Kisilerin iletisim kurarken kars? tarafa iletmek istedikleri duygu ve dusuncelerini tam olarak aktaramamas? durumunda birtak?m engeller meydana gelir.
Bireylerin kurmus oldugu iletisimde kaynak ve al?c? durumundaki kisilerin birbiri hakk?nda olumsuz duygular gutmeleri de mesaj?n dogru anlas?lmas?n? onler. Sagl?kl? bir iletisim saglanmas?n?n yolu bireylerin iletmek istedikleri mesajlar? dogru bicimde anlatmalar? ve kisiler aras? iletisim engelsiz olmas?na bagl?d?r. Kisiler aras?ndaki iletisimde engel olusturan sebeplerden biri on yarg?d?r. Sosyo-kulturel yaklas?m: Bu yaklas?ma gore, on yarg? kentlesmenin bir sonucu olarak ortaya c?km?st?r.
Durumsal yaklas?m: Bu yaklas?m, bireylere ogretilenler, bireylerin gozlemleri ile ogrendiklerinden gelistirdikleri belirli bir anlay?sa dayanmaktad?r. Bireyler aras?ndaki iletisimin engellerinden bir digeri de tektiplestirme yani streotiplestirmedir. Tektiplestime kullan?m?, sosyal cevrede kars?las?lan karmas?kl?klar? basitlestirmede kullan?l?r.
Lippmann, streotiplerin kisinin icinde yasad?g? cevre ve kendisi taraf?ndan olusturuldugunu belirtmektedir. Tektiplestirme yap?larak, bireylerin sahip olduklar? ozellikler degerlendirilmeden, bununla beraber cok az bir bilgi ile as?r? bir genellestirme yap?larak genel bir yarg?ya var?lmas? baz? sorunlar? beraberinde getirmektedir. Streotiplestirme, genelde olumsuz duygular? yans?tt?g?ndan kisilerin olumlu yonlerini gormeye engel teskil etmektedir. Dilsiz bilgilenme, birisi ile ilk kars?las?ld?g?nda o kisi hakk?nda bir fikir edinmede etkilidir. Yap?lan son arast?rmalara gore 4-5 saniye icerisinde olusan ilk izlenimin kisilerin alg?lanmas?nda ve ak?lda bir yere yerlesmesinde bir kaynak olarak kisiler aras? iletisimde oldukca onemlidir. Suclamak, bireyin uzerine dusen sorumluluklar?n? gerceklestirmedigi ve bu sebeple de cesitli sorunlar yasad?g? zaman basvurdugu bir davran?s olursa iletisimde bir engel teskil eder.
Bireyler aras?ndaki iletisimde engel olusturan bir baska sey kars?s?ndaki bireyi degistirme cabas?na girmektir.
Bir bireyi degistirme cabas? “Degismelisin cunku degistirmen gereken negatif ozelliklerin var.
Ortulu anlam? al?c?n?n icinde bulundugu ortam, yasan?lan olaylar, daha onceki alg?lar olusturmaktad?r.
Ortulu anlam?n ortaya c?kmas?na sebep olan sey, kaynag?n al?c?ya cok fazla mesaj yuklemesidir. Keops, Kefren ve Mikerinos piramitlerinin insas? ve o bolgede yasanan gizemli olaylar?n s?r perdesi aralan?yor. Atlantik okyanusuna ac?lan guneydogu sahillerinde yer alan gizem dolu bu mekan?n bilimsel ac?klamas?n? paylas?yoruz. Hicbir cihaz?n ulasamayacag? benzersiz ozelliklere sahip olan gozun, neden dijital birimlerle tarif edilemeyecegini ac?kl?yoruz. Turkce'mizde yanlama olarak bilinen drift olay? ve tekniklerine dair anlat?m ve ornek videolar? bu yaz?da bulacaks?n?z. Otomobili olusturan parcalar?n detayl?ca anlat?l?p orneklerle ac?kland?g? bir yaz? dizisi olusturduk. BILGIUSTAM KIMDIR?"Turkiye'nin Bilgi Sitesi" slogan?yla 2006 y?l?nda yay?n hayat?na baslayan Bilgiustam, bilim ve egitim konular? basta olmak uzere bir cok farkl? alanda ozgun icerige sahiptir. Bu noktada as?l amac?m?z; kaliteli Turkce icerik olusturmak ad?na gayret gostererek Turk internet mecras?na katk?da bulunmakt?r. Human performance under simulated lunar lighting conditions: is it possible to walk on the moon? Does intracrine amplification provide a unifying principle for the progression of common neurodegenerative disorders? The ability to communicate information and ideas effectively is increasingly recognized as critical to the success of the healthcare system. The health care system and science communication overall can be made more accessible to individuals using a range of strategies including critically reflecting on assumptions. The ability to communicate ideas effectively is increasingly recognized as critical to the success of the healthcare system.
