UML Collaboration Diagram (UML2.0), UML Diagram, Software Diagram Examples and Templates, UML Diagrams with ConceptDraw PRO, UML Class Diagram Notation, UML Class Diagrams. Business Process Diagram solution extends ConceptDraw PRO software with samples, templates and vector stencils libraries based on the BPMN 2.0 standard. Create your own flow charts of sales business processes using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Cross-Functional Flowcharts solution from the Business Processes area or Sales Flowcharts from the Marketing area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.
Business diagrams & Org Charts with ConceptDraw PRO, Basic Flowchart Symbols and Meaning, Process Flowchart, Sales Process Steps, Work Order Process Flowchart. Event-Driven Process Chain Diagrams solution extends ConceptDraw PRO software with templates, samples and vector stencils library for drawing the EPC flowcharts. Accounting information is a system of processes to represent financial and accounting data that is used by decision makers. ConceptDraw PRO allows you to draw a simple and clear example of DFD for Online Store using special libraries, provided by Data Flow Diagrams Solution. Example of DFD for Online Store shows the Data Flow Diagram for online store and interactions between the Visitors, Customers and Sellers, as well as Website Information and User databases.
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This sample was created in ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software using the UML Deployment Diagram library of the Rapid UML Solution from the Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. This is a€?The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?a€?, chapter 7 from the book English for Business Success (v.
This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS.
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DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. If you think that a blank sheet of paper or a blinking cursor on the computer screen is a scary sight, you are not alone.
Just as you need a recipe, ingredients, and proper tools to cook a delicious meal, you also need a plan, resources, and adequate time to create a good written composition. Effective writing can be simply described as good ideas that are expressed well and arranged in the proper order. Prewriting is the stage of the writing process during which you transfer your abstract thoughts into more concrete ideas in ink on paper (or in type on a computer screen). In addition to understanding that writing is a process, writers also understand that choosing a good general topic for an assignment is an essential step. When selecting a topic, you may also want to consider something that interests you or something based on your own life and personal experiences. Reading plays a vital role in all the stages of the writing process, but it first figures in the development of ideas and topics.
The steps in the writing process may seem time consuming at first, but following these steps will save you time in the future. FreewritingA prewriting strategy in which writers write freely about any topic for a set amount of time (usually three to five minutes). Writing often comes easier when you have a personal connection with the topic you have chosen. Quickly recording your thoughts on paper will help you discover what you have to say about a topic.
You seek the answers to these questions to gain knowledge, to better understand your daily experiences, and to plan for the future.
When Mariah reread her freewriting notes, she found she had rambled and her thoughts were disjointed.
Now that you have completed some of the prewriting exercises, you may feel less anxious about starting a paper from scratch. Write your general topic on your own sheet of paper, under where you recorded your purpose and audience. You may find that you need to adjust your topic as you move through the writing stages (and as you complete the exercises in this chapter). After rereading her syllabus, Mariah realized her general topic, mass media, is too broad for her classa€™s short paper requirement.
From this list, Mariah could narrow her focus to a particular technology under the broad category of mass media. Imagine you have to write an e-mail to your current boss explaining your prior work experience, but you do not know where to start. Idea mappingA prewriting strategy in which writers cluster ideas on paper using circles, lines, and arrows. To create an idea map, start with your general topic in a circle in the center of a blank sheet of paper.
From this idea map, Mariah saw she could consider narrowing the focus of her mass media topic to the more specific topic of music piracy. Using search engines on the Internet is a good way to see what kinds of websites are available on your topic.
When you search the Internet, type some key words from your broad topic or words from your narrowed focus into your browsera€™s search engine (many good general and specialized search engines are available for you to try). If the search engine results are not what you are looking for, revise your key words and search again.
The results from Mariaha€™s search included websites from university publications, personal blogs, online news sources, and lots of legal cases sponsored by the recording industry. In Note 7.12 "Exercise 2", you chose a possible topic and explored it by answering questions about it using the 5WH questions. The following checklist can help you decide if your narrowed topic is a good topic for your assignment. With your narrowed focus in mind, answer the bulleted questions in the checklist for developing a good topic. The steps in the writing process are prewriting, outlining, writing a rough draft, revising, and editing.
