Five Part Series – Download a description of The Management Map workshop series including selected learning by session with assignments. Moving from an individual contributor to a manager is one of the biggest leaps someone can make in his or her career. Their DiSC Management Style: How DiSC affects management style, examining their priorities as managers.
Working with Your Manager: To influence and communicate effectively with their managers by meeting their DiSC needs and preferences.
We continue to build a set of downloadable forms including certificates, different scheduling ideas, an invitation letter to participants, and others. This is a great tool for the first time manager as well as a refresher for any other manager.
Deborah Avrin has collected a wealth of information from her own journey as a manager, coach, HR director, and teacher Her book is filled with concrete ideas that can be implemented on day one by a new manager of by an experienced manager who has learned the "hard way" and who is now seeking a source of best practices. It's not every educator who sees a teaching opportunity in a forest-munching nondescript brownish-gray moth. And not just an opportunity to inform her students, but her community as well about the spruce budworm, a cyclical pest of spruce and fir trees that is now poised to reappear in the Maine woods after a decades-long absence, with potentially devastating effect. For Linscott, it's a topical and timely subject, especially for the Penobscot County town, whose 900-plus people have a more intimate connection with the forest than in many other places, including many other towns in Maine. The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, is a native insect pest that periodically ravages the spruce-fir forests of the U.S.
It's actually not the brownish-gray adult moth that does the damage, but its larvae, which eat young needles and buds. Spruce Budworm CaterpillarThe budworm has devastated millions of acres in Quebec and traps are showing increasing numbers of moths in Maine.
Linscott teaches physics and environmental science at Lee Academy, a tiny private high school that serves Lee and other area towns, but also accepts students from elsewhere.
Students in her service learning class, all seniors, have been learning about the budworm's life cycle, its history in the region and its effects on forest ecology and the forest economy. Posters about the life cycle of the budworm will be displayed, the results of a collaboration between Linscott and art teacher Emily Rideout, whose students were encouraged to paint or draw endangered or invasive species. Linscott said she also hopes to get a handful of students to volunteer to take part in another budworm-related research project over the summer - hanging and checking pheromone traps that would help scientists monitor the moth population in the state.
Voigt Toby, one of Linscott's students, said she's found the spruce budworm an "extremely interesting species" to study. Coolong, the MFS district forester, said while older people may remember the last outbreak, Toby and her classmates may be the exception when it comes to younger people.
Efforts like Linscott's are important because they make people aware of biological events that have far reaching economic and physical impacts on our region," said Coolong.
Budworm Damaged Fir Trees During Earlier OutbreakSherry Huber is the executive director of the Maine TREE Foundation, which sponsors Project Learning Tree (PLT) in Maine, and a member of the state's Spruce Budworm Communications Committee.
Getting the facts about the budworm to young people is a critical part of the overall effort to get the public to understand "the impacts of a budworm population explosion, including damage to the forest and wildlife, economic impacts, and what actions are being taken to mitigate the damage and how the forest is recovering," Huber said. For her part, Linscott likes Project Learning Tree's emphasis on bringing a variety of subjects - whether math, science or writing - into one lesson. And, she loves the forest and thinks kids should get out in the woods more, and not just for their physical health, but because it's a bigger part of their lives.
In 1962 Rachel Carson’s classic enviro-expose Silent Spring was published, laying out how indiscriminate pesticide use was decimating nature, particularly bird populations. The book helped shape the environmental movement and led to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency and some of the United States’ most enduring environmental legislation. Some old threats remain, and new ones have emerged -- loss of breeding habitat, loss of wintering habitat to deforestation in the tropics, industrial agriculture that eliminates brushy field borders, light pollution that steers migrants off course and into fatal impacts with skyscrapers. Today, northeastern North America, with its verdant and extensive woodlands, is a vital habitat for many songbird species that live there year round and the migratory species that come in the spring to court, nest, and raise young. Maine Audubon Society Wildlife Biologist Susan Gallo said, “The northeast and Maine is a hotspot for breeding forest birds compared to the rest of the country. The Forest Guild and Maine Audubon, supported by the Maine Forest Service, have been developing a Forestry for Maine Birds program to educate foresters, loggers and landowners about how various forest management techniques can be used to enhance habitat for birds.