Many points in the health care system require effective knowledge transfer between health care providers and consumers. Those who enter the formal health care system as patients must make even more decisions within a complex system that can be difficult for individuals to navigate (2).
More than half of Canadians have difficulty understanding and using health information (6). In a culturally diverse society, challenges to health and functional literacy are only exacerbated. Despite the important roles health literacy and patient communication play in the effectiveness of health care overall, there are few requirements to teach information on health literacy in professional schools. Exploration of the effectiveness of communication between health care professionals themselves (interprofessional communication) offers additional insights into communication challenges and opportunities.
Challenges currently faced in interprofessional communication can be related to the development of language specific to each profession. Skills that enable communication between health care professionals traditionally are not taught to students (1). For those working in health care or the sciences, these challenges present important opportunities for future practice. Although some factors (age, income, language) can predict low literacy and health literacy, many individuals with average or high skills are still challenged to interpret health information (22). Communication techniques known to improve understanding include engaging consumers in their role in health care and promoting shared decision making, reviewing information with them (especially written materials), and encouraging questions and discussion (23).
Another important method is the ‘teach-back’ or ‘show-back’ technique, in which the provider asks the consumer to teach back the information from the health care encounter in different words. There are several standardized tests that can be used to evaluate literacy and health such as the TOFHLA (Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults) and the Rapid Assessment of Adult Literacy in Medicine (24).
Several single item literacy screening questions appear effective in identifying literacy and health literacy skills (25).
The inability to provide culturally sensitive health information to minority populations has most certainly contributed to disparities in health care (12). The Kleinman questions (26) provide eight questions that can be used in practice to identify personal meaning for health and wellness (12).
Incorporating these questions into general discussion, history taking or other opportunities in a health exchange can provide a wealth of information for all recipients of health information. Careful consideration of how to communicate most effectively to audiences with varying needs underpins the translation of research findings into practice (28). The ability to successfully communicate ideas to individuals with differing roles, abilities and priorities is recognized as an enabler to the effectiveness of healthcare overall. Fortunately, there are strategies to promote more effective communication that everyone can use including: awareness of jargon, consideration of how to make information most meaningful and challenging one’s own assumptions.
All works published in Hypothesis are open access, subject to the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. Insanlar?n kars?lar?ndaki bireylerin alg? durumlar?n?, yasam?s oldugu tecrubelerini, egitim ve kultur duzeylerini, cinsiyetlerini ve bunun gibi pek cok ozelligini onemsemeyerek mesajlar?n? iletmeye kalkmalar? durumunda bu bireyler aras?nda anlasmazl?klar olusmaktad?r. Bir de al?c?, kaynak durumundaki ferdin meslegi, cinsiyeti, d?s gorunusu gibi ozelliklerini degerlendirmeye sokarak kendince olumsuz bir izlenim yaratabilir.
On yarg?, bir kisi veya topluluk hakk?nda onceden ogrenilmis ve bir kal?p olarak yerlesmis alg?lard?r. Mesela, daha once tan?smad?g?n?z bir insan?n size selam vermemesi o kisiyi soguk ve itici yapmaz.
Sehirlerde onay gormeyen ozellik ve niteliklerin sadece toplumun bir kesimine yuklenmesiyle o kesime iliskin olumsuz dusuncelerin olustugu ifade edilmektedir. Kisilerin kendilerinin yasam?s olduklar? engellenme duygular?n? cogu zaman d?sa vuramamalar?ndan dolay?, bu engellenme duygular?n? baska kisilere aktard?klar? gorulmektedir. Streotipler, bireylerin meslegi, egitimi, yas?, cinsiyeti, ?rk?, hobileri gibi konularda meydana getirilmektedir. Bunun nedeni ise, insanlar?n karmas?k cevrede yasad?klar? icin bunu zihinlerinde basitlestirmek istemeleridir.
Bu problemlerden birisi, bir ozelligin o gruba dahil edilen tum bireylerde var oldugunun kabul edilmesidir.
