The cyber threat world is changing fast and hackers have their sights squarely set on the financial industry, so here are five security practices your firm had better get right. Engage a real-time intrusion detection and mitigation system for both your on-premise and cloud environments. From our perspective, the cloud is now a tried and tested infrastructure environment that is acceptable to the institutional investor community.
Where managers need to spend their time is deciding on the best cloud provider to work with, as opposed to thinking about whether or not they should use a cloud provider in the first place. There are clear indicators to look for and expect from a cloud services provider with whom you wish to entrust your firm's technology lifeblood.
When entering into a new partnership, you want to feel confident that the other side understands you and appreciates your unique qualities. One of the great benefits to leveraging an outsourced cloud provider is that it checks off an important box on your task list.
We're all concerned about the potential for a security breach to wreak havoc in a business setting, and preventing such an occurrence is not an easy feat.
A fully-managed hedge fund hotel, or managed suite, offers investment management firms a high-end space, usually in a premium location, complete with access to many of the most important necessities required to get up and running quickly and efficiently.
Compared to other investment firm real estate options, hedge fund hotels offer a number of advantages for firms that are seeking a new office space. Leasing Flexibility: Commercial leases typically require long-term commitments -- up to three to five years. Technology Services: Premier hedge fund hotels, such as those managed by Eze Castle Integration, offer a state-of-the-art technology environment with a highly-skilled IT support team onsite and available 24x7x365. Telecommunications: Telephony services are typically included as part of a hedge fund hotel package. Business Support: At Eze Castle, we provide a dedicated Client Relationship Manager to manage our hedge fund hotel and support clients.
Administrative Support: The best managed suites contain not only fully-equipped offices, but conference rooms, a kitchen, and a reception area as well.
Eze Castle's Hedge Fund Hotel in New York City features the highest caliber technology, business services and amenities for a startup or transitioning investment firm. The typical auto-reply includes a brief explanation of why the recipient is out of the office, an approximate date of return and who the sender can alternatively contact. Auto-replies that disclose travel details pose a physical threat as they provide criminals or intruders with the recipient’s whereabouts. Perhaps this person is the safeguard to financial records, or a security officer at the company’s front entrance. Out-of-office notifications enable attackers to expand their reconnaissance of an organization. Cybercriminals can target the alternate contact provided in the automatic response for a spear-phishing campaign, which typically involves an email, IM or text message requesting you to verify information by clicking on a link or completing a form. Paul defined cybersecurity and scalability as two primary technology considerations for new managers. Paul continued to place emphasis on customized IT, stating that when it comes to outsourcing, it is imperative that a firm carries out proper due diligence in choosing a provider to meet the firm’s unique needs.
In addressing the SEC’s increasing cyber expectations, Paul noted the importance of having a Written Information Security Plan (WISP) in place.
In addition to WISP development and implementing additional policies (Access Control, Personal Information Security, Incident Response, etc.), and, of course, employing layers of security across infrastructure, employee awareness and training is the last critical piece of the puzzle.
Paul concluded by describing the five most common mistakes new launches make during the start-up phase, and how to avoid them.
You haven’t fully considered the multiple roles technology plays in your current work environment. He went on to note that the operational due diligence (ODD) industry has grown dramatically post-Madoff.
Given the importance of outsourcing from an investor perspective, service provider selection must be carried out carefully.
Knowledge and Experience in Investment Strategy – Can they do bank debt, trade claims, etc.? Breadth of Services – Can they provide audit and tax services under one umbrella or compliance and technology services? Fund structure: Is it a domestic LP or full blown master feeder structure with onshore offshore feeders and an offshore master?
Size of organization: This will determine whether an organization launches in a hedge fund hotel or rents their own office space. To hear more from Frank Napolitani about startup budgets, ODD preparation and best practices, listen to the full replay below.
Benefits: Benefits will be one of the most important factors your employees will consider when deciding to work for you.
