Industrial and Organizational Psychology Degrees - there are several types of degree options within industrial and organizational psychology. Information and theories from many different disciplines are used in industrial and organizational psychology. Graduate degree programs in industrial and organizational psychology are extremely competitive. Any extra curricular activities related to industrial and organizational psychology will help.
Studying industrial and organizational psychology will teach you a variety of different skills related to human behavior and the workplace.
You will also learn the skills to develop and conduct research in order to increase the general knowledge of industrial and organizational psychology as well as improve productivity within specific companies. The ability to develop and conduct training, help in personnel selection, as well as increase employee motivation are examples of other skills you will learn as you study for an industrial and organizational psychology degree. Industrial and organizational psychology degrees are available from a number of universities. Some factors to consider include the student attrition rate as well as the number of graduates finding and holding jobs within the industrial and organizational psychology field.
You should also ensure that the industrial and organizational psychology curriculum conforms to any license requirements. Industrial and organizational psychology skills may be taught through developing and conducting research as well as working with various groups. You may also want to consider whether the school allows you to take courses in the business school. There are a number of choices available to someone who wants to pursue an industrial and organizational psychology degree.
If you want to search for industrial and organizational psychology degrees, don't forget to search for psychology schools in our graduate psychology school search. I currently have a PsyD degree in clinical psychology and I am interested in gaining further education and experience in organizational and industrial psychology.
Upon completion of the program, students gain advanced knowledge in Statistical Methods and Data Analysis, Ethical, Legal and Professional Contexts, Measurements of Individual Differences, Criterion Development, Job and Task Analysis, Employee Selection, Placement and Classification, Performance Appraisal and Feedback, Work Motivation, and Organizational Behavior.
There are many diverse career paths available, including working in the private sector, governmental, education, or consulting. Program includes an Advisory board comprised of representatives from business, industry and government who provide valuable input on program and curriculum development. Classes are offered at UMBC-Shady Grove in Rockville, MD, which is conveniently located near Baltimore, Washington D.C.
Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I–O psychology, occupational psychology, work psychology, WO psychology, IWO psychology and business psychology) is the scientific study of human behavior in the workplace and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations. I-O psychology is one of the 14 recognized specialties and proficiencies in professional psychology in the United States[2] and is represented by Division 14 of the American Psychological Association (APA), known formally as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). The historical development of I–O psychology had parallel developments in the United States and other countries, such as the UK,[7] Australia, Germany, the Netherlands,[8] and eastern European countries such as Romania.[9] However, many foreign countries do not have a published English language account of their development of I–O psychology.
World War II brought in new problems that led to I–O Psychology’s continued development.
In the 1970s in the United Kingdom, references to occupational psychology became more common than I-O psychology. Qualitative methods employed in I–O psychology include content analysis, focus groups, interviews, case studies, and several other observational techniques.
Job analysis has a few different methods but it primarily involves the systematic collection of information about a job.
I–O psychologists typically work with HR specialists to design (a) recruitment processes and (b) personnel selection systems.
I–O psychologists not only help in the selection and assessment of personnel for jobs, but also assist in the selection of students for admission to colleges, universities, and graduate and professional schools as well as the assessment of student achievement, student aptitude, and the performance of teachers and K–12 schools. An I–O psychologist would typically use information from the job analysis to determine a job’s performance dimensions, and then construct a rating scale to describe each level of performance for the job. Psychometrics is the science of measuring psychological variables, such as knowledge, skills, and abilities. Training is the systematic acquisition of skills, concepts, or attitudes that results in improved performance in another environment.[45] Most people hired for a job are not already versed in all the tasks required to perform the job effectively. Similar to performance management (see above), an I–O psychologist would employ a job analysis in concert with principles of instructional design to create an effective training program. There is general consensus that motivation involves three psychological processes: arousal, direction, and intensity. Occupational health and safety is concerned with how the work environment contributes to illness and injury of workers. Organizational culture can be described as a set of assumptions shared by the individuals in an organization that directs interpretation and action by defining appropriate behavior for various situations. Organizational culture has been shown to have an impact on important organizational outcomes such as performance, attraction, recruitment, retention, employee satisfaction, and employee well-being.
