We’ve talked before about the importance of recognizing your employees as a very important audience for your business. BETTER — A scheduled chat: What, if instead of the formal survey, you carved out a set time every week and you, throughout the course of the year, met with everyone individually and picked their brain a little, while sharing your vision and thoughts? This is one of my personal goals — to get better and better at being plugged into what my employees are thinking, doing, wondering about and tapping their insights to make MMG an even better place to work and do business with.
As I was thinking about your probe for more ideas, I have to say that leadership was the lever for all other aspects of employee satisfaction and engagement for me.
I’m not sure much of anything can really be accomplished if a company does not possess some powerful leadership.
It’s about employees having a sense of ownership in the organization and not owned by it. Drew, came across your interesting post as I was looking at team-oriented topics subsequent to writing my own piece about it.
Quite an interesting content, better communication with the employee team is very essential always.
Before anyone can effectively communicate at whatever level of business they need to learn how to communicate on a personal basis. This is a€?Speaking in Business Settingsa€?, section 12.3 from the book A Primer on Communication Studies (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
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Employ audience analysis to adapt communication to supervisors, colleagues, employees, and clients. Explain the role of intercultural communication competence in intercultural business communication contexts. Identify strategies for effectively planning and delivering common business presentations, including briefings, reports, training, and meetings. Even though much of the day-to-day communication within organizations is written in the form of memos, e-mails, and reports, oral communication has an important place.
Ita€™s important to remember that many people do not practice good listening skills and that being understood contributes to effectiveness and success.
Upward communicationSpeeches, proposals, or briefings that are directed at audience members who hold higher positions in the organizational hierarchy than the sender. The a€?executive summarya€? emerged from the fact that executives have tightly scheduled days and prefer concise, relevant information. Be aware of the organizational hierarchy and territory when speaking to executives and supervisors. Much of our day-to-day communication in business settings is horizontal communicationCommunication between colleagues or people who are on the same approximate level in the organizational hierarchy. Downward communicationMessages directed at audience members who hold lower positions on the organizational hierarchy than the sender. Supervisors can set a good example by keeping a good flow of information going to their employees. This type of communication can have positive results in terms of preventing or correcting employee errors and increasing job satisfaction and morale.
During this type of a€?top-downa€? communication, employees may not ask valuable questions.
Communication to outside stakeholdersMessages sent from service providers to people who are not employed by the organization but conduct business with or support it.
When preparing for a presentation to clients, customers, or funding sources, start to establish a relationship before actually presenting.
Use sophisticated and professional visual aids to help sell your idea, service, or product. Include a a€?money slidea€? in your presentation to potential clients or customers that really sells your idea.
Proposals and pitches may be cut short, so imagine what you would do if you arrived to present and were told that you had to cut it down to one minute. Ita€™s no surprise that business communication is occurring in more intercultural contexts.
While these trainings and resources are beneficial, many people expect intercultural business communication training to be reduced to a series of checklists or rules for various intercultural interactions that may be conveyed in a two-hour, predeparture a€?everything you need to know about Japanese business culturea€? training. I will overview some intercultural business communication tips that are more like rules, but remember there are always exceptions, so other competent communication skills should be on standby to help you adapt when the rules approach stops working.Emily A.
Question-and-answer (Q&A) periods allow for important interaction between a speaker and his or her audience. Which of these tips could you have applied to previous question-and-answer sessions that you have participated in to make them more effective? Imagine you are giving a presentation on diversity in organizations and someone asks a question about affirmative action, which was not a part of your presentation.
In what situations in academic, professional, or personal contexts of your life might you be engaged in an evaluative Q&A session? Now you know how to consider your audience in terms of upward, downward, or horizontal communication. BriefingsShort presentations that either update listeners about recent events or provide instructions for how to do something job related.
Technical briefings, which explain how something functions or works, are the most common type of workplace presentations.