To hear more of what Maya shared during her webinar, including information on creating employee handbooks, and how the Affordable Care Act is affecting insurance coverage, listen to the full webinar replay below. The subject of hedge fund operational due diligence is one that has risen to the forefront for both hedge fund managers and investors in recent years. Historically, there has been a general lack of transparency within the hedge fund industry; larger funds, in particular, often balked at investor inquiries. Due diligence, as a process, did not gain significant importance until just a few short years ago. Hedge funds managers and investors are now taking due diligence seriously and making conscious steps to maintain open communication and increase information-sharing. Operational excellence has become one of the most important factors to hedge fund investors today as they determine where to allocate their money. What service providers are you engaged with and how do you determine their quality of service? Investors need to understand why hedge funds have made each of their operational choices, including when it comes to technology. Investors have become much more aware of technology and how important a role it plays in the day-to-day operations of a hedge fund. Hedge funds should be prepared to recover from both short- and long-term disasters and be prepared to outline their processes and procedures (in writing!) to investors. Hedge fund operational due diligence is an opportunity and a marketing exercise – one that funds should undertake with educated personnel and a willingness to be open and transparent.
Many firms create a 10-20-page written information security plan that formalizes the definitions and policies that govern the creation, access, and deletion of confidential information and computing services. Regulatory Risks – Following the right security practices will enable you to achieve clean audits from industry and government regulators. Personal Email – Even if your employee is following all of your processes and practices with work-related email, you could still be vulnerable if her private, personal email is breached or corrupted. By developing an internal culture of security, the organization does far more than deploy and configure bits and bytes. Show investors that you have a 3+ year budget for working capital without any performance fees. Make sure to properly allocate expense and investment opportunities if you decide to launch a single investor fund or separately managed accounts.
When it comes to seed arrangements, pick the right partner and put parameters around potential issues that could arise. Become familiar with the changing expectations on the cybersecurity front, from both investors and regulators.
The Cybersecurity Interpretive Notice applies to all membership categories--futures commission merchants, swap dealers, major swap participants, introducing brokers, forex dealer members, commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.
But whatever approach is taken, the Cybersecurity Interpretive Notice requires Members to adopt and enforce an information systems security program (ISSP) appropriate to its circumstances.
Description of ongoing education and training related to information systems security for employees.
NFA recognizes that some Members may face a significant challenge implementing ISSPs by the March 1, 2016 effective date, and any programs that are adopted will be refined over time.
Eze Castle Integration’s Cybersecurity Practice Team is available to create Written Information System Security Programs for firms. Investment firms often place too much emphasis on managing portfolios and not enough on managing the business as a whole. The decisions you make from the outset will define how your firm is regarded within the industry, by both investors and competitors.
Since the 2008 economic collapse and scandals caused by the likes of Madoff, transparency has become a key requirement for investors.
By investing upfront in operational and technology systems that can support your business and propel operations, you provide your firm with marketing tools that will far surpass the capabilities of a presentation or pitch book.
These critical considerations are ideal for new managers to address as they enter the startup phase.
Operating capital may be limited in the first few years after your launch, so careful budgeting and long range planning will serve your firm well.
Governmental oversight of the financial industry has evolved dramatically in the last decade. Apart from registration, you should also determine if there are any legislative implications for your new firm. Since 2014, cybersecurity preparedness is also a critical area of focus for regulatory bodies. Cloud services offer more flexibility than traditional infrastructure models and, beyond cost-savings, can reap rewards for new launches. Of course, one of the greatest benefits to using an outsourced cloud service is professional management and monitoring. Beyond infrastructure safeguards, it is critical that firms implement policies and procedures to protect firm and client assets. One of the first decisions you’ll need to make as a new investment manager is how to set up your hedge fund. Based on these structural decisions, you’ll need to determine your tax implications as well as regulatory requirements.
Once upon a time, hedge fund marketing was generally frowned upon, and in some cases, illegal. During the initial marketing phase when a new launch is looking to secure startup capital, it’s important that firms understand their key selling points.
Every successful hedge fund needs smart partners on their side, therefore deciding what service provider your firm is going to engage with is one of the most critical decisions your new startup will make. Positively, using best-in-class vendors will say a lot to investors about the value you place on your firm.
While the list of considerations is surely long for new hedge fund managers, we've whittled it down to 10 Keys to Launching a Hedge Fund Successfully - a guide for new startups to use when setting off on their new journey.
We at Eze Castle Integration have identified the top four reasons why backups are critical to not only a firm’s growth, but also their survival.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has instituted regulations on the storage of financial records and electronic communication, and financial industry regulatory agencies such as FINRA now provide standards and guidance information on potential threats. The reasoning behind these recommendations is the volume of things that can go wrong with your data storage solution. Regulatory and compliance organizations recognize the necessity of data security and advocate for firms to have a comprehensive backup solution in place.