Prewriting is the transfer of ideas from abstract thoughts into words, phrases, and sentences on paper. A good topic interests the writer, appeals to the audience, and fits the purpose of the assignment. Writers often choose a general topic first and then narrow the focus to a more specific topic. Your prewriting activities and readings have helped you gather information for your assignment. Order refers to your choice of what to present first, second, third, and so on in your writing.
In longer pieces of writing, you may organize different parts in different ways so that your purpose stands out clearly and all parts of the paper work together to consistently develop your main point.
When you write, your goal is not only to complete an assignment but also to write for a specific purposea€”perhaps to inform, to explain, to persuade, or for a combination of these purposes. One legitimate question readers always ask about a piece of writing is a€?What is the big idea?a€? (You may even ask this question when you are the reader, critically reading an assignment or another document.) Every nonfiction writing taska€”from the short essay to the ten-page term paper to the lengthy senior thesisa€”needs a big idea, or a controlling idea, as the spine for the work. For a longer piece of writing, the main idea should be broader than the main idea for a shorter piece of writing.
The big idea, or controlling idea, you want to present in an essay is expressed in a thesis statementA sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. The recording industry fears that so-called music piracy will diminish profits and destroy markets, but it cannot be more wrong.
Everyone wants the newest and the best digital technology, but the choices are extensive, and the specifications are often confusing.
The first thesis statement you write will be a preliminary thesis statement, or a working thesis statementThe first thesis statement writers use while outlining an assignment. Using the topic you selected in Section 7.1 "Apply Prewriting Models", develop a working thesis statement that states your controlling idea for the piece of writing you are doing. You will make several attempts before you devise a working thesis statement that you think is effective. For an essay question on a test or a brief oral presentation in class, all you may need to prepare is a short, informal outline in which you jot down key ideas in the order you will present them. For a longer assignment, like an essay or a research paper, many college instructors require students to submit a formal outlineA detailed guide that shows how all the supporting ideas in an essay are related to one other. Instructors may also require you to submit an outline with your final draft to check the direction of the assignment and the logic of your final draft.
Use roman numerals (II, III, IV, V, etc.) to identify main points that develop the thesis statement.
Use arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.) if you need to subdivide any As, Bs, or Cs into smaller parts. A topic outline is the same as a sentence outline except you use words or phrases instead of complete sentences. Is my outline in the best ordera€”chronological order, spatial order, or order of importancea€”for me to present my main points? Do I need to make any adjustments in my working thesis statement before I consider it the final version? Word processing programs generally have an automatic numbering feature that can be used to prepare outlines.
A sentence outline is the same as a topic outline except you use complete sentences instead of words or phrases.
The information compiled under each roman numeral will become a paragraph in your final paper.
PowerPoint presentations, used both in schools and in the workplace, are organized in a way very similar to formal outlines.
Expand the topic outline you prepared in Note 7.41 "Exercise 2" to make it a sentence outline.
After gathering and evaluating the information you found for your essay, the next step is to write a working, or preliminary, thesis statement. The working thesis statement expresses the main idea that you want to develop in the entire piece of writing. Effective writers prepare a formal outline to organize their main ideas and supporting details in the order they will be presented. The writera€™s thesis statement begins the outline, and the outline ends with suggestions for the concluding paragraph. DraftingThe stage of the writing process in which the writer develops a complete first version of a piece of writing. Even professional writers admit that an empty page scares them because they feel they need to come up with something fresh and original every time they open a blank document on their computers.
Your objective for this portion of Chapter 7 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?" is to draft the body paragraphs of a standard five-paragraph essay.
What makes the writing process so beneficial to writers is that it encourages alternatives to standard practices while motivating you to develop your best ideas. Of all of these considerations, keeping your purpose and your audience at the front of your mind is the most important key to writing success. You may want to identify your purpose and audience on an index card that you clip to your paper (or keep next to your computer). Many of the documents you produce at work target a particular audience for a particular purpose. Using the topic for the essay that you outlined in Section 7.2 "Outlining", describe your purpose and your audience as specifically as you can. Workplace writing in certain environments is done by teams of writers who collaborate on the planning, writing, and revising of documents, such as long reports, technical manuals, and the results of scientific research.
