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Contingency theory is a behavioral theory based on their views that there is no “one best way” to lead an organization, organize a cooperation or to make a decision.
Researchers of contingency theory states that the decision making process depends on a number of variables.
Fred Edward Fiedler (1922) is one of the leading expertson the study of leadership and organizationalperformance and thus has had a profound impact onsocial organizational and industrial psychology.
Fred Edward Fiedler Contingency theory of leadership emphasizes that the effectiveness of leadership is dependant (contingent) on matching its leadership style to right situations.
From Transactional to Charismatic Leadership How Does Charismatic Leadership Transform Followers?
14-2a Historic findings reveal that leaders and followers vary by Historic findings reveal that leaders and followers vary by - intelligence - dominance - self-confidence - level of energy and activity - task-relevant knowledge Contemporary findings show that Contemporary findings show that - people tend to perceive that someone is a leader when he or she exhibits traits associated with intelligence, masculinity, and dominance - people want their leaders to be credible - credible leaders are honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and competent Leadership Traits Leadership Traits : represent the personal characteristics that differentiate leaders from followers.
14-10 This model is based on the idea that one of two distinct types of leader-member exchange relationships evolve, and these exchanges are related to important work outcomes.
14-12 Substitutes for leadership Substitutes for leadership represent situational variables that can substitute for, neutralize, or enhance the effects of leadership. 14-13a Table 14-1a Characteristic Relationship- Oriented or Considerate Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Task-Oriented or Initiating Structure Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Of the Subordinate 1.
14-13b Table 14-1b Characteristic Relationship -Oriented or Considerate Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Task-Oriented or Initiating Structure Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Of the Organization 9. 14-14 Servant Leadership represents a philosophy in which leaders focus on increased service to others rather than to oneself. The secret art of managing your boss Two Tips No smack talk No leapfrogging Perception What the F?
Contingency theory states that these actions are dependant (contingent) to the internal and external factors.
Blanchard (May 6th 1939), bornin Orange, Ney Jersey attended NewRochelle High School, graduating in 1957.He completed his BA in government andphilosophy in 1961, a MA degree insociology and counseling in1963 and a PhDdegree in education administration andleadership in 1967.
Vroom is a business school professor atthe Yale School of Management, who was born on 9August 1932 in Montreal, Canada. Trait and Behavioral Theories of Leadership Trait Theory Behavioral Styles Theory Situational Theories Fiedler’s Contingency. Is charismatic leadership only critical for senior executives and not for entry level supervisors or managers? Research shows that substitutes for leadership directly influence employee attitudes and performance. A superleader is someone who leads others to lead themselves by developing employees’ self-management skills. Trait Behavioral Theories of Leadership Trait Behavioral Theories of Leadership Situational. Learning Objectives You should learn to: –Explain the difference between managers and leaders –Describe. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Fourteen years later, he graduated fromthe University of Chicago and started his research intochanging the way that people think of leadership.Beginning in 1954, Fiedler began studying leadership inhigh school basketball teams.
Initiating Structure: Ohio State Studies identified two critical dimensions of leader behavior. Superleaders attempt to increase employees’ feelings of personal control and intrinsic motivation. Listening Servant-leaders focus on listening to identify and clarify the needs and desires of a group.
Stewardship Servant-leaders assume that they are stewards of the people and resources they manage.
Vrooms primary researchwas on the expectancy theory of motivation, whichattempts to explain why individuals choose to followcertain courses of action in organizations, particularlyin decision-making and leadership. It is contradictory to “situational leadership” which stress for leaders to adapt to the situation. His most well-known books are Work and Motivation, Leadershipand Decision Making and The New Leadership.
Commitment to Servant-leaders are committed to people the growth of beyond their immediate work role.
Different types of situations demand different characteristics and behaviours because each type of leader faces different situations.