These foundational layers of security include anti-virus protection, network firewalls, web filtering and strong password policies. Be sure to track and observe all network actions to be aware of breaches, attacks or unauthorized access of sensitive information.
It is essential that companies authenticate firewall configurations and anti-virus patching, network device security and evidence of criminal activity. A firm must train employees on handling confidential data and define their responsibilities around cybersecurity. They have become very thorough in their operational due diligence process, understanding exactly what cloud providers provide from an operational, management and security perspective.
Employee awareness and training are arguably the most important factors in preventing a workplace security incident, but let's not overlook the technology must-haves. These hedge fund office suites typically provide premier technology, business solutions, telecommunications, and administrative and business support in an environment that is suitable for hosting potential investors and other important visitors.
With Eze Castle's Manhattan hedge fund hotel, for example, tenants can easily plug into the Eze Private Cloud and reap the benefits of simple and flexible IT with secure infrastrucutre protocols and disaster recovery protections.
Local and long-distance calling is standard, but premier managed suites will incorporate more advanced phone system services as well, such as those provided by Avaya.
This individual is responsible for ensuring that firms' technology and operations run smoothly at all times, and acts as a liaison to technology partners and vendors when necessary. These seemingly minor amenities go a long way in presenting a professional, well-established image to potential investors and other visitors.
To let your clients, partners, colleagues, and the like know that you won’t be able to respond to their emails, you create an out-of-office message.
You may also list your chain of command and if you manage multiple departments, perhaps include the names and contact information for each division.
Regardless of whether location is provided, one can link travel dates to a popular financial industry trade show.
Criminals can deduct from this message which key personal are not present onsite, exposing a gap in the hedge fund’s security posture. Enacting and employing policies to mitigate security risk is critical, but documenting those policies is equally as important -- not only to meet the demands of the SEC, but to demonstrate to clients and investors that your firm takes cybersecurity preparedness seriously. Policies can be documented, Paul explained, but if employees are not trained to identify and mitigate cyber risks, the policies will be ineffective in protecting a firm.
In reality, a successful approach means negotiating, purchasing and deploying multiple systems from multiple service providers.
Before you commit to any tech solutions, envision how your fund will look in the long term. Consider the work you’re doing as an employee, and consider which systems supported that work.
Acknowledge that you will require IT systems to build servers, manage networks, and handle day-to-day needs.
While a manager’s pedigree, investment process, and performance used to take precedence, it is now front, middle, and back office operations plus legal compliance that are most important. Because they collaborate with many ODD teams, research teams will immediately have a feel for what is right and what is wrong with a manager from a front, middle, and back office perspective.
The differentiating factor, he explains, is AUM, and in turn the number of employees and the portion of labor that is outsourced versus internalized. These firms will rely heavily on their prime broker and administrator for real-time reports, EMS and OMS for trade execution, and in some cases IT.
Beyond investment priorities and strategy decisions, new managers are also grappling with securing office space, ordering technology, engaging with service providers, and much more.
Will you outsource certain functions and leverage a Professional Employer Organization (PEO)?
For example, can the provider handle the unique payroll items that hedge funds often implement such as deferred compensation and different bonus schemes?
Prior to the economic downfall in 2008 and high-profile investment scandals made infamous by Bernard Madoff and others, hedge fund due diligence was viewed as an unnecessary assignment.
They figured there would never be a shortage of investors, so there wasn’t a need to spend extra time satisfying their needs. In the past, the responsibilities associated with hedge fund due diligence would often fall under the role of a CFO, CCO or other executive – someone who had very little time to devote specifically to due diligence. There has, undoubtedly, been a significant increase in the number of due diligence inquiries by hedge fund investors, and the questions they are asking are much more relevant and involved - that rings true across business and operations functions, technology departments and the investment side of the business. They want more information, more transparency and more assurances that fund managers have done their own due diligence in assembling and managing their infrastructure and overall businesses.
Small-scale disasters, such as winter weather scenarios, and larger incidents like the Madoff scandal have initiated a real shift in the hedge fund industry and highlighted the need for hedge funds to have robust technology solutions in place and systems and procedures to keep them operational at all times. During the due diligence process, they often ask to see systems at work, the processes through which data is transmitted and stored, and how testing procedures work. Explain the designs and processes of your operations, particularly when it comes to your technology. If you do not have an in-house IT staff, you can ask your technology service provider to do this for you.