Bir kisi hakk?nda ogrenilen bilgilerin ak?lda tutularak belli bir duzende degerlendirilmesidir. Bir bireyin d?s gorunusunden ve davran?slar?ndan hareketle bir karara var?lmas? kisisel ozelliklerin dikkate al?nmas?nda bir engel teskil edebilir. Ornegin, ilk kars?last?g?nda mutsuz olan bir kisiyi digerlerine gore tan?mlarken cok soguk diye tan?mlamak, bundan sonraki davran?slar?n da bu yarg?ya gore sekillendirilmesini saglar.


Bu teori, bireyin sahip oldugu cesitli ozellikleri, dilekleri, beklentileri paralelinde bir inan?s yaratmas?, buna gercekmis gibi koru korune baglanmas?na dayanmaktad?r. Bu birey icin gudulen varsay?mdan yola c?k?larak davran?ld?g?nda bir muddet sonra bu varsay?m gercege donusur.
Birincisi, kisi gercekte var olmayan ozellikleri kendi alg?lad?g? gibi davranarak iletisimi olumsuz etkileyebilir. Bu teorinin kehanet teorisinden fark?, bu teorinin daha cok kendi ile ilgili kavramlar? icermesidir. Suclamak, yasanan olay ve durumlara kars? kisinin kendisini veya digerlerini hatal? bulmas?d?r. Sucu baskalar?n?n uzerine atmak k?sa sureli olarak kisiyi rahatlatsa da, uzun sure icinde iletisimde oldugu bireylerin kendisinden uzaklasmas?na neden olur.
Degistirme cabas?, kars?daki bireyde hosa gitmeyen ozelliklerin oldugu ve bu ozellikler degistigi takdirde daha kabul edilebilir olunacag?n?n anlat?lmas?d?r. Degistirilmek istenen kendini degerli ve mutlu hissetmek icin degisikligi yapmak zorundad?r.
Ortulu anlam, iletisimde kaynak ve al?c? aras?nda dogu sozcuklerin kullan?lmamas? nedeniyle al?c?n?n mesaj? kaynag?n aktard?g? sekilde anlamland?r?lamamas? ve yorumlanamamas? sonucunda farkl? bir sekilde degerlendirilememesidir.
Burada, kaynag?n icindeki ortama gore ve iletisimde bulundugu kisilerin ozelliklerine gore kelime secimi yap?lmal?d?r. Effective communication is required not only for successful interactions between individuals and their health care providers but also between health care providers themselves. In this article, several root causes of difficulty in communication will be discussed, and practical suggestions given to enable more effective communication of ideas between individuals with differing backgrounds in the health care system.
Effective communication is required not only for successful interactions between individuals and their health care providers (1) but also between health care providers themselves. Within hospitals, they may be challenged to communicate with a large number of health care professionals and have to make difficult treatment decisions.
Sixty percent have low levels of health literacy, defined as the skills required to access and use health information to make vital health care decisions and maintain basic health (6). Almost half of Canadians have low functional literacy, the reading and writing skills needed to cope with the demands of everyday life. Barriers to accessing information are widely reported among minority groups, often resulting in less participation in health promotion and inefficient utilization of the health care system (11).
The topic of patient communication rarely systematically addresses this important area in schools of medicine, public health, nursing, dentistry, or pharmacy (2). Interprofessional communication is critical to enabling the effectiveness of the health care system as the costs associated with ineffective communication between heath care professionals are very high. This can pose challenges for communication across professions if providers are unable to understand or lack a shared understanding of key acronyms, jargon and concepts. Yet there is evidence that this is changing through the growth of interprofessional education efforts and the identification of interprofessional communication as a critical core competency needing to be addressed in health studies curricula (19).
Increasingly, the need for those working in the sciences to be understood by consumers and other professionals requires the use of effective communication. This allows the provider to assess and ensure consumer comprehension in a more thorough manner than asking ‘Do you understand?’ This can be especially important in encounters where informed consent is sought and it is imperative the consumer has a clear understanding of the risks and benefits. However, these tests take between 3-12 minutes on average to administer, which can be cumbersome.
One question, ’How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?’ was more accurate at identifying low health literacy than other questions tested, more so even than questions based on demographic characteristics.
It is imperative that health care providers understand the meaning consumers place on health and wellness, rather than assuming that the dominant Western medical model is shared. Jargon and complex language can also have the effect of making consumers feel ashamed or inadequate (23).