The composition of teams is initially decided during the selection of individual contributors that are to be assigned to specific teams and has a direct bearing on the resulting effectiveness of those teams. As previously stated, one of the reasons organizations support the use of teams is the expectation of the delivery of higher quality results. The personalities and attitudes of the individuals that are selected as team members are other aspects that should be taken into consideration when composing teams, since these individual traits have been found to be good indicators of team effectiveness.
A fundamental question in team task design is whether or not a task is even appropriate for a team.
Interrelated to the design of various tasks is the implementation method for the tasks themselves. Organizational support systems impact the effectiveness of teams (Sundstrum, et al., 1990) and provide resources for teams operating in the multi-team environment.
Teams also function in multi-team environments that are dynamic in nature and require teams to respond to shifting organizational contingencies (Salas, et al., 2004).
Organizational reward systems are a driver for strengthening and enhancing individual team member efforts that contribute towards reaching collective team goals (Luthans & Kreitner, 1985). Several design elements of organizational reward systems are needed to meet this objective.
As related to the team setting, it is also important to be aware of the interplay between the goals of individual contributors that participate on teams and the goals of the teams themselves. Job satisfaction reflects an employee’s overall assessment of their job, particularly their emotions, behaviors, and attitudes about their work experience. Productive behavior is defined as employee behavior that contributes positively to the goals and objectives of an organization.[55] When an employee begins a new job, there is a transition period during which he or she is not contributing positively to the organization. To model job performance, researchers have attempted to define a set of dimensions that are common to all jobs. The determinants of job performance consist of factors having to do with the individual worker as well as environmental factors in the workplace. Researchers have adapted, elaborated, or otherwise changed Organ’s (1988) five OCB categories, but they remain popular today. Unlike other forms of OCBs, sportsmanship involves not engaging in certain behaviors, such as whining and complaining about minor issues or tough work assignments. Conscientiousness is basically defined as self-discipline and performing tasks beyond the minimum requirements. Civic virtue differs from other OCBs because the target of the behavior is the group or organization as a whole, rather than an individual coworker. A second explanation, which stems from equity theory, is that employees reciprocate fair treatment that they received from the organization.
A third explanation Jex & Britt offer is that, on the one hand, some employees hold personal values that tend to skew their behavior positively to participate in organizational citizenship activities. With this research on why employees engage in OCBs comes the debate among I–O psychologists about the voluntary or involuntary nature of engaging in OCBs.
Industrial and Organizational Psychologists consider innovation, more often than not, a variable of less importance and often a counter-productive one to include in conducting job performance appraisals when irrelevant to the major job functions for which a given job exists. Focus Two: The macro perspective which focuses upon the process that innovation is diffused within a specific organization. Creativity-relevant skills (ability to concentrate on a problem for long periods of time, to abandon unproductive searches, and to temporarily put aside stubborn problems). In addition to the role and characteristics of the individual, one must consider what it is that may be done on an organizational level to develop and reward innovation. Additionally, organizations could use and institutionalize many participatory system-processes, which could breed innovation in the workplace. Provide special recognition to innovators while keeping names associated with contributors.
Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) can be defined as employee behavior that goes against the goals of an organization. The forms of counterproductive behavior with the most empirical examination are ineffective job performance, absenteeism, job turnover, and accidents. In I–O psychology, leadership can be defined as a process of influencing others to agree on a shared purpose, and to work towards shared objectives.[116] A distinction should be made between leadership and management. Approaches to studying leadership in I–O psychology can be broadly classified into three categories: Leader-focused approaches, Contingency-focused approaches, and Follower-focused approaches. Leader-focused approaches look to organizational leaders to determine the characteristics of effective leadership. Of the 3 approaches to leadership, contingency-focused approaches have been the most prevalent over the past 30 years.