You will score points with investors if you are up front about everything and don’t attempt to hide anything. Hire a consultant to help you with this – it is the single easiest way to prepare for a real investor review. Test your disaster recovery system frequently (at least twice annually), and show the results to investors. Investors want to see that funds are serious and that they value operations and technology as vital aspects to their businesses.
It does not begin when an investor comes in for a meeting and end when they walk out the door.
That can be everything from a definition of personally identifiable information (PII), a description of user access privileges and roles, or policies regarding USB thumb-drives. It commits to defining and following thoughtful, far-ranging policies to eliminate the needless internal vulnerabilities that often go unrecognized. Not only must emerging managers evaluate traditional deployment strategies, but consider current factors influencing the financial landscape. There was quite a bit of content discussed during the 1-hour event, so we’ve pulled out some key takeaways. Target those who have a history of being receptive to founder share class and who may offer lower management and performance fees. Recognize where the private cloud has an edge: high-touch, industry-specific service and support, scalability and application integration, and security and compliance. Value is derived from knowledge of the application, knowledge of business, and having a dedicated support team.
The NFA's Interpretive Notice to NFA Compliance Rules 2-9, 2-36 and 2-49 entitled Information Systems Security Programs requires Member firms to adopt and enforce written policies and procedures to secure customer data and access to their electronic systems. Executive-level participation and annual review of the information security program is expected.
NFA expects to devote appropriate resources, such as providing additional guidance, to assist Members as they develop and implement their ISSPs. By taking into account all aspects of your firm and relying on trusted service providers to support operations, you prove to the greater investment industry that you should be taken seriously and can operate successfully in a challenging environment. Nothing less than full disclosure is expected of firms from the newest launches to the most established investment firms. And while that goal is certainly reachable, the process does not stop on your go-live date. These decisions can put your new firm on equal footing with established firms and demonstrate to investors that you are built to succeed.
Our advice centers on everything from marketing and operations to IT budgeting and service provider selection.
Don't forget to visit Hedge IT on Thursday as we reveal the last of our key considerations for starting a hedge fund. Hedge funds, private equity firms and registered investment advisers now operate in a world where they are beholden to regulatory bodies with growing expectations and requirements. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, which redefined the registration requirements for hedge funds, also set forth new reporting requirements and standards for safeguards. With the prevalence of cyber threats and attacks, the SEC’s Office of Compliance and Examinations (OCIE) has incorporated cybersecurity into its examination targets.
Firms can add users nearly instantly – a welcome benefit for startups looking to ramp up quickly. You can do this by conducting employee awareness training to keep all users informed and educated about the cyber environment and the threats that may arise.
Be sure to come back to Hedge IT next week as we reveal more of our key considerations for starting a hedge fund.
Your organizational structure will typically reveal itself as a limited partnership (LP) or limited liability company (LLC). In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), under the Dodd-Frank Act, requires asset managers managing more than $150 million in AUM to register and hence meet a host of reporting requirements. It wasn’t until the JOBS Act was enacted in 2013 that hedge funds finally had the opportunity to shed their fears of noncompliance and publicly market and advertise their funds. As a new firm, you won’t be able to manage all aspects of your operations internally. If you outgrow your vendor quickly, it can be a significant operational disruption to transition to a new one. And be sure to come back to Hedge IT later this week when we'll be sharing an excerpt from our brand new whitepaper on the same topic! Regulatory agencies and investors now expect businesses to have backup solutions and comprehensive record-keeping practices.
In addition, international regulators such as the FCA, a financial regulatory body in the United Kingdom, are also demanding firms to have a data backup solution. From hardware failure, software corruption, virus or network security breaches, to natural disasters and human error, the threat to your data is endless. Businesses that demonstrate that their data is secure and backed up have a competitive edge when security questions inevitably come their way.
Beyond monitoring, you need an established incident response team and plan that can swing into action if a breach is identified. You'll want to know where vulnerabilities exist before implementing additional security measures.