Currently, health care practice and education fall short of equipping providers and consumers with the abilities to effectively communicate with each other.
As with the development and refinement of other skills, building one’s awareness, searching for opportunities to put strategies into practice and asking for feedback are key first steps to building on competence in the area.
Bu alg?lar, baslarda kisinin kolayca karar vermesini sagl?yor gibi gorunse de, genellikle yanl?s kararlar alma ile sonuclanmaktad?r.
Ayr?ca isinde cok titiz cal?san bir yoneticiyi de cal?sanlar?na eziyet ediyor diye benimseyip insafs?z s?fat?n? ona yuklemek dogru bir davran?s olmaz. Bu sekildeki bireyler, kendilerince birtak?m kal?plar meydana getirmisler, kal?plar?na uymayan kisilere olumsuz bir tav?r tak?nmaktad?rlar. Bu yaklas?ma gore, insanlar? bu tur gruplardan herhangi birine yerlestirerek tek tip yapmak ve bu gruplar?n ozelliklerinin tum uyelerde oldugu kabul edilmektedir. Ornegin, bir kisi ile ilk kars?lasmada, onu tan?madan once d?s gorunusune gore degerlendirme yap?lmaktad?r. Bunun soncunda bireyler kendini tan?tamamakta, kendini acamad?g? icin iletisim bastan bozulmaktad?r. Genelde otekilestirme sonucunda bireyler digerlerine kars? dusmanca tav?rlar beslemekte, bu da kisilerin iletisiminde engel yaratmakta ve insanlar? birbirinden uzaklast?rmaktad?r. Fiziki gorunum ve kisinin ozellikleri dilsiz bilgilenmeyi olusturan bilissel surecin baslamas?nda etkilidir. Kisilerin tan?nmas?n?n onune gecmek ve ilk izlenimle ilerleyen zamanlarda iliskiyi surdurmek iliskiye zarar verir. Ikincisi, birey kendi tahminleri dogrultusunda cevresindekileri etkileyebilir, cevresindekileri de tahminlerine inand?rabilir. Beklentiler Kanunu, kisilerin kendileri ile ilgili tahminlerde bulunmalar? ve bunu destekleyen davran?slar gostermeleri sonucunda tahminlerinin gercek c?kmas?na dayan?r.
Bunu bir davran?s haline donusturen bireyler, hem kendilerinin, hem de kars? taraf?n zarar gormesine sebep olur. Mesela, Ali ve Ayse ertesi gun bulusmak icin Alsancak Sevinc Pastanesi onunde saat 14.00 olarak anlasm?slard?r. Kaynak ve al?c? durumundaki bireyler ayn? kelimeye farkl? anlamlar yukledikleri icin herhangi bir anlam kontrolu yoksa iletisimde kopukluklar olabilir. As research and best practice initiatives continue to grow, the need for researchers to effectively communicate with these groups is also important. For those working in health care and the sciences, an awareness of how best to enable effective communication presents important opportunities for the future.
Consumers must also make decisions about different types of preventive care such as vaccinations and visits to the doctor. The issue is compounded by shorter lengths of stay and increasing incidence of chronic disease and multiple disorders requiring consumers to manage their own care at home, often with minimal support from health care providers. Canadians with the lowest health-literacy skills were found to be more than 2.5 times likely to be in fair or poor health and to be receiving income support, than those with higher skill levels (6). Forty-two percent of adult Canadians aged 16 to 65 scored at the two lowest levels of literacy (9). Not surprisingly, educational resources also often fall short of reaching people from cultural minorities (11); for example, information on diet and nutrition is often reflective of a Western diet and does not include staples from other cultures, such as tortillas.
Without a shared understanding of health, agreeing on behaviors, such as limiting historically and culturally traditional dietary staples that are proving detrimental to an effective course of care can be particularly challenging. Among Canadians, the most popular sources are family physicians (73%) and other health care professionals (69%) (13).
In practice, health care professionals may not know how to address the challenges of effectively communicating with consumers. For example, ineffective communication between providers has been linked to issues of patient safety, medical error (18), low patient satisfaction and complaints by patients and caregivers (5). These challenges are then exacerbated when providers make assumptions about other professionals’ comprehension, meanings they attribute to situations, values, beliefs, behaviors, etc. Interprofessional education occurs when learners from two or more professions learn about, from and with each other, to enable effective collaboration and improve health outcomes (20).