Describe the next goal or milestone of the group and offer concrete action steps and a timeline for achieving the goal. Final reportsReports presented at the conclusion of a task and similar to a progress report but including a discussion and analysis of the results of an effort. A common future-focused report is the feasibility reportFuture-oriented report that explores potential actions or steps and then makes recommendations for future action based on methodical evaluation., which explores potential actions or steps and then makes recommendations for future action based on methodical evaluation. People in supervisory or leadership positions often provide trainingPresentations that prepare new employees for their jobs or provide instruction or development opportunities for existing employees., which includes presentations that prepare new employees for their jobs or provide instruction or development opportunities for existing employees. Companies are also investing money in training for recent college graduates who have degrees but lack the technical training needed to do a specific job.
Corporate trainers prepare new employees for their jobs and provide development opportunities for existing employees.
Do background research based on literature on and observations of the training context you will be in. Include the following for each training activity: objectives, training content, time frame, method, and materials needed.
Test the training plan on a focus group or with experts in the field to evaluate and revise if necessary. Over eleven million meetings are held each day in the United States, so it is likely that you will attend and lead meetings during your career. Meetings are important at the early stages of completing a task, as they help define a work team since the members share a space and interact with each other. After completing the agenda, continue to plan for the meeting by providing attendees with the agenda and any important supporting or supplementary materials such as meeting minutes or reports ahead of time. Peoplea€™s attention spans wane after the first twenty minutes of a meeting, so it may be useful to put items that warrant the most attention early on the agenda. Since senior attendeesa€™ comments may influence or limit junior peoplea€™s comments, ask for comments from junior attendees first. People sometimes continue talking even after agreement has been reached, so ita€™s important to know when to move on to the next item in the agenda. What counts as being a good communicator in one business context doesna€™t in another, so being able to adapt to various business settings and audiences will help you be more successful in your career.
Upward business communication involves communicating messages up the organizational hierarchy. Horizontal communication is communication among colleagues on the same level within an organizational hierarchy. Initial communication with clients, customers, or funding sources is usually persuasive in nature, as you will be trying to secure their business. When adapting business communication to intercultural contexts, take a a€?tools not rulesa€? approach that focuses on broad and adaptable intercultural communication competence.
Briefings are short, two- to three-minute a€?how-toa€? or a€?updatea€? presentations that are similar to factual bullet points. Reports can be past, present, or future focused and include status, final, and feasibility reports. Trainings are informal or formal presentations that help get new employees ready for their jobs and keep existing employees informed about changing policies, workplace climates, and legal issues. To have an effective meeting, first make sure it is necessary to have, then set a solid foundation by distributing an agenda in advance, manage the flow of communication during the meeting, and take note of accomplishments to promote a positive view of future meetings.
Identify a recent instance when you engaged in upward, horizontal, downward, or intercultural communication in a business setting. Great post for me right now as I’m trying to improve communication and employee interaction to keep it fun as the company grows! Having done some time as an HR pro in my previous career, I’ve seen your list of suggestions work well.
Any way without establishing effective communication with the employees it is very difficult to attain overall success for the organization. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Many of you are probably working while taking this class and already have experience with speaking in business settings.
Hopefully the skills that you are building to improve your communication competence by taking this class will enable you to be adaptable and successful. Oral communication, however, is often more efficient if people practice good listening skills. You obviously cana€™t make someone listen better or require him or her to listen actively, but you can strive to make your communication more listenable and digestible for various audiences. Presentations are a€?high-visibility tasksa€? that establish a persona€™s credibility when performed well.Rick Weinholdt, a€?Taking the Trauma Out of the Talk,a€? The Information Management Journal 40, no.
Steering into terrain that is under someone elsea€™s purview can get you in trouble if that person guards his or her territory.Michael B.
If the communication is not effective, it can lead to unclear messages that lead to misunderstandings and mistakes.Robert B.


Many people see a lack of information flow as a sign of trouble, so make sure to be consistent in your level of communication through progress reports or status briefings even if there isna€™t a major development to report.
This will help you understand what they want and need and will allow you to tailor your presentation to their needs.
Many companies and consulting firms offer cross-cultural training for businesspeople, and college programs in cross-cultural training and international business also help prepare people to conduct business in intercultural contexts.
Thrush, a€?Bridging the Gaps: Technical Communication in an International and Multicultural Society,a€? Technical Communication Quarterly 2, no.
