The assignment’s purpose, audience, and tone dictate what the paragraph covers and how it will support one main point.
In academic settings, the reasons for writing fulfill four main purposes: to summarize, to analyze, to synthesize, and to evaluate.
Eventually, your instructors will ask you to complete assignments specifically designed to meet one of the four purposes.
A summaryA purpose for writing that condenses a long piece of writing into a smaller paragraph by extracting only the vital information. Similarly, a summary paragraph condenses a long piece of writing into a smaller paragraph by extracting only the vital information. A summary of the report should present all the main points and supporting details in brief.
Notice how the summary retains the key points made by the writers of the original report but omits most of the statistical data. An analysisA purpose for writing that separates the individual points in a piece of writing and studies how the points relate to one another. Notice how the analysis does not simply repeat information from the original report, but considers how the points within the report relate to one another. A synthesisA purpose for writing that considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links them together to create a new point.
Notice how the synthesis paragraphs consider each source and use information from each to create a new thesis. An evaluationA purpose for writing that communicates a writer’s opinion about a document or a topic and the justifications for that opinion. An academic evaluation communicates your opinion, and its justifications, about a document or a topic of discussion. Notice how the paragraph incorporates the student’s personal judgment within the evaluation. When reviewing directions for assignments, look for the verbs summarize, analyze, synthesize, or evaluate. Read the following paragraphs about four films and then identify the purpose of each paragraph. During the opening scene, we learn that the character Laura is adopted and that she has spent the past three years desperately trying to track down her real parents. To create the feeling of being gripped in a vice, the director, May Lee, uses a variety of elements to gradually increase the tension. The scene in which Campbell and his fellow prisoners assist the guards in shutting down the riot immediately strikes the viewer as unrealistic. Thinking about the purpose of writing a report in the workplace can help focus and structure the document. Now imagine you must explain the same business concepts from your presentation to a group of high school students. In these two situations, the audience—the individuals who will watch and listen to the presentation—plays a role in the development of presentation. Although the audience for writing assignments—your readers—may not appear in person, they play an equally vital role. For example, you update your status on a social networking site with the awareness of who will digitally follow the post. In other words, being aware of “invisible” readers is a skill you most likely already possess and one you rely on every day.
While giving a speech, you may articulate an inspiring or critical message, but if you left your hair a mess and laced up mismatched shoes, your audience would not take you seriously.
Because focusing on audience will enhance your writing, your process, and your finished product, you must consider the specific traits of your audience members. On your own sheet of paper, generate a list of characteristics under each category for each audience. Keep in mind that as your topic shifts in the writing process, your audience may also shift. Just as speakers transmit emotion through voice, writers can transmit through writing a range of attitudes, from excited and humorous to somber and critical. Think about the assignment and purpose you selected in "Exercise 2", and the audience you selected in "Exercise 3". Whereas economist Holmes contends that the financial crisis is far from over, the presidential advisor Jones points out that it is vital to catch the first wave of opportunity to increase market share. In 2000, foreign money flowed into the United States, contributing to easy credit conditions.
The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act, known by most of us as the humungous government bailout, caused mixed reactions. Using the assignment, purpose, audience, and tone from "Exercise 4", generate a list of content ideas. The four common academic purposes are to summarize, to analyze, to synthesize, and to evaluate.
Identifying the audience’s demographics, education, prior knowledge, and expectations will affect how and what you write.
Devices such as sentence structure, word choice, punctuation, and formal or informal language communicate tone and create a relationship between the writer and his or her audience.
Content may consist of examples, statistics, facts, anecdotes, testimonies, and observations.
We all know there is no such thing as a perfect resume.A There are so many rules out there that sometimes even recruiters can't agree on what you should or shouldn't include.
However, you can follow the basic resume rules to perfect your resume and make it stand out. Although it may look neat and concise to display contact information in the header, it "can confuse an applicant tracking system," says Augustine. The latest Jobvite social recruiting survey found that 93% of recruiters will look at a candidatea€™s social media presence, so make it easy on them by including a URL along with your contact information, says Augustine. My resume is missing a professional title at the top of the page, which Augustine says should be located below contact information and above core competencies and work experience. This is not necessarilyA the title that you currently have, but should tell the reader exactly the type of work you're targeting.
Your professional summary is basically your elevator pitch in approximately three to five lines that should include what you're great at, passionate about, and why your experience is valuable to your targeted employer.
TheLadders research shows that a recruiter's eyes are drawn to the headers and then down the center of the page, says Augustine. Consistency is the name of the game on a resume.A "In your contact information at the top of the resume you abbreviated the state, but in the experience section you wrote the states out," Augustine points out. Since I'm no longer entry-level, Augustine tells me to delete some of my older internship experience, which includes positions with Turner Broadcasting System and Cable News Network.
Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported yourA teama€™s projects and initiatives.A "As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points," says Augustine. Augustine says to name this section "Professional Development" instead, and include all of the following information: Education (in reverse chronological order), certifications, technical skills, language skills, relevant awards youa€™ve received since graduating school, and professional associations and memberships that relate to your work. Even if you are reading a thrilling novel or an interesting news article, you will likely lose interest in what the author has to say very quickly.
One paragraph focuses on only one main idea and presents coherent sentences to support that one point.


Basically, the purpose of a piece of writing answers the question “Why?” For example, why write a play?
You will encounter these four purposes not only as you read for your classes but also as you read for work or pleasure. As you will see, the purpose for writing will guide you through each part of the paper, helping you make decisions about content and style. Summaries need not contain all the specific facts and figures in the original document; they provide only an overview of the essential information. By doing this, the student uncovers a discrepancy between the points that are backed up by statistics and those that require additional information. An academic synthesis paragraph considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links the main points together to create a new point, one not replicated in either document. A good synthesis does not repeat information; the writer uses a variety of sources to create a new idea. Evaluations are influenced by your reading of the document, your prior knowledge, and your prior experience with the topic or issue. By the final scene, I noticed that most of my fellow moviegoers were snoozing in their seats and were barely paying attention to what was happening on screen.
Having exhausted all the usual options—adoption agencies, online searches, family trees, and so on—she is on the verge of giving up when she meets a stranger on a bus. The creepy, haunting melody that subtly enhances the earlier scenes becomes ever more insistent, rising to a disturbing crescendo toward the end of the movie.
Based on the recent reports on prison riots in both Detroit and California, it seems highly unlikely that a posse of hardened criminals will intentionally help their captors at the risk of inciting future revenge from other inmates. A summary should provide colleagues with a factual overview of your findings without going into too much specific detail.
As you prepare the presentation, you visualize the audience to anticipate their expectations and reactions.
Even in everyday writing activities, you identify your readers’ characteristics, interests, and expectations before making decisions about what you write. Because each paragraph reveals the author’s relationship with her intended readers, you can identify the audience fairly quickly. Polishing your work using correct grammar will impress your readers and allow them to focus on what you have to say.
Use your imagination to anticipate the readers’ demographics, education, prior knowledge, and expectations. These measure important data about a group of people, such as their age range, their ethnicity, their religious beliefs, or their gender. Identify the purpose (you may use the same purpose listed in "Exercise 2"), and then identify the audience. For more information about the writing process, see Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?". Identifying your audience’s demographics, education, prior knowledge, and expectations will affect how you write, but purpose and content play an equally important role. These emotions create connections among the audience, the author, and the subject, ultimately building a relationship between the audience and the text. When the tone matches the content, the audience will be more engaged, and you will build a stronger relationship with your readers. People bought larger houses than they could afford, eventually defaulting on their loans as interest rates rose.
Although supported by many political leaders, the statute provoked outrage among grassroots groups.
Remember that content consists of examples, statistics, facts, anecdotes, testimonies, and observations. For instance, Augustine advises me to have a combination of "Journalist," "Reporter," and "Editor" in the title. Since language skills are often sought after, I recommend putting 'Fluent in Vietnamese and English' at the very end of your professional summary," says Augustine.
Since you focus on a wide range of topics, you can either work them into this section or include them in your professional summary," she says. She also advises me to delete my position as a press release coordinator and student assistant while I was an undergraduate student at the University of Georgia. Therea€™s no reason to develop bulleted 'bragging points' for this work experience, since it was only an internship and you held the position for a short amount of time," she says. Because all the sentences in one paragraph support the same point, a paragraph may stand on its own. For now, identifying these purposes by reading paragraphs will prepare you to write individual paragraphs and to build longer assignments.
Like the summary’s purpose in daily conversation, the purpose of an academic summary paragraph is to maintain all the essential information from a longer document. The analysis of simple table salt, for example, would require a deconstruction of its parts—the elements sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl). Instead of deconstructing compounds, academic analysis paragraphs typically deconstruct documents.
Analyzing a document involves a close examination of each of the individual parts and how they work together. Evaluations in everyday experiences are often not only dictated by set standards but also influenced by opinion and prior knowledge.
Because an evaluation incorporates your point of view and reasons for your point of view, it typically requires more critical thinking and a combination of summary, analysis, and synthesis skills.
These words will cue you on how to complete the assignment because you will know its exact purpose. Although the director sticks diligently to the book, he tries too hard to cram in all the action, which is just too ambitious for such a detail-oriented story. The chance encounter leads to a complicated chain of events that ultimately result in Laura getting her lifelong wish. The desperation of the actors, combined with the claustrophobic atmosphere and tight camera angles create a realistic firestorm, from which there is little hope of escape. Instead, both news reports and psychological studies indicate that prisoners who do not actively participate in a riot will go back to their cells and avoid conflict altogether. In contrast, an evaluation should include your personal opinion, along with supporting evidence, research, or examples to back it up. You must make important, careful decisions not only about the content but also about your delivery. The figures and charts may be too sophisticated, and the terms will certainly require definitions. What you imagine affects the information you choose to present and how you will present it. In fact, thinking about audience has become so common that you may not even detect the audience-driven decisions. If you want to describe a funny moment, you may write with your friends’ senses of humor in mind. When writing your own paragraphs, you must engage with your audience to build an appropriate relationship given your subject. Certain topics and assignments will require these kinds of considerations about your audience.