Initiating Structure: organizing and defining what group members should be doing University of Michigan Studies University of Michigan Studies identified two leadership styles that were similar to the Ohio State studies - one style was employee centered and the other was job centered Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid represents four leadership styles found by crossing concern for production and concern for people 14-3 Research shows that there is not one best style of leadership. They people commit to fostering an environment that encourages personal, professional, and spiritual growth.
These factors are:? Leader- Member- Relations- it is a measure of leadership acceptance between the organizational hierarchies.
A successful leader under one set of circumstances may be a failure under a different set of circumstances.
If the subordinates have trust, confidence and feel adequately motivated by their superiors, it is positive.? Task Structure- it is a measure of the clarity of the projects or tasks, their methods to achieve the end product. For example, Winston Churchill was considered a successful prime minister and an effective leader of England during World War II.
There are clear guidelines to follow and progress can be easily tracked.? Positional Power- it is a measure of the amount of authority the leader has to influence the productivity of the followers, whether he rewards or punishes them. Building Servant-leaders strive to create a sense of Community community both within and outside the work organization. Healing Servant-leaders strive to make themselves and others whole in the face of failure or suffering. Imagine the following scenario.The top executives of a large corporation are going in their limousine to meet the president of another large company at some distance. Source: “CEO’s Need to Listen, Examine, Assist,” The Arizona Republic, April 22, 2001, p D2.
Who becomes the situational leader?Not the president or the vice-president of the company, but the driver of the car who knows enough about the motor to get the car started again.
As he does the repairs, he gives direct orders to these top echelons of the organizations, who comply.
But once the car starts and they arrive at the meeting, the driver surrenders his authority and becomes a subordinate again.This example makes it clear that in a given situation, the person most likely to act as a leader is the one who is most competent for the situation or for a given group as the case may be. This means that the leaders must remain flexible and sensitive to the changing needs of the given groups.While this approach emphasizes that external pressures and situational characteristics and not the personal traits or personality characteristics determine the emergence of successful leaders in performing a given role, it is probably a combination of both types of characteristics that sustains a leader over a long period of time. These characteristics include the personality of the leader relative to his ability to respond to situational pressures as well as his previous leadership style in similar situations. The second variable relates to the characteristics of the subordinates.The subordinates are important contributors to a given operational situation. The situation will very much depend upon whether the subordinates prefer a participative style of leadership and decision making and what their motivations in such a situation are.
Are the subordinates motivated by intrinsic satisfaction of performing the task well or do they expect other types of extrinsic rewards?The third factor involves the group characteristics. If the group is highly cohesive, it will create a more cordial situation than if the group members do not get along with each other and the leadership style will vary accordingly.The fourth situational factor relates to the organizational structure. The organizational structure is the formal system of authority, responsibility and communication within the company.Factors such as hierarchy of authority centralized or decentralized decision making and formal rules and regulations would affect the leader behaviour. All these factors are diagrammatically shown as follows.Contingency theories of leadership attempt to account for any relationship between situational factors and leadership effectiveness. He proposed a theoretical explanation for interaction of three situational variables which affect the leader effectiveness. These three variables are (1) leader-member relations, (2) task structure and (3) leader’s positional power.
Leader-member relations:This relationship reflects the extent to which the followers have confidence and trust in their leader as to his leadership ability.
A situation, in which the leader-member relationships are relatively good with mutual trust and open communication, is much easier to manage than a situation where such relations are strained.ii.
Task structure:It measures the extent to which the tasks performed by subordinates are specified and structured.
It involves clarity of goals as well as clearly established and defined number of steps required completing the task.
When the tasks are well structured and the rules, policies and procedures are clearly written and understood, then there is little ambiguity as to how the job is to be accomplished and hence the job situation is pretty much under control.iii. It refers to the degree to which a leader can make decisions about allocation of resources, rewards and sanctions.
In general, a high LPC score leader is more relationship oriented and a low LPC score leader is more tasks oriented.A high LPC leader is most effective when the situation is reasonably stable and requires only moderate degree of control.
