This commitment can explain why Cable says there is a high completion rate for the program. Cable replies, “Flexibility is important as young people in that age range are highly mobile. This is because online students have a whole week to complete their weekly assignments, readings, and videos. Additionally, taking project management online makes sense as it allows students to better practice what they are learning in class and will use in the real world. As far as accreditations go, Cable’s program was the first to be accredited as a project management graduate degree within an engineering school. Additionally, Cable advised that part time students start slow with only one course in their first semester. The program even went as far as to make their own student survey instead of the University standard one.
Shaun Woolford comes with extensive public sector, as well as private sector, experience underpinned by a strong academic background including being a member of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. To compliment his Urban Estate Management Degree, Shaun has, in more recent years, obtained a Masters Degree in Construction and Real Estate Administration together with an RICS Diploma in Project Management. As well as carrying out wide ranging domestic and commercial valuation work and being regularly involved in the determination of Party Wall Awards, Shaun has a particular interest in commercial property management, ranging from individual lock-up retail investments to multi user industrial estates. Shaun is also committed to training in connection with the implications of the Disability Discrimination Act in order to provide access audits and Expert Witness support.
Nick Buckle qualified as a Chartered Surveyor in 1986 having previously obtained an honours degree in Urban Land Administration at Portsmouth Polytechnic. Between 1987 and 1994, Nick was employed by Christie and Co as a business appraiser and valuer.
For the last 14 years he has continued to provide specialist advice in the leisure, retail and healthcare sectors providing valuations for secured lending, acquisition, sale, probate, divorce and other purposes.
Nick has joined the Isle of Wight based firm of Chartered Surveyors, Gully Howard, as a Director. In appointing Nick, Gully Howard will extend the range of services they are able to offer to clients whilst cementing their existing mainland presence.
Gavin Chambers joined Gully Howard Chartered Surveyors in September 2003, having moved to the Island from London in June of that year. Before moving to London, Gavin was brought up in Somerset where he attended Millfield School.
Gavin brings his creativity and lifelong interest in architecture to the Agency Department which he now heads up.
Grant Higgs, a director with responsibility for Business Transfer, moved to the Island with his family in August 2002 bringing with him wealth of Commercial Agency experience having spent nearly 5 years with Christie & Co. Jamie Whittle joined Gully Howard Chartered Surveyors in May 2005, having moved back to the Island in the same year. Eager to return to the Island to enjoy the lifestyle opportunities his childhood home offered, and with an active interest in property, Gully Howard proved the ideal challenge to further his career aspirations. Whilst working at Gully Howard Jamie has completed a Post Graduate Diploma in Surveying (PGDipSurv), and become a Professional Member of The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. Head of Landlord and Tennant Practice as well as working alongside Shaun Woolford on Surveys & Valuations - Jamie is well placed to serve the Islanda€™s business community and specialises in rent reviews and lease renewals.
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium.


Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop.
He won three successive ward elections, to become Leader of Renfrewshire Council in May 2007, taking the SNP from opposition to lead the administration for the first time. Prior to being appointed Chief Executive of North Ayrshire Council in September 2009, Elma held a number of senior positions at Strathclyde Police, North Ayrshire Council and Glasgow City Council.Her professional background is in Information Technology but after 30 years in local government she has a wide-ranging knowledge of local government services. She previously held the posts of Chief Executive of the Scottish Legal Complaints Commission and Assistant Ombudsman at the Local Government Ombudsman, and so is familiar with operating within a regulatory environment. She has a keen interest in developing a framework of continuous improvement of public authority FOI practice during her term of office. Since then he has held various positions, including Convenor of the Airdrie Local Area Partnership and Vice Chair of Strathclyde Partnership for Transport.
He has also been fortunate to have had the opportunity to lead on a number of significant Leisure and Sport capital development projects. More recently he has been responsible for developing a new Dumfries and Galloway joint Health and Wellbeing Unit in partnership with the NHS and he is also the Council’s lead Officer in relation to the Community Safety agenda. He is the principal policy and management adviser to the council, chairs the Corporate Management team and is the first point of contact with the Scottish Government, regulatory bodies and partner public bodies, such as NHS Forth Valley, Police Scotland, University of Stirling, Forth Valley College and Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park.