The collaborative software, or document management systems, that groups use to work on common projects is sometimes called groupware or workgroup support systems. The reviewing tool on some word-processing programs also gives you access to a collaborative tool that many smaller workgroups use when they exchange documents. If you invest some time now to investigate how the reviewing tool in your word processor works, you will be able to use it with confidence during the revision stage of the writing process. If you have been using the information in this chapter step by step to help you develop an assignment, you already have both a formal topic outline and a formal sentence outline to direct your writing. An introductionThe opening paragraph of an essay that piques the audiencea€™s interest, tells what the essay is about, and motivates the audience to keep reading. A thesis statement that presents the main point, or controlling idea, of the entire piece of writing. Supporting sentencesA sentence in the middle part of the paragraph that helps explain, enhance, or prove the topic sentence.
A conclusionThe closing paragraph of an essay that reinforces the thesis statement and leaves the audience with a feeling of completion. These elements follow the standard five-paragraph essay format, which you probably first encountered in high school. Topic sentences make the structure of a text and the writera€™s basic arguments easy to locate and comprehend. Choosing where to position the topic sentence depends not only on your audience and purpose but also on the essaya€™s arrangement, or order.
When you organize information according to spatial order, a topic sentence may appear as the middle sentence in a paragraph.
Developing topic sentences and thinking about their placement in a paragraph will prepare you to write the rest of the paragraph.
The paragraph is the main structural component of an essay as well as other forms of writing. One answer to this important question may be a€?long enougha€?a€”long enough for you to address your points and explain your main idea. Journalistic style often calls for brief two- or three-sentence paragraphs because of how people read the news, both online and in print. You may find that a particular paragraph you write may be longer than one that will hold your audiencea€™s interest.
In all cases, however, be guided by what you instructor wants and expects to find in your draft.
To build your sense of appropriate paragraph length, use the Internet to find examples of the following items. A long paragraph from a scholarly work that you identify through an academic search engine.
Now we are finally ready to look over Mariaha€™s shoulder as she begins to write her essay about digital technology and the confusing choices that consumers face.
You will learn more about writing attention-getting introductions and effective conclusions in Chapter 8 "Writing Essays: From Start to Finish". With her thesis statement and her purpose and audience notes in front of her, Mariah then looked at her sentence outline. If you write your first draft on the computer, consider creating a new file folder for each course with a set of subfolders inside the course folders for each assignment you are given. In your documents, observe any formatting requirementsa€”for margins, headers, placement of page numbers, and other layout mattersa€”that your instructor requires. If you decide to take a break between finishing your first body paragraph and starting the next one, do not start writing immediately when you return to your work.
Preceding each body paragraph that Mariah wrote is the appropriate section of her sentence outline.
Mariah then began her third and final body paragraph using roman numeral IV from her outline. This article considers the approach to content creation; selecting artifacts, creating requirements and linking in context. The first time you sign in to developerWorks, a profile is created for you, so you need to choose a display name. Keep up with the best and latest technical info to help you tackle your development challenges.
DFD Library, Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) with ConceptDraw PRO, Flow chart Example.


On this diagram are used the flowchart symbols that represents the processes and documents. Diagramming Software for Design UML Diagrams, UML Component Diagram Example - Online Shopping, UML Class Diagram Example - Apartment Plan, UML Class Diagram Example - Buildings and Rooms, UML Deployment Diagram Example - ATM System.
DFD Library, Software Diagram Examples and Templates, Gane Sarson Diagram, Data Flow Diagrams, Database Flowchart Symbols, How to Design a Good Workflow, Technical Flow Chart, Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) with ConceptDraw PRO, Software Diagrams. Some applications provide built-in messaging system and automatic error reporting from exception handling blocks. To represent accounting processes there are special symbols which are used to create accounting flowcharts. Flowcharts help users of Accounting Information System to understand the step sequences of accounting processes. You can avoid wasting a lot of time understanding complex concepts as they get clear with different diagrams. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
In other words, writing is a process that requires following steps and using strategies to accomplish your goals. Sometimes your instructor will give you an idea to begin an assignment, and other times your instructor will ask you to come up with a topic on your own. While reading almost any document, you evaluate the authora€™s point of view by thinking about his main idea and his support.
The more you plan in the beginning by reading and using prewriting strategies, the less time you may spend writing and editing later because your ideas will develop more swiftly. Reading prewriting exercises (and outlines and drafts later in the writing process) will further develop your topic and ideas. Remember, to generate ideas in your freewriting, you may also think about readings that you have enjoyed or that have challenged your thinking. The instructor allowed the members of the class to choose their own topics, and Mariah thought about her experiences as a communications major. For example, you could use experience and observations to come up with a topic related to your course studies.