Foresters are used to looking at trees -- assessing size, condition and potential use and value. The guidebook, Forestry for Maine Birds, uses 20 bird species and four forest types to show how forestry affects birds. The birds focused on in the book are a diverse lot, ranging from the American Woodcock to the Bay-breasted The Scarlet Tanager likes interior hardwood forests and has a preference for a mostly closed canopy and oak trees. The Ovenbird, a largish ground-nesting warbler, for instance, likes an open understory and deep leaf litter for its  domed nest. It is these needs and preferences that make it impossible to manage a small woodlot for all species of birds. The silvicultural treatments recommended by the soon-to-be-printed foresters’ guide are well known, said Mahaffey. The workshops and guidebook emphasize seeing the forest in terms of vertical and horizontal layers, from the duff that makes up the forest floor to downed deadwood, the understory, the middle levels, to the canopy. And changes in that forest will in turn affect the birds that call it home, benefitting some and not others.
One place where forestry research and birds have been studied together is the Holt Research Forest in Arrowsic.
Any timber harvest will affect birds, but it’s the intensity of the harvest that governs which, and how many, species will be affected, said Andrew Whitman, a senior scientist with the Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, which has done research on how clearcutting and partial cutting affect bird populations. At Hidden Valley Nature Center in Jefferson -- the northeast region Outstanding Tree Farm for 2014 -- wildlife, especially birds, is factored into the timber harvesting equation. While working to maintain a mature forest, Hidden Valley is also trying to create more diversity in the canopy height. Manomet’s Whitman said that, in central and southern Maine controlling White-tailed Deer populations and invasive species should be priorities as well. Invasive species -- mainly imported exotics from elsewhere in the world, such as Japanese Barberry and Oriental Bittersweet, can crowd out native vegetation. Joe Rankin writes on forestry, nature and sustainability from his home and woodlot in central Maine.
Merrill had started thinning this 27-acre woodlot off Route 2 in East Wilton just this morning.
The sophisticated processor is one of several types of mechanical harvesting equipment first introduced in the state on the vast timberlands of northern Maine in the 1970s and 80s.
The first whole tree mechanical harvesters were introduced in the 1980s, most of European design or based on it, said Dana Doran, the executive director of the Professional Logging Contractors of Maine, whose 100 A grapple skidder at work in New Gloucester at a Maine Custom Woodlands harvest site. In the 1990s the equipment and designs proliferated, Doran said, driven by demand for wood and the rocketing cost of workers compensation insurance for chainsaw cutters doing a dangerous job. Dana Poulin uses a Tigercat dangle-head processor to limb out and cut pulpwood to length at a harvest site in Manchester. Contractors use various combinations of equipment, depending on what the job calls for, what the landowner wants or what they can afford. In Manchester, Dana Poulin and his father Larry, of Gerard Poulin & Sons, were logging a 17-acre parcel that consisted of mostly young trees that would end up as pulpwood. Even though the father-son team had some duplication in his Tigercat dangle-head processor and feller buncher, Dana Poulin said he still likes the combination. The feller buncher, particularly, proves useful on dense stands of young trees that needed thinning, something that would be tedious to handle with a processor. Cushman, a forester himself, said he got into the logging business in 1993 and by 1998 was all mechanical.
Merrill notes that his CAT fixed head process has a width on the tracks of eight feet, six inches and its boom can reach out over 20 feet to cut a tree. The Professional Logging Contractors of Maine is working working with Maine’s Community College System to set up a post-secondary training program. Merrill is glad he took the leap to mechanical harvesters, and all these years later he still gets a thrill out of operating his machine.
Joe Rankin writes on forestry, nature, and sustainability for Forests for Maine’s Future and other publications from his home and woodlot in central Maine. Sometimes, on a winter night, staring at red-hot coals in the wood stove, it’s not hard to see how harnessing fire put us on a course of global domination and civilization-building. We’ve come a long way since we huddled in a cave as a haunch of antelope seared over the flames in a rock The sometimes mesmerizing look of a fire blazing in a wood stove. While stick firewood is still the most common version sold, wood pellet stoves are becoming more popular. Ten years later oil prices shot up and stayed high, persuading more people to think about alternatives to oil and propane.
Firewood dealers range from the person cutting and splitting a few dozen cords a year off their own woodlot to companies that do a few hundred cords to a few thousand. Northern Lights Hearth and Sports owners Marty Farnum, left and Todd Richard in the showroom of their Farmington store.