In addition to the contingency-focused approaches mentioned, there has been a high degree of interest paid to three novel approaches that have recently emerged. Follower-focused approaches look at the processes by which leaders motivate followers, and lead teams to achieve shared goals. Industrial-organizational psychologists have displayed a great deal of consideration for the problems of total organizational change and systematic ways to bring about planned change. Within the survey feedback technique, surveys after being answered by employees periodically, are assessed for their emotions and attitudes which are then communicated to various members within the organization. Flexibility and adaptability are some strengths of the OD process, as it possesses the ability to conform to the needs of the situation. This Section reads like a news release, or is otherwise written in an overly promotional tone. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Schultz and Schultz (2010) states that modern I–O Psychology is a complex and intricate position. Consultants offer these consulting services to all kinds of organizations, such as profit and nonprofit sectors, public and private sectors, and a government organization. Like any other careers, there are many benefits and downsides of consulting.[135] Some advantages are substantial material rewards, trust and respect from clients, and personal satisfaction.
There are many different sets of competencies for different specializations within I–O psychology and I–O psychologists are versatile behavioral scientists. You will need to have excellent grades from your undergraduate program and outstanding letters of recommendations when applying for a graduate degree in industrial and organizational psychology. If you have the opportunity to work with one of your instructors on related projects, you should strongly consider it.
You'll become very familiar with theories of human organizations as well as the current research in the field of industrial and organizational psychology will be taught.
There are a number of issues that need to be considered when it comes to deciding which industrial and organizational psychology program is the most appropriate.
You may also want to ask for information relating to student satisfaction, opportunities for student and faculty interaction (research, etc.) as well as interaction with other students. Business courses related to industrial and organizational psychology school may help you when it comes to working within the field and have a better sense of how the theories relate to the actual operations of business.
You will be able to choose the industrial and organizational psychology school that is best for you through careful consideration and some investigative work. UMBC’s program is a unique, highly applied program, providing graduate training focused on developing skills that are relevant in today's job market, exploring and integrating important topics including organizational behavioral management, human factors, and professional human resources practice, and helping students develop a professional portfolio while building strong relationships with faculty practitioners and industry professionals. The roots of I-O psychology trace back nearly to the beginning of psychology as a science, when Wilhelm Wundt founded one of the first psychological laboratories in 1876 in Leipzig, Germany.

Scott and Bingham volunteered to help with the testing and placement of more than a million army recruits.
The war brought renewed interest in ability testing (to accurately place recruits in these new technologically advanced military jobs), the introduction of the assessment center, concern with morale and fatigue of war industry workers, and military intelligence. During this period, the name changed from just industrial psychology to industrial and organizational psychology. Rigor and methods of psychology are applied to issues of critical relevance to business, including talent management, coaching, assessment, selection, training, organizational development, performance, well-being and work-life balance. I–O research on organizational culture research has employed ethnographic techniques and participant observation to collect data.
The two are not mutually exclusive.[29] For example, when constructing behaviorally-anchored rating scales (BARS), a job analyst may use qualitative methods, such as critical incidents interviews and focus groups to collect data bearing on performance. Personnel recruitment is the process of identifying qualified candidates in the workforce and getting them to apply for jobs within an organization.
Personnel selection systems employ evidence-based practices to determine the most qualified candidates. Increasingly, I–O psychologists are working for educational assessment and testing organizations and divisions. Often, the I–O psychologist would be responsible for training organizational personnel how to use the performance appraisal instrument, including ways to minimize bias when using the rating scale, and how to provide effective performance feedback. I–O psychologists perform individual assessments in order to evaluate differences among candidates for employment as well as differences among employees.[35] The constructs measured pertain to job performance. I–O psychologists may be asked to conduct a job evaluation for the purpose of determining compensation levels and ranges.
Evidence indicates that training is effective and that these training expenditures are paying off in terms of higher net sales and gross profitability per employee.[46] Training can be beneficial for the organization and for employees in terms of increasing their value to their organization as well as their employability in the broader marketplace. A training program is likely to include a summative evaluation at its conclusion in order to ensure that trainees have met the training objectives and can perform the target work tasks at an acceptable level. This analysis identifies the training needs of different departments or subunits and systematically assessing manager, peer, and technological support for transfer of training. Schultz & Schultz (2010) states that need assessment is an analysis of corporate and individual goals undertaken before designing a training program. Motivation is a person’s internal disposition to be concerned with an approach positive incentives and avoid negative incentives. Of particular importance are psychosocial hazards or risk factors that include fatigue, workplace violence, workplace bullying. There are three levels of organizational culture: artifacts, shared values, and basic beliefs and assumptions.