For example, obtaining informed consent and designing research participant materials, communicating with the media and potential donors and speaking with individuals in other fields are areas where improved communication may be required. Those communicating between different professions can also benefit from using these strategies. In addition, they can contribute to the feelings of shame and embarrassment associated with low literacy and health literacy. Based on the comfort level identified, marginal health literacy and functional literacy can be predicted.
Taking the time to ask open-ended questions can reveal the underlying beliefs and assumptions that a consumer holds, which will allow the communicator to target information and education accordingly.
Awareness of one’s own language enables one to recognize that others may not share the same understanding of a key concept or word.


Health care professionals and researchers have an opportunity to improve practice by improving communication efforts with consumers and with each other. Patient understanding and use of oral contraceptive pills in a southern public health family planning clinic. Perceptions of health literacy: Results of a questionnaire for practitioners, policy-makers and researchers. Interprofessional Communication and Medical Error: A Reframing of Research Questions and Approaches. The Single Item Literacy Screener: Evaluation of a brief instrument to identify limited reading ability. Culture, illness, and care: Clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research.
Ayr?ca al?c? ve kaynak aras?nda mevcut bulunan kulturel farkl?l?klar da mesaj?n degerlendirilis asamas?nda onemli sorunlar teskil eder. Kisilerin gecmis yasant?lar?, ihtiyaclar?, beklentileri iletisimde otomatik kararlar almaya neden olur.
Ilerleyen zamanda kisi hakk?nda edinilen bilgiler bireyin dusunce ve duygular? ile ilgili tahminler yapmaya kisiyi yoneltir.
Bu sebeple, insanlar d?s dunyay? degerlendirmek icin zihinlerinde bir harita olusturmak ister ve buna gore bir karara varmak isterler. Burada kars?las?lan bir baska problem tektiplestirme bir topluluk icinde yer alan bireyleri diger topluluktakilerden tamamen fakl? gormesini saglar.
Bireyin giyimi, yuz ifadeleri, jest ve mimikleri, secmis oldugu renkler, fiziksel yap?s? bu birey hakk?nda bir karar olusturmay? ve icinde bulundugu vaziyete gore degerlendirmeyi saglar. Bir birey ile kars?las?lan ilk anda edinilen izlenim, o bireyin degerlendirilmesinde ve o kisi hakk?nda daha sonraki fikirlerin sekillenmesinde onemli rol oynar. Olumsuz durumlarda tahminlerde bulunulmas? daha cok kars?las?ld?g? icin bireyler mutsuz olmakta ve iliskileri kotu olmaktad?r.
Eger birey, kendini sucluyorsa, yasam?ndaki her seyden kendini sorumlu gormekte ve her olumsuzlukta kendini y?pratmaktad?r. Neden sucu kendilerinde aramad?klar?na dair surekli bahaneleri vard?r; ama bu kisilerde dikkat edilmesi gereken sey, bu kisilerin sorumluluk alamayacak kisiler olup, ozguvenlerin eksik oldugudur. Bu durumda, kisi istemese de baz? davran?slar? kars?lar?ndakiler istiyor diye kabul edebilir. This article will explore some of the unique characteristics of communication both with consumers and between health care professionals. They must make sense of health and science reports they read in the media (e.g., Bisphenol A causing cancer? The need for health care professionals and researchers to effectively communicate with consumers will only grow in its urgency. Colors, as another example, can also play a role on how people of different cultures respond to information if it conveys certain meaning to them. While Canadians report that they are able to find relevant information, more than half report finding contradictory information from different sources and one-third report that people don’t have time to answer their questions (14). For example, a survey of nearly 700 professionals and policymakers found low levels of awareness of strategies to lower literacy demands and promote health literacy skills (17). Further, consideration of how to support student learning between health care professionals and potentially biomedical students is starting to be addressed (21).
The health care system and science communication overall can be made more accessible to individuals using several communication strategies.
A question that focuses on comfort level with medical forms also removes the focus from the patient’s literacy level. However, many continue to practice under the assumption these trends do not apply to their consumer groups, or that they are effective communicators despite the absence of specific training, effort and feedback. A survey of interprofessional education in communication skills in health care programmes in the UK.
Role understanding and effective communication as core competencies for collaborative practice. Stereotyping at the undergraduate level revealed during interprofessional learning between future doctors and biomedical scientists.