Even if you speak a different language than your audience, clearer communication on your part will help the message get through better. Speakers should always be accountable for the content of their speech, whether informative or persuasive, and making yourself available for questions is a good way to demonstrate such accountability. If you know you will have a Q&A period after your presentation, alert your audience ahead of time. In evaluative or informative Q&A periods, speakers may feel defensive of their idea, position, or presentation style. To help keep the Q&A period on track, tie a question to one of the main ideas from your presentation and make that connection explicit in your response. If a person corrects something you said in error during your presentation, thank them for the correction. Since they are content focused, they do not require formal speech organization, complete with introduction and conclusion. The line between a briefing and short oral report is fuzzy, but in general a report is a more substantial presentation on the progress or status of a task. Various departments or teams that make up an organization, or committees that make up a governing board, are likely to give status reports. Adler and Jeanne Marquardt Elmhorst, Communicating at Work: Principles and Practices for Businesses and the Professions, 8th ed. The purpose of these reports is basically to determine if an action or step is a good idea for an organization. While some training is conducted by inside and outside consultants, the US Bureau of Labor and Statistics notes that about 75 percent of training is delivered informally while on the job.Robert B. Includes training and orienting new hires and ongoing training for existing employees related to new or changing company policies. This upfront investment pays off in many situations, as this type of standardized training in field-specific communication skills and technology can lead to increased productivity. Subsequent meetings should be called when people need to pool knowledge, refine ideas, consider new information, or deliberate over a decision. Some items will be informative, meaning they transmit information and dona€™t require a decision or an action. Consult with people who will attend a meeting beforehand to see if they have any questions about the meeting and to remind them to review the materials. It is also a good idea to put items that the group can agree on and will unify around before more controversial items on which the group may be divided.
Return to the objective you shared at the beginning and assess whether or not you accomplished it.
This type of communication helps coordinate tasks and lets people from various parts of an organization get a better idea of how the whole organization functions.
These messages usually focus on giving instructions, explaining company policies, or providing feedback. Analyze that communication encounter based on the information in the corresponding section of this chapter. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (291 MB) or just this chapter (26 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). As you advance in your career, and potentially change career paths as many Americans do now, the nature of your communication and the contexts in which you speak will change.
The following suggestions for adapting to your audience are based on general characteristics; therefore expect variations and exceptions.
Many people cana€™t or dona€™t try to retain information they receive aurally, while written communication provides a record and proof that all the required and detailed information was conveyed.
Upward communication is usually the most lacking within an organization, so it is important to take advantage of the opportunity and use it to your advantage.Ralph G. You should build some repetition and redundancy into an oral presentation of an executive summary, but you do not need such repetition in the written version. McCaskey, a€?The Hidden Messages Managers Send,a€? in Harvard Business Review on Effective Communication (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1999), 128. This communication may occur between colleagues working in the same area or between colleagues with different areas of expertise. Even though including an open discussion after a presentation takes more time, it helps prevent avoidable mistakes and wasted time and money. Supervisors help set the tone for the communication climate of an organization and can serve as models of expectations of oral communication. Strategic ambiguity may be useful in some situations, but too much ambiguity also leads to suspicions that can damage a provider-client relationship. The money slide could be the most important finding, a startling or compelling statistic, an instructive figure or chart, or some other combination of text and graphic that connects to the listener. Avoid idiomatic expressions and acronyms, since the meaning of those types of verbal communication are usually only known to cultural insiders.
First, the a€?trasha€? icon first used on Mac desktops doesna€™t match what wastebaskets look like in many other countries. This will prompt them to take note of questions as they arise, so they dona€™t forget them by the end of the talk. Having a clearly stated and repeated main idea for your presentation will help set useful parameters for which questions fall within the scope of the presentation and which do not. After the presentation, verify whether or not it was indeed a mistake, and if it was, make sure to correct your information so you dona€™t repeat the mistake in future talks. Stop taking questions in time to provide a brief wrap-up of the questions, reiterate the main idea, thank the audience for their questions, and conclude the presentation. Now we will turn our attention to some of the most frequent types of business presentations: briefings, reports, training, and meetings.
Briefings are often delivered as a series of bullet points, organized topically or chronologically.