If audience members have earned a doctorate degree, for example, you may need to elevate your style and use more formal language. If your readers have studied certain topics, they may already know some terms and concepts related to the topic. Readers may expect consistencies in the assignment’s appearance, such as correct grammar and traditional formatting like double-spaced lines and legible font. The next subsection covers how to select an appropriate tone to match the audience and purpose.
To stimulate these connections, writers intimate their attitudes and feelings with useful devices, such as sentence structure, word choice, punctuation, and formal or informal language. Human activities, including pollution, deforestation, hunting, and overpopulation, are devastating the natural environment. After selecting an audience and a purpose, you must choose what information will make it to the page. In their opinion, the government was actually rewarding banks for their appalling behavior. To create longer assignments and to discuss more than one point, writers group together paragraphs. To learn more about reading in the writing process, see Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?".
Although shorter than the original piece of writing, a summary should still communicate all the key points and key support.
Then, scientists would study how the two elements interact to create the compound NaCl, or sodium chloride, which is also called simple table salt. An analysis takes apart a primary source (an essay, a book, an article, etc.) point by point.
For example, at work, a supervisor may complete an employee evaluation by judging his subordinate’s performance based on the company’s goals. Examples of this lack of attention to detail occur throughout the film, making it almost unbearable to watch. Listen for words such as summarize, analyze, synthesize, or evaluate when your boss asks you to complete a report to help determine a purpose for writing. Then, during the presentation, you meet the audience in person and discover immediately how well you perform.
Even at work, you send e-mails with an awareness of an unintended receiver who could intercept the message. Imagining your readers during each stage of the writing process will help you make decisions about your writing. For other topics and assignments, these measurements may not influence your writing in the end. You may decide whether to define terms and explain concepts based on your audience’s prior knowledge. Readers may also have content-based expectations given the assignment’s purpose and organization. An instructor who means business may speak in a low, slow voice to emphasize her serious mood. Keep in mind that the writer’s attitude should always appropriately match the audience and the purpose. Without our help, many species will not survive long enough for our children to see them in the wild. Content may consist of examples, statistics, facts, anecdotes, testimonies, and observations, but no matter the type, the information must be appropriate and interesting for the audience and purpose. You would choose simple content that the audience will easily understand, and you would express that content through an enthusiastic tone. One technique that effective writers use is to begin a fresh paragraph for each new idea they introduce.
It communicates the main points of the document by examining individual points and identifying how the points relate to one another.
With the flip of a few switches, a musician may combine the distinct sounds of a piano, a flute, or a guitar—or any other combination of instruments—to create a new sound.
If the company focuses on improving communication, the supervisor will rate the employee’s customer service according to a standard scale. Throughout the rest of the film, Laura discovers that sometimes the past is best left where it belongs. Should the presentation define important words, or will the executives already know the terms? Because the audience has shifted, your presentation and delivery will shift as well to create a new relationship with the new audience.
Regardless, it is important to consider demographics when you begin to think about your purpose for writing. Although you cannot peer inside the brains of your readers to discover their knowledge, you can make reasonable assumptions. In an essay titled “The Economics of Enlightenment: The Effects of Rising Tuition,” for example, audience members may expect to read about the economic repercussions of college tuition costs. Or, a coworker who needs to let off some steam after a long meeting may crack a sarcastic joke. An essay written for third graders that summarizes the legislative process, for example, would have to contain succinct and simple content. Chances are, at some point in a casual conversation with a friend, coworker, or classmate, you compressed all the action in a two-hour film or in a two-hundred-page book into a brief description of the major plot movements.
The purpose of the synthesizer is to blend together the notes from individual instruments to form new, unique notes. However, the evaluation still depends on the supervisor’s opinion and prior experience with the employee. For instance, a nursing major would presumably know more about health-related topics than a business major would. Today, tigers occupy just 7 percent of their historical range, and many local populations are already extinct.
While in conversation, you probably described the major highlights, or the main points in just a few sentences, using your own vocabulary and manner of speaking. The purpose of the evaluation is to determine how well the employee performs at his or her job. The answers to these questions will help you develop an appropriate relationship with your audience, making them more receptive to your message.
Hunted for their beautiful pelt and other body parts, the tiger population has plummeted from one hundred thousand in 1920 to just a few thousand.
Contact your local wildlife conservation society today to find out how you can stop this terrible destruction.



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