Moore said he and business partner Steve Burton do seasoned firewood and kiln-dried firewood. The cost of wood is cheaper than oil, but largely because they buy logs and do the cutting and splitting. If oil prices stay low some people may be seduced into filling their tanks and letting thei firewood piles dwindle said Moore, though not everyone will.
And, it is one of those trees that responds predictably and readily to a handful of management rules.
The eastern white pine, Pinus strobus, grows throughout eastern North America, from South Carolina northward to Quebec and Newfoundland, from the Atlantic to Minnesota.


At the Ordway Grove in Norway, Maine, you can see venerable specimens that exceed 100 feet in height and probably are a century and a half to two centuries old. Today the EasternOldList, an online database of old trees, says the oldest white pine in North America is a 408-year-old specimen growing at Swan Lake in Algonquin Provincial Park in Ontario, along with 11 other giants that range in age from 297 to 354 years old.
In Maine, at the time of settlement, pines were scattered throughout the forest, particularly on rocky ridges and The range of the eastern white pine.sandy outwash plains.
Mast-suitable white pines 24 inches in diameter 12 inches from the ground or larger, growing on ungranted lands within three miles of a navigable waterway were reserved for naval use.
These days Maine saws about twice as much spruce and fir lumber as it does white pine, but pine lumber is still one of the state’s most valuable forest products. Maine is the largest producer of white pine lumber in the nation, by far,” according to Jeff Easterling, the president of the Northeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association. The state produces some 200 million board feet of pine lumber each year at handful of huge high-tech sawmills. Lloyd Irland, a Wayne, Maine-based forest economist and president of The Irland Group, said at a rough estimate the state’s large pine mills probably employ 400 to 500, with another 100 to 200 in separate value-added companies.
The white pine-oak forest ecotype covers an estimated one million acres of the state, mainly in southern Maine, according to an article by Irland and Maine Forest Service Biometrician Ken Laustsen in Woodlands, the newsletter of the Small Woodland Owners Association of Maine. Seymour, the University of Maine professor, has been doing research on eastern white pines in the University Forests and at the Penobscot Experimental Forest since he came to the school in the 1980s.
Seymour has found that white pines can really put on the board feet when they’re thinned to about 30 per acre.
The blister rust is a fungus that spends part of its life cycle on plants of the genus Ribes -- gooseberries and currants. For Laustsen that raises a red flag: Where is the next generation of pines going to come from.
On sandy soils along the coast pine will grow back in almost pure stands, but those soils generally tend to be more infertile.
When it comes to quality, back in 1971 only 7 percent of sawlogs were classified as Grade 1 or 2.
Volume, quality, and availability are all important factors in pine production, but there’s also the market to contend with.
Irland said plantation-grown Monterrey pine, also known as radiata pine, mainly from Chile and New Zealand, has eaten into the white pine market. It would be nice to think that it was all going to change, that paper is going to surge back in the state, bringing with it jobs and fringes and good times.
Expera Specialty Solutions, a Wisconsin-based manufacturer of specialty papers, announced in mid-November that it had sealed a deal to buy the Old Town Fuel and Fiber mill, which closed in August. Woodland Pulp LLC is spending $120 million to add two tissue machines at its Woodland pulp mill.
Louisiana Pacific invested more than $140 million in its New Limerick mill to allow production of laminated strand lumber. Maibec, a Canadian company, announced plans to buy Fraser Timber’s lumber mill in Masardis.
Pride Manufacturing in Burnham will be the new maker of the Lincoln Logs, the iconic kids’ building toy, which had been made in China.
Corinth Wood Pellets plans to spend $7 million upgrading its pellet plant and will add 18 new jobs over the next two years.
The jobs being created by new investments are sprinkled across the state, 100 here, 140 there; 10 here, 20 there. Still, the country is still struggling out of the worst economic downturn since the Great Depression.
The impressive thing, said Irland, who toured the new facility, is that Irving elected to start over, not to retrofit the old Pinkham sawmill.