One compromised computer can infect an entire organization, so at least annually, employees should complete security awareness training on a range of topics. And while the thought of hosting IT offsite was once a worry for allocators, today's investors find comfort in knowing hedge fund and alternative investment firms are focusing on their investment priorities and leaving the technology decisions to the experts. This has allowed managers to become much more comfortable at appointing a cloud provider to deliver an infrastructure that will perform well in any type of trading environment. With these major considerations taken care of, fund managers can limit launching or relocation costs and focus on asset management and the growth of the fund. This flexibility can be especially attractive to new hedge fund managers who are eager to gauge their success before locking into an expensive long-term financial contract. Additionally, some hedge fund hotels provide firms a receptionist or administrative assistant to handle such activities as meeting facilitation and reservations.


Although this may appear innocuous to the untrained eye, those who are well-versed in information security, or simply read the latest cybersecurity headlines, would immediately cringe at the various red flags.
As their knowledge roadmap of your organization expands, so too do their odds of attaining trust from within. One of the most common mistakes new launches make, according to Paul, is assuming that they only require the basic bare minimum in terms of technology. Brand and reputation, long lasting relationships with clients, and industry experience are some of criteria Paul feels are most important when selecting a service provider. The goal of a WISP, Paul continued, is to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of critical information, information assets and sensitive materials for your firm and those of your clients. During the 30-minute interview, Frank shared insights on the benefits of outsourcing to service providers as well as advice on how to conduct proper due diligence on front, middle, and back office operations.
Now, as the employer for the first time, you’re expected to fill that role seamlessly. You’ll need to remit taxes, making sure all the employer-side taxes are accurately collected. Mandatory benefits typically include benefits such as worker’s compensation and short-term disability. But as the hedge fund industry has evolved over the last several years, so has the need and desire for operational excellence. You can also compile a comprehensive presentation or simply have an open question and answer session with your potential investors. Due diligence is an ongoing process that can continue to improve and evolve as investors and fund managers open the lines of communication and maintain an open dialogue. The bank believes hackers executed a hack that allowed $81 million to be taken from the bank’s foreign exchange account at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. And the way that starts to happen is through systemic and comprehensive training practices. Prepare an institutional set of documents up front if you are looking to attract institutional money versus high net money.
They include risk assessment, governance, training, access control, vendor management, and information sharing. Additionally, firms must provide employees training during the onboarding processes as well as periodically during employment.
That means you have to demonstrate to investors that you take your business seriously and that you’ve made investments in your operations, technology, etc.
As such, fund managers should take this to heart and make strong efforts to comply with increasing investor expectations.
From your legal paperwork to security practices and technology safeguards, the importance of documentation cannot be understated in today’s environment. For example, system safeguards such as data protection, disaster recovery measures and email archiving are requirements under Dodd-Frank.
Having released two extensive questionnaires and several risk alerts focused on security, the SEC has made it clear to investment firms that they will be investigating the practices employed at firms and increasing expectations for the future.
Startups have a variety of options when it comes to settling on their technology infrastructure. Users can gain access to email, file services and applications from virtually anywhere, and built-in disaster recovery provides confidence that everything is protected from the inside out. Users should understand how security threats may present themselves (phishing schemes, social engineering, etc.) as well as how they can become cybersecurity assets to your firm. You may also consider a master-feeder fund structure, which could provide favorable benefits, and a domestic or offshore choice may also come into consideration.
There are a variety of communication options firms can use to solicit investors – from traditional print and websites to social media, video and email marketing. Determine what exactly your marketing pitch will be and how you plan to go about promoting it.
Again, your CRM system comes into play here and will assist you in tailoring your messaging for future communications. The due diligence process plays an important role here; you should thoroughly vet service providers to ensure you have the information necessary to assist you in the decision process.
From a technology perspective, investors will appreciate that you’ve made an investment in systems and processes that support your business and trading operations, and it will give them peace of mind knowing your IT vendor is equipped to handle any issues that may arise.
Successfully operating a new startup beyond the first year is a feat many managers struggle to accomplish, therefore it's critical for emerging managers to gain a full understanding of the industry that awaits them and the hurdles they should expect to face. Understanding the need and importance of implementing a backup solution can add instrumental value to your business. With today’s financial services companies managing exponentially growing volumes of sensitive data, the risk of loss grows as well. If something were to happen to the data center where your production system lives, you can resume operations in DR. Classic models can be equipped with either a visible Super Power Point laser or an infrared laser for use with night vision devices. It’s not about not trusting your employees, but more so about not trusting the technology behind those employees. Beyond industry experience, take note of a service provider's reputation in the industry.