Status reportsReports that focus on a specific project or task or simply report on the regular functioning of a group. While some progress reports may only be delivered verbally, with no written component, a final report almost always has an associated written document. Facebook made a much-discussed move to go public in 2012, a decision that was no doubt made after analyzing many feasibility reports. Other items will be constructive, in that they require something new to be devised or decided, such as determining a new policy or procedure. You can also give people a a€?heads upa€? about any items for discussion that may be lengthy or controversial.
Anything presented at the meeting that wasna€™t circulated ahead of time should be brief, so people arena€™t spending the meeting reading through documents.
If people feel like they get somewhere during a meeting, they will think more positively about the next one. However, since oral presentations are a a€?high-visibilitya€? activity, taking advantage of these opportunities can help you get noticed by bosses and, if done well, can move you up the organizational ladder. Many workplaces are becoming more collaborative and team oriented, but make sure you share credit for ideas and work accomplished collaboratively so as not to offend a colleague. As a supervisor, make sure to encourage employees to ask questions following a presentation. Todaya€™s workers must be able to adapt content, level of formality, and format to various audiences including the public, clients, and colleagues.Deanna P. A competent communicator can use categories and strategies like these as a starting point but must always monitor the communication taking place and adapt as needed. An increase in written communication adds time and costs that oral communication doesna€™t. This allows you to emphasize a main idea while leaving some of the supporting facts out of an oral presentation.
Dona€™t take advantage of this visibility to the point that you perform only for the boss or focus on him or her at the expense of other people in the audience. For example, making a suggestion about marketing during a presentation about human resources can ruffle the marketing managera€™s feathers and lead to negative consequences for you. Such horizontal communication usually functions to help people coordinate tasks, solve problems, and share information.
Downward communication usually involves job instructions, explanations of organizational policies, providing feedback, and welcoming newcomers to an organization.
Let your audience know before a presentation that you will take questions, and then officially open the floor to questions when you are ready. Being prepared, consistent, open, and engaging helps sustain communication, which helps sustain morale. Try to use geographically and culturally relevant examplesa€”for example, referencing the World Cup instead of the World Series. Second, the US-style a€?mailboxa€? used as an icon for many e-mail programs doesna€™t match with the mail experiences of people in most other countries and has since been replaced by the much more universally recognizable envelope icon. Try to anticipate questions that the audience may have and try to proactively answer them in the presentation if possible; otherwise, be prepared to answer them at the end.
Remember, accountability is a good thing as a speaker, and audience members usually ask pertinent and valid questions, even if you think they arena€™t initially. If someone poses a question that is irrelevant or off track, you can politely ask them to relate it to a main idea from the talk. Countless times, I have seen a speaker only address the second question and then never get back to the first. The content of a briefing is usually a summary of information or a series of distilled facts, so there are rarely elements of persuasion in a briefing or much supporting information. The written final report usually contains much more detail than is included in the oral final report, and this detail is referenced for audience members to consult if they desire more information.Robert B. Despite their frequency and our familiarity with them, meetings are often criticized for being worthless, a waste of time, and unnecessary. Once a new policy or procedure has been determined, a group must decide on the executive components of their decision, such as how it will be implemented and who will have responsibilities in the process.
Make sure the meeting room can accommodate the number of attendees and arrange the seating to a suitable structure, typically one where everyone can see each other.
To help expedite the agenda, put the length of time you think will be needed for each item or category of items on the agenda. Present information succinctly in an executive summary format, building in repetition of main ideas in the oral delivery that arena€™t necessary for the written version.


Good information flow helps prevent employee errors and misunderstandings, which saves money. Use persuasive strategies like positive motivation, and always have a a€?money slidea€? prepared that gets across the essence of what you offer in one attractive message.
Dannels, a€?Time to Speak Up: A Theoretical Framework of Situated Pedagogy and Practice for Communication across the Curriculum,a€? Communication Education 50, no. In many cases, you may have a diverse audience with supervisors, colleagues, and employees, in which case you would need to employ multiple strategies for effective business communication. Writing and reading are slower forms of communication than speaking, and face-to-face speaking uses more human senses, allows for feedback and clarification, and helps establish relationships.Ralph G. Stevens, a€?Listening to People,a€? in Harvard Business Review on Effective Communication (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1999), 15. If an executive or supervisor leaves a presentation with a clear understanding of the main idea, the supporting material and facts will be meaningful when they are reviewed later.