She realized that the topic that interested her most was the one she started with, the media. The purpose of prewriting is to find and explore ideas so that you will be prepared to write.
With some ideas down on paper (or saved on a computer), writers are often more comfortable continuing the writing process.
Choose it from among the topics you listed or explored during the prewriting you have done so far.
If the topic you have chosen is not working, you can repeat the prewriting activities until you find a better one. Generating lots of subtopics will help you eventually select the ones that fit the assignment and appeal to you and your audience. Then, the general topic branches into two subtopics written in two smaller circles: television and radio. Writers use search engines not only to understand more about the topica€™s specific issues but also to get better acquainted with their audience. Some search engines also offer suggestions for related searches that may give you better results. Give careful consideration to the reliability of an online source before selecting a topic based on it. Reading legal jargon made Mariah uncomfortable with the results, so she decided to look further. First, they help you first choose a broad topic and then they help you narrow the focus of the topic to a more specific idea. The more you sort through the pieces of information you found, the more you will begin to see the connections between them.
Most writers discover that the more they know about a topic, the more they can write about it with intelligence and interest.
The writing you complete in all your courses exposes how analytically and critically your mind works.
Your purpose for writing should always be in the back of your mind, because it will help you decide which pieces of information belong together and how you will order them. Each draft of the thesis statement will bring you closer to the wording that expresses your meaning exactly. This kind of outline reminds you to stay focused in a stressful situation and to include all the good ideas that help you explain or prove your point. If you are required to submit an outline with the final draft of a paper, remember to revise the outline to reflect any changes you made while writing the paper. Her purpose is to inform, and her audience is a general audience of her fellow college students. This feature automatically sets indents and lets you use the tab key to arrange information just as you would in an outline. Be sure to observe correct outline form, including correct indentions and the use of Roman and arabic numerals and capital letters.
Point out areas of interest from their outline and what you would like to learn more about. Complete sentences create clarity and can advance you one step closer to a draft in the writing process.
In the previous example, the outline follows the standard five-paragraph essay arrangement, but longer essays will require more paragraphs and thus more roman numerals. PowerPoint presentations often contain information in the form of talking points that the presenter develops with more details and examples than are contained on the PowerPoint slide.
In this outline, be sure to include multiple supporting points for your main topic even if your topic outline does not contain them. Because you have completed the first two steps in the writing process, you have already recovered from empty page syndrome. As long as you complete the assignment on time, you may choose how many paragraphs you complete in one sitting.
These aspects of writing are just as important when you are writing a single paragraph for your essay as when you are considering the direction of the entire essay.
If your purpose is to persuade, for example, you will present your facts and details in the most logical and convincing way you can. On that card, you may want to write notes to yourselfa€”perhaps about what that audience might not know or what it needs to knowa€”so that you will be sure to address those issues when you write.
You may find that it is highly advantageous to know as much as you can about your target audience and to prepare your message to reach that audience, even if the audience is a coworker or your boss. Collaborators do not need to be in the same room, the same building, or even the same city. Strong communication skills, in addition to strong writing skills, are important in this kind of writing situation because disagreements over style, content, process, emphasis, and other issues may arise.
Then, when you start to revise, set your reviewing tool to track any changes you make, so you will be able to tinker with text and commit only those final changes you want to keep. Knowing what a first draft looks like will help you make the creative leap from the outline to the first draft. A topic sentence is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph, and it makes the structure of a text and the writera€™s basic arguments easy to locate and comprehend. This basic format is valid for most essays you will write in college, even much longer ones.
In college writing, using a topic sentence in each paragraph of the essay is the standard rule. The assignmenta€™s audience and purpose will often determine where a topic sentence belongs. When you organize information according to order of importance, the topic sentence may be the final sentence in a paragraph. You may discover topic sentences that are not always located at the beginning of a paragraph. Each paragraph of an essay adds another related main idea to support the writera€™s thesis, or controlling idea. To grab attention or to present succinct supporting ideas, a paragraph can be fairly short and consist of two to three sentences. In such cases, you should divide the paragraph into two or more shorter paragraphs, adding a topic statement or some kind of transitional word or phrase at the start of the new paragraph.
Many instructors will expect you to develop a mature college-level style as you progress through the semestera€™s assignments.
Copy them into a file, identify your sources, and present them to your instructor with your annotations, or notes. Take notes on, or annotate, your selection with your observations about the effect of combining paragraphs that develop the same topic idea.