Examples of subcultures include corporate culture, departmental culture, local culture, and issue-related culture. Also, organizations with an adaptive culture tend to perform better than organizations with an maladaptive culture. Team effectiveness refers to the system of getting people in a company or institution to work together effectively.
To achieve these types of results, highly skilled members are more effective than teams built around those with lesser skills, and teams that include a diversity of skills have improved team performance (Guzzo & Shea, 1992). For example, a positive relationship between the team-level traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness and the team performance has been shown to exist (Van Vianen & De Dreu, 2001).
For example, certain team members may find it challenging to cross train with other team members that have subject matter expertise in areas in which they are not familiar.
In this case, the provided resources include various resource types that teams require to be effective.
In regards to resources, such contingencies include the constraints imposed by organizational resources that are not specifically earmarked for the exclusive use of certain teams. In other words, rewards that are given to individual team members should be contingent upon the performance of the entire team (Sundstrom, et al., 1990). The first element for reward systems design is the concept that for a collective assessment to be appropriate for individual team members, the group’s tasks must be highly interdependent. In the team setting, goal difficulty is related to group belief that the team can accomplish the tasks required to meet the assigned goal (Whitney, 1994).
The selection of team goals must be done in coordination with the selection of goals for individuals. It is one of the most heavily researched topics in industrial–organizational psychology with several thousand published studies. To successfully transition from being an outsider to a full-fledged member of an organization, an employee typically needs job-related training as well as more general information about the culture of the organization.
Using a common set of dimensions provides a consistent basis for assessing performance and enables the comparison of performance across jobs.
While there are many sources of error with performance ratings, error can be reduced through rater training[102] and through the use of behaviorally-anchored rating scales.
Civic virtue OCBs include being a good representative of the organization and supporting the organization, especially in its efforts outside of its major business objectives. Equity theory researchers found that certain forms of fairness or justice predict OCB better than others.
Nonetheless, Industrial and Organizational Psychologists see the value of that variable where its consideration would, were its reliability and validity questioned, achieve a statistically significant probability that its results are not due to chance, and that it can be replicated reliably with a statistically significant ratio of reliability, and that were a court to raise a question on its reliability and validity testing, the Industrial and Organizational Psychologist behind its use would be able to defend it before a court of justice with the belief that it will stand before such a court as reliable, and valid.
These qualities are generally linked to creativity.[55] A brief overview of these characteristics are listed below. These behaviors can be intentional or unintentional and result from a wide range of underlying causes and motivations. Less common but potentially more detrimental forms of counterproductive behavior have also been investigated including violence and sexual harassment. According to the trait approach, more effective leaders possess certain traits that less effective leaders lack.
Path–Goal Theory asserts that the role of the leader is to help his or her subordinates achieve their goals.
The first is transformational leadership, which posits that there are certain leadership traits that inspire subordinates to perform beyond their capabilities. Understandably, the area of leadership motivation draws heavily from the abundant research literature in the domain of motivation in I–O psychology. Regardless of the specific techniques applied, the OD process helps to free the typical bureaucratic organization from its rigidity and formality, hereby allowing more responsiveness and open participation. Please help by either rewriting this article from a neutral point of view or by moving this article to Wikinews.
Admission into I–O psychology PhD programs is highly competitive given that many programs accept a small number of applicants every year. The SIOP web site[123] also provides a comprehensive list of I–O programs in many other countries.
Although ethical situations can be more intricate in the business world, American Psychology Association (APA)’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct can be applied to I–O consultants as well. An internal consultant is someone who is working specifically for an organization that he or she is a part of whereas an external consultant can be either a sole proprietor or an employee of a consulting firm who is hired by another organization on a project basis or for a certain period of time. For example, an I–O psychologist specializing in selection and recruiting should have expertise in finding the best talent for the organization and getting everyone on board while he or she might not need to know much about executive coaching. Classes are offered in a flexible format, designed for busy working professionals, with in-person classes offered in the early evening.