Bu sekilde h?zl? bir karar verme mekanizmas?n?n kullan?lmas? bireylerin aras?ndaki iletisimin daha baslamadan buyuk bir yara almas?na sebebiyet vermektedir. Buna gore kisi, ailesi veya cevresindeki bir bireyi otorite olarak benimsemekte, otorite olan bireyin devaml? kendi dusuncelerini kabul ettirmeye cal?smas? ve kars? taraftaki kisinin konusmas?na dahi izin vermemesi halinde duyulan ofke ve nefret gibi olumsuz duygular cevredeki kisi ve gruplara yetiskinlikte aktar?lmaktad?r. Ancak, kars? taraf degisirse, iletisimin daha iyi hale gelecegi ve iyi anlas?lacag? ifade edilir. These challenges are further exacerbated by health care professionals who may lack the ability to communicate effectively across professions. Vitamin D preventing multiple sclerosis?) and make decisions about whether to integrate new practices into their own lives.
In the United States, the estimated cost of low health literacy is between $106 and $236 billion USD (8).
However, even those with average literacy may face difficulties when encountering unfamiliar types of material or texts (2), or information requiring problem-solving or interpretation, such as instructions on missed birth control pills (10). For instance, in many western cultures, red is used as a symbol for caution or stopping, as in stop signs and traffic signals.
The use of online information is also growing significantly; 61% of adults now look for health information online (15).
Thus, using a single question screening may be a time-efficient way to determine which patients need additional probing or information. For some professions, it may mean moving from the bed to the wheelchair; however for others it may refer to the process of referral from one hospital to another.
Ilk defa tan?s?lan insanlar? belli bir gruba dahil ederek degerlendirmek, kars? taraf?n sozlerinden, jest ve mimiklerine kadar inceleyip yarg?s?z infaz yapmak dogru degildir. Belli bir meslek uyesi olma, egitim ve kultu seviyesi sebebi ile kisilere baz? ozelliklerin verilmesi ve bireyler istese de bu dusuncelerin degisiminin zor olmas? da basl? bas?na bir iletisim engelidir. Kisinin sozsuz davran?slar? ile vermis oldugu bilgiler, daha onceki ogrenmeleri ile birlestirilerek bir yarg?ya var?labilir. Effective transfer of knowledge also needs to occur between providers themselves in order to enable best outcomes for consumers. There is little data on the estimated cost in Canada, but the astronomical cost faced in the US is an indicator of the potential burden that low health literacy can place on the Canadian system. It is therefore important to use best practice communication strategies to address these challenges.
In some Eastern cultures, red is a sign of prosperity and happiness, often worn by brides in weddings. Unfortunately, even online information may not be meeting the needs of Canadians with low literacy, as studies have demonstrated that consumer health information is often written at high reading levels and may contain medical jargon (16).
Recognizing one’s own use of jargon, requesting clarification from colleagues when unclear terminology is used and using jargon-free language where possible are important first steps in enabling effective communication.
Sadece bir ozellik veya davran?sa bakarak bir kisi hakk?nda karar vermek iletisimde yanl?s sonuclar? olusturur. Bir kisiyle ilgili olumlu fikirlere sahip olmak ve belli ozelliklerin butunluk arz etmesi pozitif halo etkisi, bir kisiyle ilgili olumsuz fikirlere sahip olmak ve bunlar?n bir butunluk olusturmas? negatif halo etkisi ad?n? al?r. Ornegin, arkadas?n?n dogum gunune gidemeyen birey, dogum gunune gidemedigi icin kendini suclar. Those managing their own care need effective health information and education to know how to do so (4). In a health care context, red used as a warning symbol may be overlooked by those who are not accustomed to the Western symbolism of the color. Pozitif ve negatif halo etkisinin s?kca kullan?lmas? kisilerde olmayan ozelliklerin varm?s gibi anlas?lmas?na neden oldugundan, iliskilere olumsuz etki yapmaktad?r. Bunun icin arkadas?ndan devaml? ozur diler, yard?m edebilecegi bir sey varsa yard?m edebilecegini soyler. For example, managing diet, checking blood pressure and managing insulin may be among health related tasks needing to be performed daily within the home setting.
Etraf?ndaki insanlara surekli on yarg?yla yaklasan bireyler, fert ve toplum ile olan iliskilerinde devaml? ayn? yaklas?m? sergilediklerinden dogru bir iletisim kuramamaktad?r. Ayr?ca bireylerle iletisim halinde olmadan onlar hakk?nda on yarg? gelistirmeye ve belli streotipler icinde degerlendirmelerine neden olmaktad?r.



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