As she does, you should have in front of you your outline, with its thesis statement and topic sentences, and the notes you wrote earlier in this lesson on your purpose and audience. Notice how the outline helped her guarantee that all her sentences in the body of the paragraph develop the topic sentence. Label the folders clearly with the course names, and label each assignment folder and word processing document with a title that you will easily recognize. She had supporting details but no numbered subpoints in her outline, so she had to consult her prewriting notes for specific information to include. Notice how she expanded roman numeral III from her outline into a first draft of the second body paragraph. The series covers four key areas: audience, organizing the project and repository space, linking strategy, and collaboration strategy. She has worked in the software development field for 16 years in consulting and technical sales roles.
Selecting artifactsAn artifact is a work product created for practical software development purposes. Your display name must be unique in the developerWorks community and should not be your email address for privacy reasons.
Use a variety of drawing tools, smart connectors and shape libraries to create flowcharts of complex processes, procedures and information exchange.
Warehouse Flowchart, Business diagrams & Org Charts with ConceptDraw PRO, Pyramid Diagram, Cross-Functional Flowchart, How To Create a Flow Chart in ConceptDraw, Material Requisition Flowchart. Use ConceptDraw PRO with Accounting Flowcharts solution to document and communicate visually how accounting processes work, and how each operation is done.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (33 MB) or just this chapter (9 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). When faced with a blank page, however, experienced writers remind themselves that writing, like other everyday activities, is a process. Although many more prewriting strategies exist, this chapter covers six: using experience and observations, freewriting, asking questions, brainstorming, mapping, and searching the Internet. A good topic not only covers what an assignment will be about but also fits the assignmenta€™s purposeThe reason(s) why a writer creates a document. The first important step is for you to tell yourself why you are writing (to inform, to explain, or some other purpose) and for whom you are writing.
After writers think about their experiences and observations, they often take notes on paper to better develop their thoughts. For example, a magazine advertising the latest research on the threat of global warming may catch your eye in the supermarket. When you judge the authora€™s argument, you discover more about not only the authora€™s opinion but also your own.
As you continue to follow the writing process, you will see how Mariah uses critical reading skills to assess her own prewriting exercises. She used this freewriting exercise to help her generate more concrete ideas from her own experience.
Then you could use freewriting to describe your topic in more detail and figure out what you have to say about it.
As you choose your topic, answering these questions can help you revisit the ideas you already have and generate new ways to think about your topic.
A prewriting technique like asking questions can help you both find a topic and explore it. As with Mariah when she explored her writing topic for more detail, it is OK if you do not know all the answers. Mariah also realized that although her readers are other communications majors who are interested in the topic, they may want to read a paper about a particular issue in mass media.
This technique is also known as clustering because ideas are broken down and clustered, or grouped together. Searching the Internet may help you find answers to your questions and confirm your guesses. Remember that factual information can be verified in other sources, both online and in print.
Reviewing her map, she realized that she was more interested in consumer aspects of mass media, so she refocused her search to media technology and the sometimes confusing array of expensive products that fill electronics stores.
Here, in Note 7.21 "Exercise 3", choose and complete one of the prewriting strategies to narrow the focus. If you answer a€?noa€? to any of the questions, think about another topic or adjust the one you have and try the prewriting strategies again. In some courses, the only direct contact you may have with your instructor is through the assignments you write for the course. For example, when telling a story, it may be important to first describe the background for the action. In other words, choose the order that will most effectively fit your purpose and support your main point.
Ask yourself, a€?How many pages will it take for me to explain and explore this main idea in detail?a€? Be reasonable with your estimate. A formal outline is a detailed guide that shows how all your supporting ideas relate to each other. Although in business this style might be acceptable, in college your instructor might have different requirements. If you think that a paragraph might become too long or stringy, add an additional paragraph to your outline, renumbering the main points appropriately.
If you are more comfortable starting on paper than on the computer, you can start on paper and then type it before you revise.
Are you writing for experts, for a general audience, for other college students, or for people who know very little about your topic? It may be a good idea to also state exactly what you want to explain to that audience, or to inform them of, or to persuade them about. During revising, you will have the opportunity to make changes to your first draft before you put the finishing touches on it during the editing and proofreading stage. These can be specific facts, examples, anecdotes, or other details that elaborate on the topic sentence.