However, after teaching just one class, resounding praise from students in 1999 led the department chair to offer him that job. However, if students are looking to move higher up the corporate ladder then perhaps a Masters of Engineering Management (MEM) or an MBA would be more appropriate.
However, he explains that the majority of his students come from construction, system engineering and the IT community.
These years of experience will help the students appreciate and further benefit from the program. They might walk into the office Monday morning and are told they are assigned to the new job in Kansas for the next 6 months, pack your bags, bye! Once a week they gather with 12-15 fellow students for a video conference call with their professors. It is a much better experience for both online students, on-campus students, instructors, and administration. Using a tool named speed grader they can comment, mark-up, edit, and send comments to students instantly. The feedback is collected into one document and sent to all instructors so that they can learn from both the success and downfalls of their fellow faculty.
Most recently, feedback from their military students led to the creation of a course on sustainability. The extensive portfolio of commercial properties currently under management has allowed Shaun to put his project management skills to good use, advising clients and subsequently implementing works to adequately maintain and often improve the condition of the building stock in a cost effective manner. For a period before and after qualifying as a Chartered Surveyor, Nick was employed by the Portsmouth based partnership of Young and White undertaking valuations and structural surveys of residential properties. Nick became an Associate Director with the company, leaving after its successful stock market flotation, to become a self employed Consultant Valuer.
His skills will supplement the existing range of services offered by the firm which include commercial property management and agency, business sales, residential surveys and valuations and party wall advice.
Albeit that he had been in London for the previous 12 years, firstly at Ravensbourne College achieving an Honours Degree in furniture and product design and latterly working in the design-led contract furniture market, working alongside such companies as Fosters and Partners in specifying, designing and supplying furniture for such projects as the HSBC Headquarters building in Canary Wharf and City Hall building by Tower Bridge. It was this rural upbringing that was the key factor for moving out of London to the Isle of Wight for he and his young family to enjoy the higher quality of life that the Island provides.
Business Transfer Agents in London learning all the aspects of Business Transfer throughout the South of England whilst managing a team of 6 negotiators and back up staff.
Originally from the Island, Jamie left in 1996, having attended Ryde School for most of his formative years.
Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre.
As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. Her extensive public sector experience (which has ranged from policy and business development to complaints handling) includes managing authority compliance with freedom of information laws. She considers that the statutory obligation of FOI can also be an enabler for authorities in terms of both effectiveness and transparency: FOI is the key to many rights and freedoms in our society and also a significant driver to good public authority practice. Cable went on to create and manage the University of Maryland’s graduate program on project management and he has never looked back.
These programs offer more of the big picture knowledge needed for middle and upper management. Cable says that he receives many visits from instructors the weeks after the results are distributed looking to improve their work or get clarification on what others did successfully.
During that time he gained plaudits within the industry particularly after over-seeing of the disposal of the 160 branch Finlays Newsagents. Attending Plymouth University from 1996 to 2000, he was awarded a Batchelor of Science with Honors and went on to work for a large multi-national company at their South Coast headquarters, where he quickly progressed to management level. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. He was also previously chair of the Paisley Vision Board and Renfrewshire's Fairtrade Steering Group.
She has first-hand experience of leading the development of an open culture in a Scottish public authority essential, in her view, to achieving FOI compliance. They do it because they want to give back to the community, they like to teach and are very dedicated. A student with work experience gets so much more out of it because they can relate to what the teachers are talking about,” he explains. If you teach a student how to think about the problems and how to solve problems from a critical thinking aspect, then they are equipped to go into the working world.
Grant then moved on to start up and develop his own Business Transfers and Acquisitions Agency in Wembley which provided invaluable experience for his next venture, a high turnover Off Licence at Reading Railway Station. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. Students say this forces them to really learn to implement what is taught about managing projects. Grant joined Gully Howard to boost the sales team with a particular brief to develop the Business Transfer Department.


It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. The system is therefore designed for the user and it is very user friendly for all levels of users,” exclaimed Cable. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light.
Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered.
Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes.
In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography.
In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype).
Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread.
At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face.
Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters.
It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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