Brochu estimates that sawmills in the state average more than $10 million a year on improvements. Irland somewhat ruefully notes that no one saw coming the tsunami of change that hit paper, lumber and wood products in the 1990s and into the new millenium -- land selloffs by paper companies, takeover mania, consolidation in the sawmill industry, the near wholesale move of wood products manufacturing to China, the Internet’s devastating effect on newspaper circulation. Still, Irland says it’s a good sign that investment and interest is coming from people and companies with a passion for their product, not just the amount of money it can realize. The closure of a big market for wood, in a state with fewer and fewer of them, is a big deal.
It is thorough and provides practical, essential information for new leaders in all industries… experienced managers may want to take a peek as well. Deborah Avrin covers management in an easy-to-understand style which makes the book an excellent resource. According to the Center for Research on Sustainable Forests at the University of Maine, the coming outbreak may not be as bad as the last one.
The public forum they are planning for May 25 at Mallett Hall in Lee will feature experts on the budworm, including forest entomologist Allison Kanoti and Maine Forest Service District Forester Terri Coolong. Toby, 18, said she finds it fascinating that the insect does the most damage to the forest early in its three-stage life cycle. DDT, one of the main chemical The Black-throated Blue Warbler likes large tracts of contiguous forest with a dense understory where it can build its nest in a fork of a small tree.
Then there is climate change, which could cause some species to miss their connections with food sources at key times, or eliminate their habitat.
A guidebook for foresters -- Forestry for Maine Birds -- is expected to be printed this spring. But surveys show that most small woodlot owners are less interested in the economics of a timber harvest than they are in enjoying their woodland by walking there and watching wildlife. But Gallo notes that all the species highlighted in Forestry for Maine Birds “represent broader habitat needs. So, while it’s good to take a landscape-scale look-around, a landowner still has to work with what they have.
At Hidden Valley they’re working to maintain a continuous canopy forest, since much of the surrounding lands have been heavily cut or are recovering farmland, said Director Andy McEvoy. Often their fruits or seeds aren’t as nutritious or useful to North American birds as those of native species. But he was making good headway, despite deep snow, thanks to his 2010 model Cat 501 processor.
Over the past two decades they have become common on smaller woodlots in the southern part of the state.
Today 80 percent of the 600 or so logging contractors in Maine are using mechanical harvesting, he said.
Those big articulated tractors are meant to pull tree stems out of the woods after a chainsaw operator has felled and delimbed them. Tom Doak, the executive director of the Small Woodland Owners Association of Maine, said many landowners are taken aback when a processor rolls off the truck, worrying what it will do to their land. He knows of one landowner who would take a cup of coffee and sit on a stump and watch the work. It contracts with both chainsaw-cable skidder operators and mechanical contractors, depending on the parcel and the job. Census figures show that between 2005 and 2012 the use of wood as a fuel jumped 50 percent in the northeastern U.S.
Census BureauFor most consumers, price is probably the primary reason for their choice of wood heat. Reed’s Firewood in Durham, for instance, produces about 3,500 cords a year for 1,000 customers in some two dozen towns.
Competition from other fuels iis one; perceptions of the industry another, said Scott Salveson, the director of the fledgling National Firewood Association, formed three years ago to represent firewood dealers, processors and wood stove companies.
Stories abound of customers overcharged; or stuck with short loads, low value wood, or green wood instead of dry.
They put up about eight cords a year to feed the wood furnace in their house near Rangeley and two residences they serve as caretakers for. In fact, it’s probably one of the factors behind the growth in pellet stoves, which today hold a 30 percent market share. In Maine the EasternOldList dates two found in Acadia National Park to 154 and 147 years old.
Direct employment wages might total $15 to $20 million.There would be additional jobs and activity in the logging supply chain, such as trucking, he emphasized. Despite the apparent loss of pine area, these forest types still represent about 25 percent of the timberland acres” in southern Maine. In shelterwood the overstory is thinned, letting light in to the forest floor but providing some shade.
In the fall of a heavy cone year (eastern white pines drop cones every second or third year), simply “drive over every square inch of ground dragging a dead tree. Two pests in particular pose a headache for forest landowners -- white pine blister rust and the white pine weevil. Ribes eradication programs of the early 20th century and a continued ban in Maine on planting of domesticated gooseberry and currant bushes has not eliminated the disease, but has done much to keep it in check. It’s a common and widespread pest of white, red, and jack pines as well as Norway and Colorado spruce and other conifers. He said he’s been told by a consulting forester that regenerating a pine stand is a simple matter. In 2012 the percentage of pine logs graded 1 or 2 stood at an astonishing 55 percent, said Laustsen and Irland in their pine article. The mill closure story has been repeated with numbing and disheartening regularity over the past couple of decades across Maine, the entire northeast and eastern Canada. The mill employs 135 people and can produce more than 100 million board feet of softwood lumber annually.