However, the topic sentence does not always have to be the first sentence in your paragraph even if it the first item in your formal outline. However, as you begin to express your ideas in complete sentences, it might strike you that the topic sentence might work better at the end of the paragraph or in the middle.
When the purpose of the assignment is to persuade, for example, the topic sentence should be the first sentence in a paragraph. A reader may first need a visual in his or her mind before understanding the development of the paragraph. For example, fiction writers customarily use topic ideas, either expressed or implied, to move readers through their texts. Each related main idea is supported and developed with facts, examples, and other details that explain it.
A paragraph in a complex essay about some abstract point in philosophy or archaeology can be three-quarters of a page or more in length.
Readers often skim the first paragraphs of a great many articles before settling on the handful of stories they want to read in detail.
As you read, ask yourself how closely she stayed on purpose and how well she paid attention to the needs of her audience.
This reflects the need to determine the audience, decide which artifacts will help agree and validate requirements, and the need to plan a collaboration strategy with the audience.


Her primary responsibilities have included eliciting, managing, and documenting requirements for business and systems analysis, as well as supporting customers in their quests for success in software development. Although some artifacts might be final, deliverable work products, many artifacts are intermediate work products produced and used during a project.
This sample can be used by the bank, financial enterprises, for understanding the work of the credit card processing system at the projecting the banking systems. The technician will also ensure that enough information about the problem is obtained from the customer. Every process, from writing to cooking, bike riding, and learning to use a new cell phone, will get significantly easier with practice. Using the strategies in this chapter can help you overcome the fear of the blank page and confidently begin the writing process. Write your purpose and your audience on your own sheet of paper, and keep the paper close by as you read and complete exercises in this chapter.
If this step already seems daunting, remember that even the best writers need to use prewriting strategies to generate ideas. Once you start writing with few limitations, you may find you have more to say than you first realized.
You may also discover aspects of the topic that are unfamiliar to you and that you would like to learn more about.
The key to effective prewriting is to use the techniques that work best for your thinking process.
Many writers like this method because the shapes show how the ideas relate or connect, and writers can find a focused topic from the connections mapped. From there, Mariah drew more circles and wrote more specific ideas: high definition and digital recording from cable and Blu-ray from DVDs. If you have doubts about any information you find, either do not use it or identify it as potentially unreliable. Now, Mariah considers a paper topic on the products that have fed the mass media boom in everyday lives.
But only when you start to organize your ideas will you be able to translate your raw insights into a form that will communicate meaning to your audience. Or you may need to first describe a 3-D movie projector or a television studio to help readers visualize the setting and scene.
Later, when you draft paragraphs in the next stage of the writing process, you will add support to create a€?flesha€? and a€?musclea€? for your assignment.
The thesis statement is not the topic of the piece of writing but rather what you have to say about that topic and what is important to tell readers.
As you continue to develop the arrangement, you can limit your working thesis statement if it is too broad or expand it if it proves too narrow for what you want to say. It helps you distinguish between ideas that are of equal importance and ones that are of lesser importance.
She then arranges her main points and supporting details in outline form using short phrases in parallel grammatical structure.
Teach yourself how to customize the levels of outline numbering in your word-processing program to fit your instructora€™s preferences.
You can also use a voice recorder to get yourself started, dictating a paragraph or two to get you thinking.
Although paragraphs may vary in length, keep in mind that short paragraphs may contain insufficient support. Keep asking yourself what your readers, with their background and experience, need to be told in order to understand your ideas. Descriptions like a€?organic romainea€? and a€?free-range chickena€? are intended to appeal to a certain type of customer though perhaps not to the same customer who craves a thick steak. In a persuasive essay, the writera€™s point of view should be clearly expressed at the beginning of each paragraph. Chronological order may also position the topic sentence as the final sentence because the controlling idea of the paragraph may make the most sense at the end of a sequence. When the topic sentence is in the middle, it unites the details that come before it with the ones that come after it.
In nonfiction writing, such as popular magazines, topic sentences are often used when the author thinks it is appropriate (based on the audience and the purpose, of course). By exploring and refining one main idea at a time, writers build a strong case for their thesis.
As long as the writer maintains close focus on the topic and does not ramble, a long paragraph is acceptable in college-level writing.
You will read her introduction again in Section 7.4 "Revising and Editing" when she revises it. The roman numeral II identifies the topic sentence for the paragraph, capital letters indicate supporting details, and arabic numerals label subpoints.