Do, however, tailor your message to the a€?language of executives.a€? Executives and supervisors often have a more macro perspective of an organization and may be concerned with how day-to-day tasks match with the mission and vision of the organization. When effective, this can lead to more cooperation among employees and a greater understanding of the a€?big picturea€? or larger function of an organization. If you cana€™t remember where an idea came from, it may be better to note that it was a a€?group efforta€? than to assume it was yours and risk alienating a colleague. Question-and-answer sessions are a good way to keep information flowing in an organization, and there is more information about handling these sessions in the a€?Getting Competenta€? box in this chapter. Supervisors also send messages, intentional or unintentional, based on where they deliver their presentations.
When first starting a relationship with one of these stakeholders, the communication is likely to be persuasive in nature, trying to convince either a client to take services, a customer to buy a product, or a funding source to provide financing. The point isna€™t to fit as much as you can onto one slide but to best communicate the most important idea or piece of information you have. At the end of your presentation, verbally and nonverbally indicate that the Q&A session is open. If they cana€™t, you can offer to talk to them individually about their question after the session.
By that point, the person who asked the question and the audience have also usually forgotten about the first part of the question.
Ita€™s better to admit that you do not know the answer than to try to fake your way through it.
A speaker may use simple visual aids, like an object or even a one-page handout, but more complex visual aids are usually not appropriate.
For example, a company may be interested in finding the cause of a 15 percent decline in revenue for a branch office.
As the training and development field expands, this informal training is likely to be replaced by more formalized training delivered by training professionals, many of whom will be employees of the company who have been certified to train specific areas. Important training skills include technical skills specific to a discipline, interpersonal skills, organizational skills, and critical thinking skills.
Before you call a meeting, ask yourself if it is necessary, since some issues are better resolved through a phone call, an e-mail, or a series of one-on-one meetings.
Groups that meet daily will develop a higher level of cohesion and be able to work through an agenda quickly with little review.
A meeting leader may also want to divide items up as a€?for information,a€? a€?for discussion,a€? or a€?for decision.a€? Start the meeting by sharing the objective(s) that you determined in your planning.
Dona€™t just focus on the boss if there are other people present, but do connect to the vision and mission of the organization, since most managers and executives have a a€?big picturea€? view of the organization. These messages usually function to inform supervisors about the status or results of projects and provide suggestions for improvement, which can help people feel included in the organizational process and lead to an increased understanding and acceptance of management decisions.Robert B.
However, leaving a presentation with facts but not the main idea may result in the need for another presentation or briefing, which costs an organization time and money. So making this connection explicit in your presentation can help make your presentation stand out. When delivering bad news, frame it in a way that highlights your concern for the health of the organization.
When it is not effective, this can lead to territoriality, rivalry, and miscommunication when speaking across knowledge and task areas that require specialization.Robert B. For example, making people come to the executive conference room may be convenient for the boss but intimidating for other workers.T. Once a relationship is established, communication may take the form of more informative progress reports and again turn persuasive when it comes time to renegotiate or renew a contract or agreement.
Listen closely to what they say and then explain their needs as you see them and how your product or service will satisfy those needs.Robert B.
Note that people from low-context cultures may feel frustrated by the ambiguity of speakers from high-context cultures, while speakers from high-context cultures may feel overwhelmed or even insulted by the level of detail used by low-context communicators. People in the United States often note that they are pursuing the a€?blue ribbona€? prize or standard in their business, which is the color ribbon used to designate second place in the United Kingdom. You can verbally invite questions and nonverbally shift your posture or position to indicate the change in format.
An industrial designer briefing project managers on the preliminary results of testing on a new product design is an example of upward briefing. Investigative reports are also focused on past events and may include a follow-up on a customer or employee complaint. Organizations are investing more time and money in training because they recognize the value in having well-trained employees and then regularly adding to that training with continued development opportunities. Trainers must also be able to adapt to adult learners, who may have more experience than the trainer.
Ask the following questions to help make sure the meeting is necessary: What is the goal of the meeting? Most groups meet less frequently, so there typically needs to be a structured meeting agenda that includes informational items, old business, and new business.