I-O psychologists contribute to an organization’s success by improving the performance, satisfaction, safety, health and well-being of its employees. Organizational psychology is one of nine areas of specialist endorsement for psychology practice in Australia.[4] Graduate programs at both the Masters and Doctorate level are offered worldwide.
In 1917, together, along with other prominent psychologists, adapted a well-known intelligence test, (the Stanford-Binet test, designed for testing one individual at a time) to make it suitable for mass group testing.
Post-Second World War years were a boom time for industry with many jobs to be filled and applicants to be tested. The earlier periods addressed work behavior from the individual perspective, examining performance and attitudes of individual workers.
Study designs employed by I–O psychologists include surveys, experiments, quasi-experiments, and observational studies. Then the analyst would have SMEs rate those examples on a Likert scale and compute inter-rater agreement statistics to judge the adequacy of each item.
Job analysis information is used for many purposes, including the creation of job-relevant selection procedures, performance appraisals and criteria, or training programs. Personnel recruitment processes include developing job announcements, placing ads, defining key qualifications for applicants, and screening out unqualified applicants.
Personnel selection involves both the newly hired and individuals who can be promoted from within the organization. Performance management may also include documenting and tracking performance information for organization-level evaluation purposes. Additionally, the I–O psychologist may consult with the organization on ways to use the performance appraisal information for broader performance management initiatives. With candidates for employment, individual assessment is often part of the personnel selection process. Sonnentag and Niessen (2008) found that staying vigorous during working hours is important for work-related behaviour, subjective well-being, and for effective functioning in the family domain. I–O psychologists may also serve as expert witnesses in pay discrimination cases when disparities in pay for similar work are alleged.
Many organizations are using training and development as a way to attract and retain their most successful employees. Training programs often include formative evaluations to assess the impact of the training as the training proceeds. An example is police officers acquire declarative knowledge about laws and court procedures. Organizational analysis also takes into account the climate of the organization and its subunits.
To further this, an incentive is the anticipated reward or aversive event available in the environment.[54] While motivation can often be used as a tool to help predict behavior, it varies greatly among individuals and must often be combined with ability and environmental factors to actually influence behavior and performance.
It is fueled by a person’s need or desire for something that is missing from their lives at a given moment, either totally or partially. Artifacts comprise the physical components of the organization that relay cultural meaning. The idea behind team effectiveness is that a group of people working together can achieve much more than if the individuals of the team were working on their own. Additionally, increased average cognitive ability of team members has been shown to consistently correlate to increased work group effectiveness (Sundstrom et al., 2000). Differing personalities of individual team members can affect the team climate in a negative way as members may clash and reduce team performance (Barrick, et al., 1998).
In utilizing this approach, greater motivation is likely to result for both parties as the expert becomes the mentor and trainer and the cross-training team member finds learning new tasks to be an interesting change of pace. During the chartering of new teams, organizational enabling resources are first identified. If this is not the case, individual assessment is more appropriate than team assessment (Wageman & Baker, 1997).
This belief (collective efficacy) is somewhat counterintuitive, but rests on team member perception that they now view themselves as more competent than others in the organization who were not chosen to complete such difficult goals. Individual goals must be in line with team goals (or not exist at all) to be effective (Mitchell & Silver, 1990). Job satisfaction has theoretical and practical utility for the field of psychology and has been linked to important job outcomes including attitudinal variables, absenteeism, employee turnover, and job performance. In financial terms, productive behavior represents the point at which an organization begins to achieve some return on the investment it has made in a new employee.[55] Industrial–organizational psychologists are typically more focused on productive behavior rather than simple job or task performance because of the ability to account for extra-role performance in addition to in-role performance. Performance is commonly broken into two major categories: in-role (technical aspects of a job) and extra-role (non-technical abilities such as communication skills and being a good team member).