He’s the co-president of Pleasant River Lumber Co, which has four ultra-modern mills in the state -- three full-service sawmill-dry kiln-planer operations and a dry-kiln planer mill. Both companies are focused on paper, he said, adding that a focus on the Pleasant River Lumber Co.'s Sanford pine mill.
Companies like Enviro-mats of New Portland, which uses low-grade lumber to make bolt-together erosion control mats; Cousineau Lumber Co. In the chapters on company expectations, knowing companions, and license to manage she covers fundamentals that should be in every company's supervisor training and manager orientation materials. The Management Map forges such a partnership with the reader in one straightforward resource.
But it will still "have a significant negative impact on the spruce-fir forest and forest landowners in northern Maine, as well as on the supply of spruce-fir for the forest products industry for the next two decades or more." The state's Spruce Budworm Task Force has issued a report with details about the budworm and recommendations for a response to the threat. She is a facilitator for Project Learning Tree, an award-winning environmental education program, who is interested in doing anything she can to promote forest education. She said what's she's learned has convinced her that the pest poses a grave danger to the state's forest."It's important for our community to become educated" about it. They may also provide more public acceptance of certain silvicultural practices that will be needed to treat infested areas. Maine’s large tracts A young mixed woods favors some species of birds, while others shun it. Forestry for Maine Birds aims to help educate landowners and the foresters who serve them about how they can help birdlife while still meeting the other goals of a timber harvest, including making money, said Gallo and Mahaffey. The Blackburnian warbler likes large blocks of softwood or mixed wood forest with dense mid-story The Black-throated Green Warbler likes large tracts of closed canopy forest, with tall trees and a dense understory. There was a harvest in 1988 and later timber stand improvement work to eliminate red maple sprouts, both of which Downed logs and other debris is a critical component of the forest for many Maine songbirds and other wildlife.
The Common Yellowthroat and the White-throated Sparrow were present in open ledge areas before the harvest and afterwards were found in the larger post-harvest gaps, Witham said.
Hidden Valley consulted with birders, biologists and naturalists in developing its strategy.
Processors, forwarders, feller bunchers and grapple skidders have elbowed aside the chainsaw-cable skidder operators just as those once supplanted the ax-crosscut saw-horse team operations. A dangle-head processor is useful, he said, but the operator still needs to guide the tree in the direction he wants it to fall, almost as though he was felling it with a chainsaw. We did a A crane pulls a tree through a delimber at a Maine Custom Woodlands harvest site in New Gloucester. He then cut the stems into logs with a circular saw, piled the branches to be chipped later, and stacked the logs. Many of the organization’s woodlots get lots of public use and in those cases mechanical harvesting with chipping of the slash is the best option, said Doak. They should be trained in how to run and maintain the equipment, be familiar with best management practices and know basic silviculture, he added. According to the Maine Forest Service’s 2012 Wood Processor Report, firewood processors and pellet plants processed just over 146,000 cords, with 64 percent of that going into pellets, according to Ken Laustsen, the MFS biometrician. Farnum at Northern Lights Hearth and Sports’ in Farmington said stove sales in his area are split about evenly between traditional wood stoves and pellet stoves. New federal regulations designed to reduce particulate pollution from wood stoves and outdoor Paul Reed unloading a truckload of wood. Producer of clear, easily-worked, durable lumber that takes stain well, glues up nicely, is moderately priced, readily available.
Did the Swan Lake tree, as a sapling, hear in the wind, across the miles and miles of silent, uncharted Canadian forest the sound of axes as French settlers built a tiny outpost on the St. There are other large and old pines in New York, upper and lower Michigan, Illinois and other states. They too quickly became targets for settlers wanting lumber to build houses, barns and furniture and to trade. In Maine the heyday of tall pine logging lasted barely 30 years, all told, ending about the middle of the 1800s.
When farming began and an inexorable decline in Maine beginning in the mid to late 1800s, the abandoned fields that were its inevitable legacy grew back to forest, much of it pine.