Then copy sentences from Mariaha€™s paragraph to align each sentence with its corresponding entry in her outline. If she had stopped writing in the middle of writing the paragraph, she could have jotted down some quick notes to herself about what she would write next. The last section sets out a plan for reviewing and improving the process for the next time. Lisa is a Rational Requirements Definition and Management Regional Mentor in the UK and joined Rational software in 2002.
Currently, she works as a Rational brand architect and leads the UK Rational Brand Architects team.
This information generally includes the environment of the customer, when and how the issue occurs, and all other relevant circumstances. Or maybe a novela€™s courtroom drama sparks your curiosity of a particular lawsuit or legal controversy. To see how asking questions can help you choose a topic, take a look at the following chart that Mariah completed to record her questions and answers.
You may also use factual information from books or articles you previously read on your topic.
Start with a blank sheet of paper (or a blank computer document) and write your general topic across the top.
Using idea mapping, you might discover interesting connections between topics that you had not thought of before. The radio topic led Mariah to draw connections between music, downloads versus CDs, and, finally, piracy.
You may want to group your support effectively to convince readers that your point of view on an issue is well reasoned and worthy of belief.
In this lesson, Mariah does all her work on the computer, but you may use pen and paper or the computer to write a rough draft. How can you best express your ideas so they are totally clear and your communication is effective? Similarly, mail-order companies research the demographics of the people who buy their merchandise.
In general, try to keep the paragraphs longer than one sentence but shorter than one full page of double-spaced text. Artifact types included in Rational Requirements ComposerArtifacts communicate and validate an understanding of the problem to be solved.
If you get stuck, just copy the same word or phrase over and over until you come up with a new thought.
She asked herself the questions that reporters and journalists use to gather information for their stories. Later in the chapter, you will read about additional ways (like searching the Internet) to answer your questions and explore your guesses. Successful vendors customize product descriptions in catalogs to appeal to their buyersa€™ tastes. For more information on topic sentences, please see Chapter 5 "Writing Paragraphs: Separating Ideas and Shaping Content".
Instead, save the draft with a new tag after the titlea€”draft 1, draft 2, and so ona€”so that you will have a complete history of drafts in case your instructor wishes you to submit them.
The questions are often called the 5WH questionsThe questions that reporters and journalists use to gather information for their stories and that writers use in the writing process: Who? Think of your general topic as a broad category and the list items as things that fit in that category. As a guideline, try to write paragraphs longer than one sentence but shorter than the length of an entire double-spaced page. Try setting an alarm to limit your break, and when the time is up, return to your desk to write. For example, the product descriptions in a skateboarder catalog will differ from the descriptions in a clothing catalog for mature adults.
Business stakeholders are expected to participate in validating both the problem and the solution.
Often you will find that one item can lead to the next, creating a flow of ideas that can help you narrow your focus to a more specific paper topic.
Project team members are expected to create pertinent artifacts to describe the problem and the solution in a way that is understandable to the appropriate stakeholders.
Possible artifactsArtifact typeDescription, advice, considerations Glossary term Definitions of words used. A Run Book Automation process that implements best practices for these workflows and increases IT personnel effectiveness is becoming very common." [Issue tracking system. If users have tools to open the artifacts on their computers, they will be able to view the files.
This can help stakeholders relate to the context of the user interfaces and the context of storyboards. As a result, the requirements themselves might represent only a small subset of the overall content.The full details might not be interesting to all audiences. Scenarios, stories, and visualization inherently provide a good structure to help users understand what the system will do.The requirements list, alone, can serve as a checklist and input to all ongoing software development activities. For the most part, marking requirements provides a way to track what's in scope and then to query the information, using attribute groups (business priority, origin, and so forth). It also provides a vital input to planning, testing, development and all ongoing development activities. The team might want to wait until there is some stability before starting to undertake this activity. When there is a need to start planning, designing, or testing even a part of the system, a requirements list that can be tracked becomes pivotal.Requirements can be created (or "marked") in the context of where they occur, either in text or visual models.
Within the Stakeholder Collaboration Strategy, requirements can be given a primary artifact type based on where they are created (for example, a feature type in the vision document or task type in the business process).
This provides some high-level business context to help understand whether the solution requirements fit the purpose in the context of the business process. Back to topArtifact templatesTemplates offer the ability to reuse standard headings, formats, and data. Artifact templates exist to provide a consistent approach and format to standard artifacts. For example, a template could be set up for use case descriptions and for a vision document.