Wouldn't it be easier to engage with a provider that features solutions and services to complement your firm's entire IT foundation? In selecting a cloud services provider, you want a partner who can grow with your firm, even if today that firm is only made of a handful of employees. Hackers will attempt to convince an employee to breach normal email security procedures or trick them into downloading malicious malware, spyware or codes. He urges new managers to pick an IT solution with operational growth in mind -- considering the business not at the onset, but in three to five years. To kick off our Hedge Fund Launch Webinar Series, we invited Maya Cohen, Senior Vice President at TriNet, to share HR priorities for startup hedge fund managers. Consider how your firm’s structure (LLC or LP) will affect you from a tax perspective.
Realistically, as a new launch, you’ll probably outsource at least some HR functions.
Many employees are financially savvy and want to select their own funds for retirement assets. Hedge funds should continue to take the time to understand where the real risks are within their businesses and work to instill confidence with their investors.
It appears that the initial point of entry for the hackers was a spear-phishing email, potentially sent weeks before the fraud took place, which allowed the criminals time to remotely monitor and probe the bank’s networks without detection. Tools such as risk management or document management systems can give extra peace of mind to demanding investors with high expectations.
Regardless of the assets your firm is launching with, you will be expected to have sophisticated and comprehensive policies and procedures in place from day one to combat cyber threats.
With the birth of cloud technology, firms can save on upfront capital expenditures and host their infrastructure in the cloud – providing flexibility within those startup budgets.
A reputable cloud services provider not only provides world-class infrastructure and resiliency; it also assumes responsibility for the management and daily maintenance of your cloud environment. Investors also have high expectations, and before they will even consider allocating money to your firm, they want to understand what protections you’ve put in place to protect their assets.
Many of these decisions will be impacted by the assets you plan to launch with or if you’re using or planning to solicit seed or acceleration capital.
Regardless of how, firms should build comprehensive marketing plans that will support their business beyond the launch phase. During this initial period, consider investing in a customer relationship management (CRM) tool to help you monitor and track investor communications.
However, if something is deleted in the production environment, that action is typically mirrored, thus deleted in DR as well. The less data employees can get to, the less damage can be done via an internal breach or external hack.
If their resume touts long-standing relationships with clients just like your firm, that's a telling sign.
Think: disaster recovery, email archiving, information security planning, telephony services. If all goes well, that number will grow over time, and you'll need an IT solution to grow along with you. Fortunately, experienced IT providers have the ability to invest heavily in security protections that can detect and prevent outside cyber threats and can even help train your staff to ward off internal incidents. The service provider should not only address day-to-day operations but also anticipate potential problems down the road. On the elective side, it’s important to remember that not everything needs to be implemented day one. Compliance is critical, so depending on your internal bandwidth, it may make the most sense to consider using an outside firm to support your team. Disaster recovery, business continuity planning and cybersecurity preparedness should all be viewed as full business exercises, not solely technology ones. With competition for investor allocations at an all-time high, you’ll have to work to determine what sets your firm apart from the others. Be sure to enable your firm’s processes to comply with SEC recommendations including risk assessments, infrastructure practices, policy documentation, etc. With hackers savvier than ever and financial firms as known targets, it’s critical that firms establish a comprehensive approach to security to not only meet investor and regulatory demands but also to protect firm assets and mitigate business risk.
Backups, on the other hand, create an offline copy of your data which is not accessible except to restore, sometimes utilizing a third-party vendor to store that data in an alternate location.
Staggering benefits as the firm grows is a great way to continue to support your employees over time.
If you don’t learn how to differentiate yourself, your chances of getting lost in the crowd are much higher.
If not forthcoming, you may open up your firm to serious regulatory and criminal prosecution. Your cloud services provider should act as your trusted technology adviser and, as such, give you the flexibility and time you need to focus on your investment priorities without worrying about security updates and patch controls.
If access to a file was lost in both production and DR, backups grant the ability to recover the data and continue business as usual.
There is no right or wrong answer, but the majority of hedge funds across the industry treat their partners as W2 employees.
At a minimum, most firms offer medical, dental and vision benefits, but many also consider 401K plans, group life insurance plans, etc. These are just a sample of the decisions you’ll need to make as you start your hedge fund.



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