When the mature trees seed in the next generation, the older trees are thinned again in periodic cuts or taken all at once, freeing up their progeny to take over. That will disperse the seed and break up the duff to expose the mineral soil,” Seymour said.
The weevil kills the central leader, setting back the tree’s growth and creating multiple leaders or a crook in the stem that devalue the tree as a potential sawlog. The company bought the defunct Lavalley sawmill in the southern Maine town of Sanford and immediately began upgrading it.
The book goes beyond fundamentals to the importance of teamwork, collaboration, and coaching for employee involvement or performance improvement. In the decades since, top-of-the-food chain species most affected by DDT, including the American Bald Eagle and the Osprey, have rebounded. Such coarse woody debris provides nesting and shelter spots and performs many other vital functions.
The Black-throated Blue Warbler, which prefers taller trees with a dense understory, was present in the 10 years after the harvest, but then disappeared after the maple sprouts were eliminated.
The heavier the cutting, the more chance that some mature forest species will drop out, he The Yellow-bellied sapsucker likes a forest with mature aspen or birch and excavates nest cavities in live trees with a heartwood decay column.
He turned 180 degrees and gently laid it down, sheared the branches off and cut it into 20-foot lengths. A forwarder would be used to take the trees out to the log yard and a chipper would be used to chip the tops and small trees. Periodically a huge grapple skidder would lumber up the woods road trailing a huge load of trees, drop them at the processor and head back for more. Because dragging of trees is eliminated, cut-to-length systems have a very low impact, he said.
Contractors work long hours during the 36 to 40 week harvesting season -- generally the winter and the dry times of the year. The question is how to set up and fund a training program where the equipment so expensive.
But relatively few, for the obvious reason -- the pine’s desirability for lumber meant that large ones were cut down decades ago.
The Broad Arrow enactments were widely ignored, with settlers milling boards just under 24 inches wide to hide the fact that they had poached the King’s trees.
As for the rest of the country, only North Carolina and Wisconsin have mills that produce eastern white pine, but low volumes compared to the northeast,” said Easterling. Many of today’s most valuable pine stands had their genesis in the decades before and after World War I.
Forest Service)migrate northward in search of cooler temperatures as Earth’s climate warms over the coming decades, pines will probably do well here since they tend to tolerate, even like, warmer temperatures.
It tells you something about who has survival capacity in this type of situation,” Irland said. The company is now midway through a four-year $4 million upgrade at the Sanford pine mill that’s directed at making it one of the most efficient in the state. It includes pitfalls new managers may encounter with delegation, work processes, and change management. She added that she wants to provide information about how the local forest economy is changing and what they can expect. It defoliated millions of acres of forest, led to a costly and vigorous aerial spray program and widespread salvage logging and had a profound effect on the state's forest products industry that continues to this day. Even those gaps are quite small, like an eighth of an acre, and there might be four of them on a 10-acre harvest block,” McEvoy said. Merrill replaced that machine in 2010 with the $360,000 fixed-head CAT processor he’s using today.
These days a new grapple skidder can cost $325,000, a feller buncher up to $475,000, a dangle or fixed head processor $550,000 to $650,000, a forwarder around $400,000, a delimber-slasher $325,000 to $400,000 and chippers go from $150,000 to $500,000. Laustsen says that a 1999 Maine State Planning Office survey that estimated 400,000 might be closer. The Admiralty was running out of sources of quality masts to outfit the Empire’s burgeoning fleet of warships. Some historians say the Crown’s edicts on pines did as much as the taxes on tea and stamps to prompt a colonial revolt that created a new nation.
What I liked most about "The Management Map: Navigating Tools for the New Manager" was the key points from each chapter as a personal checklist for development planning with ideas for training if a need is identified.
The Northern Flicker prefers open areas with large snags where it can hammer out nest cavities. But that work will be for naught if the birds aren’t finding places to nest and feed and raise young. He also has a forwarder, a feller buncher, and a logging truck -- $1.2 million worth of machines.
Wood has been enjoying a renaissance over the past few years as oil and propane prices stayed high and inventors developed new ways to burn it. Scientists, Seymour among them, have done research into whether some pines sport resistance to the weevil.
That couldn’t have been done by anybody else because these people have their own land, their own forest.



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