Creating and setting up templates is part of project administration, although it can be done on-the-fly when necessary.
In instances where an entire artifact could be used as a template, that artifact can be identified as a template for reuse.Table shows several possible corporate templates and the ones selected for this project. Context links reflect that artifacts are related in some way (in a similar way to a mind map).
This could be between a high-level requirement and a more detailed requirement or even from a business rule to any requirement. At the time of writing, Rational Requirements Composer is intended to be used for context links, which is why it is the focus for this article. The artifact linking strategy provides a framework to aid contextual understanding, as well as for extracting information into custom reports. Effective collaboration is aided by using a standard way to specify, read, and navigate.TipThe web client makes it easier for stakeholders to review artifacts, so think twice before creating unnecessary reports. This approach might also make a more flexible linking strategy practical, given that reports do not pose a constraint.Be aware, though, that contributing business stakeholders, in particular, might want to add artifacts more freely.
If this is the case, you could serve them by providing a simple structure, such as a few folders named according to functional areas of the system under consideration. Use tagging and filters to provide a more informal way of organizing and helping people find appropriate resources.Alternatively, one possible linking strategy allows people to link any artifact with any other artifacts or elements.
The disadvantage is that it could become more difficult to understand and find information. It is advisable to involve both business and IT representatives in deciding the approach.Figure 2. Default Rational Requirements Composer linksRational Requirements Composer contains a number of default context links out-of-the-box. The links are by no means mandatory, however, the user interface does make these links especially easy to add and navigate. Do not feel constrained by the suggested links – the team needs to adopt a linking strategy that suits its own project, process and people.The diagram in Figure 3 shows an example of a linking strategy that could be used in conjunction with the shared vision, use case development, and storyboard practices. Examples of links with use case development, shared vision, and storyboard practicesThe storyboard can be used to illustrate either a business process or a use case.
The storyboards that map to use cases are for more specific realizations that relate to the detailed content of the use case. You need to make a judgment about which of the modeled scenarios help to elicit, understand, and verify the requirements of the system and which of the others simply repeat existing functionality. Of course, not all requirements can be represented visually.As an alternative to a storyboard, you can use a screen flow to summarize flows between UI sketches. This deviates, however, from a scenario-based approach that will be easier for most business stakeholders to fully understand.Typically, a use case flow diagram is needed only occasionally for a very complex use case, where the use case flow artifact is modeled using a business process diagram. At the same time, some organizations prefer to use an annotated flow diagram rather than use case text. Examples of links for disciplined agile software developmentThis diagram shows a sample linking strategy for disciplined agile development. Notice that storyboards can be used to illustrate the realization of user stories or epics. Likewise, a business process diagram or business use case diagram could have appeared on this example to illustrate an epic. Of course, within an agile approach only specifications and links that add value would be used. However, it is not currently possible to link requirements to requirements or to query their traceability.As discussed previously, requirements can be marked up (created and embedded) in a variety of visual and text elements and artifacts. Note:The embedded requirement content is updated in the document when the requirement is modified and saved. It is also possible to link these same requirements to any number of visual and textual artifacts.
These links are there for context, to aid understanding of the requirements.The embedded requirements can by used for scenario modeling. For example, a requirement could be created for each alternative flow, and then these can be embedded in scenarios and use cases. Cross-project links and reuse across the repositoryIt is possible to link across projects and reuse elements across projects. This is particularly useful for reusable components, such as glossary items and UI sketches. When reusable elements are modified, all projects that are reusing that element also receive the modified version of that element. For example, when a label is changed on a part name, all UI sketches that reuse this part are automatically updated with the new label.It is also useful for enterprise level-business process sketches that can then be modified or extended by various projects.
All too often, projects are developed in isolation from each other, and the people involved are unaware that they are duplicating effort.Back to topSummaryThis article described selecting artifacts and then creating requirements within artifacts and linking them to create a web of information. The next article will describe how people can best collaborate in context, from formation of early ideas through review and approval to other parts of the software development life cycle, such as testing.Back to topAcknowledgementsThe authors thank Robin Bater, Rational Requirements Definition and Management Community of Practice Architect, and Daniel Moul, Market Management Offering Manager for Requirements Definition and Management, for their technical reviews and encouragement.



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