This will help hold you and the other attendees accountable and give you something to assess to determine the value of the meeting. Sometimes people continue to talk even after agreement has been reached, which is usually a waste of time.
Stevens, a€?Listening to People,a€? in Harvard Business Review on Effective Communication (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1999), 14a€“15. Even when such a misunderstanding is due to the executivesa€™ poor listening skills, it will likely be you who is blamed. This is your sales pitch that captures the highlights of what you have to offer that can be delivered in a short time frame. To review some of our earlier discussion, elements of intercultural competence involve the ability to identify potential misunderstandings before they occur, be a high self-monitor, and be aware of how self and others make judgments of value.Jan Ulijn, Dan Oa€™Hair, Matthieu Weggeman, Gerald Ledlow, and H. The long history of family businesses doing business with family businesses in France means that communication at meetings and in business letters operates at a high context. Some question-and-answer periods, like ones after sales pitches or after presentations to a supervisor, may be evaluative, meaning you are being judged in terms of your content and presentation. Answering one a€?off-tracka€? question invites more, which veers the Q&A session further from the main idea. In such cases, do not get into a back-and-forth argument with the person; instead, note that the information you have is different and say you will look into it. A nurse who is the shift manager briefing an incoming shift of nurses on the events of the previous shift is an example of downward briefing. Since they are usually delivered under time constraints and contain important information, brief notes and extemporaneous delivery are effective.Robert B. Training formats usually include a mixture of information presentation formats such as minilecture and discussion as well as experiential opportunities for trainees to demonstrate competence such as role-play, simulation, and case-study analysis and application.
You want to manage the communication within the meeting but still encourage people to speak up and share ideas. There is wide variety of research and resources related to business communication that cannot be included in this section. Larkin and Sandar Larkin, a€?Reaching and Changing Frontline Employees,a€? in Harvard Business Review on Effective Communication (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1999), 152. I recommend developing a thirty-second, one-minute, and two-minute version of your elevator speech and having it on standby at all times. Dates and prices may not be mentioned at all, which could be very frustrating for an American businessperson used to highly detailed negotiations. Others may be more information based, meaning that people ask follow-up questions or seek clarification or more detail.
It also allows speakers to ensure they understood the question correctly by saying something like a€?What I hear you asking isa€¦a€? Once youa€™ve repeated the question, respond to the person who posed the question, but also address the whole audience. You can also verbally reiterate the question to make sure you know which parts need to be addressed, and then address the parts in order. A representative from human resources briefing colleagues on how to use the new workplace identification badges is an example of horizontal briefing. Trainers should remember that adult learners learn best by doing, have previous experience that trainers can and should draw on, have different motivations for learning than typical students, and have more competing thoughts and distractions. How will I judge whether the meeting was successful or not?Antony Jay, a€?How to Run a Meeting,a€? in Harvard Business Review on Effective Communication (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1999), 34. Focus on the positive consequences or benefits that will result from initiating a business relationship with you. The high level of detail used by US Americans may be seen as simplistic or childish to audience members from high-context cultures. Briefings that provide instructions like how to use a new identification badge are called technical briefings,Briefings that provide instructions on the use or function of something. Adult learners often want information distilled down to the a€?bottom linea€?; demonstrating how content is relevant to a specific part of their work duties or personal success is important.
As the president of the graduate student body, I attended a few board of trustees meetings at my university. If youa€™ll recall from Chapter 11 "Informative and Persuasive Speaking", this is similar to Monroea€™s Motivated Sequence organization pattern, which gets the audiencea€™s attention, establishes the existence of a need or problem, presents a solution to fill the need, asks the audience to visualize positive results of adopting the solution, and then calls the audience to action. Include some materials in the native language or include a glossary of terms if youa€™re using specific or new vocabulary.
Be cautious not to overuse the statement a€?Thata€™s a good question.a€? Saying that more than once or twice lessens its sincerity. The chairperson of the committee had a small bell that she would ring when people got off track, engaged in personal conversations, or were being disruptive to the order of the group. As we have already discussed, technical speaking requires an ability to translate unfamiliar or complex information into content that is understandable and manageable for others.



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