The effectiveness of a high LPC leader stems from motivating group members to perform better and be dedicated towards goal achievement. A low LPC leader would exert pressure on the subordinates to work harder and produce more.These pressures would be directed through organizational rules, policies, procedures and expectations with regard to performance.


The low LPC leader would be highly effective when situational control is either very low or very high. Under conditions of low situational control, groups need considerable guidance and direction to accomplish their tasks.
In such situations a task oriented leader will be more successful.Similarly, under conditions of high situational control, the conditions are very good and successful task performance is practically assured. There are four such leadership styles that would support this approach depending upon the nature of the situation. This style is required when the demands of the task on hand are ambiguous and not clearly defined. Such behaviour includes telling people what to do, how to do it, when to do it, where to do it and who is to do it.
Ability is the knowledge, experience and skill that an individual or a group has in relation to a particular task being performed and the willingness refers to the motivation and commitment of the individual or the group to successfully accomplish such given task.The style of leadership would depend upon the level of maturity of the followers. The followers feel very insecure about their task and are unable and unwilling to accept responsibility in directing their own behaviour.Thus they require specific instructions as to what, how and when to do various tasks so that a directive leadership behaviour is more effective in such a situation. The leader offers both task direction as well as socio-emotional support for people who are unable but willing to take responsibility. Participating:This leadership approach also involves high relationship behaviour as well as high task behaviour and is suitable for followers with moderate to high level of maturity where they have the ability but not the willingness to accept responsibility, requiring a supportive leadership behaviour to enhance their motivation. It involves sharing ideas and maintaining two-way communication to encourage and support the skills that the subordinates have developed.(S4). Delegating:Here the employees have both the job maturity as well as psychological maturity. They are both able and willing to be accountable for their responsibility toward task performance and require little guidance and direction.
This model is normative in nature for it simply tells leaders how they should behave in decision making. The focus is on the premise that different problems have different characteristics and should therefore be solved by different decision techniques. The effectiveness of the decision is a function of leadership style which ranges from the leader making decisions himself to a totally democratic process in which the subordinates fully participate depending upon the contingencies of the situation which describe the attributes of the problems to be dealt with.After careful study of available evidence, Vroom and Yetton concluded that leaders often adopt one of the five distinct methods for making decisions, ranging from totally individualized decision making by the leader on one extreme to totally participative decision making style at the other extreme. The problem is shared with the group and solutions and alternatives are generated and evaluated together. The final solution is decided by the group by consensus and such solution is implemented.Vroom and Yetton propose that leaders should attempt to select the best approach out of these five approaches by asking several basic questions about the situations in which they find themselves.
When subordinates accept a decision as their own, they will be more committed to implementing it effectively.The basic questions relating to the decision quality and decision acceptance are proposed by Rao and Narayana. The first three questions relate to the quality of the decision and the rest of the four questions protect the decision acceptance by the subordinates. Is there a quality requirement such that one solution is likely to be more rational than another?ii.
If the decision was to be made unilaterally by the manager, is it reasonably certain that such a decision would be accepted by the subordinates?vi. Do the subordinates share the organizational goals to be achieved in solving the problem?vii. Is conflict among subordinates likely in preferred solutions?On the basis of responses to these questions, some rules can be established which would guide the leader in selecting a decision making style which would be most appropriate to the situation.
By applying these rules, leaders can eliminate such decision making strategies that are likely to prove ineffective. If the manager does not have sufficient information or expertise to solve the problem and the quality of the decision is important, then eliminate the autocratic style.ii. If the quality of the decision is important and subordinates are not likely to make the right decision, rule out the participative style.iii.
If acceptance by subordinates is crucial for effective implementation, eliminate the autocratic style.ii. If acceptance is crucial and the subordinates hold conflicting opinions over the means of achieving some objectives, eliminate autocratic style:iii.
If acceptance by subordinates is more important than the quality of the decision, use the most participatory style.iv. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.



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