Such scales can be used to clearly define the behaviors that constitute poor, average, and superior performance.[95] Additional factors that complicate the measurement of job performance include the instability of job performance over time due to forces such as changing performance criteria, the structure of the job itself[99] and the restriction of variation in individual performance by organizational forces. For example, Jex & Britt mention research that indicates that interactional justice is a better predictor than procedural justice, which is in turn a better predictor than distributive justice. Although leaders may be required to undertake managerial duties as well, leaders typically focus on inspiring followers and creating a shared organizational culture and values.

To effectively do this, leaders must skillfully select from four different leadership styles to meet the situational factors.
The second is transactional leadership, which is most concerned with keeping subordinates in-line with deadlines and organizational policy.
Public and private organizations both have employed OD techniques, despite their varied results in research conducted. Individuals who choose I–O psychology as a profession should also be aware that they will be constantly studying to learn about new developments that may emerge. The lowest earners were found in state and local government positions, averaging approximately $77,000.
For example, the consultant should only accept projects for which he or she is qualified; the consultant should also avoid all conflicts of interest and being in multiple relationships with those he or she is working with.
Some consultants tend to specialize in specific areas of consulting whereas others tend to generalize their areas of expertise. An I–O psychologist conducts research on employee behaviors and attitudes, and how these can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, feedback, and management systems.[1] I–O psychologists also help organizations and their employees transition among periods of change and organization development. Walter Dill Scott, who was a contemporary of Cattell, was elected President of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1919, was arguably the most prominent I–O psychologist of his time.
Interestingly, however, when the war ended and the soldiers came back to work, there was an increasing trend towards labor unrest with rising numbers of authorized and unauthorized work stoppages staged by unions and workers. Although this was a valuable approach, it became clear that there were other, broader influences not only on individual, but also on group behavior in the work place. I–O psychologists also employ psychometric methods including methods associated with classical test theory (CTT),[15] generalizability theory, and item response theory (IRT).[16] In the 1990s, a growing body of empirical research in I–O psychology was influential in the application of meta-analysis, particularly in the area of the stability of research findings across contexts. Each potential item would additionally be correlated with an external criterion in order to evaluate its usefulness if it were to be selected to be included in a BARS metric. Position analysis questionnaire is a particular analysis that is used to determined an individuals job characteristics and relates them to human characteristics. Individuals high on their general level of vigour at work, benefited most from recovery experienced over the course of several days.[36] A 2010 study found positive relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and the absence of negative affect and feelings of positive wellbeing. Formative evaluations can be used to locate problems in training procedures and help I–O psychologists make corrective adjustments while the training is ongoing. Skill-based is a learning outcome that concerns procedural knowledge and the development of motor and technical skills. Direction refers to the path employees take in accomplishing the goals they set for themselves. Therefore, organizations should seek to assign teams with team members that have a mix of KSAs. Such expansions of team task assignments can make teams more effective and require teams to spend greater amounts of time discussing and planning strategies and approaches for completing assigned tasks (Hackman, et al., 1976).
Examples of these scarce resources include subject matter experts, simulation and testing facilities, and limited amounts of time for the completion of multi-team goals. A second design element is the compatibility between individual-level reward systems and team-level reward systems (DeMatteo, Eby, & Sundstrom, 1998).
For instance, job satisfaction is strongly correlated with attitudinal variables such as job involvement, organizational commitment, job tensions, frustration, and feelings of anxiety. While in-role performance tells managers or researchers how well the employee performs the required technical aspects of the job, extra-role performance includes behaviors not necessarily required as part of the job but still contribute to organizational effectiveness. These factors include errors in job measurement techniques, acceptance and the justification of poor performance and lack of importance of individual performance. For example, an Operation Manager analyzing a reporting issue and developing an innovative solution would consider the perspective of a sales person, assistant, finance, compensation, and compliance officer.
For instance, an employee who sabotages another employee’s work may do so because of lax supervision (environment) and underlying psychopathology (person) that work in concert to result in the counterproductive behavior. The situational factors are a product of the characteristics of subordinates and the characteristics of the environment. This type of leader fills more of a managerial role and lacks qualities necessary to inspire subordinates and induce meaningful change. Similarly, the area of team leadership draws heavily from the research in teams and team effectiveness in I–O psychology. On the other hand, some might disagree that it is the consultant’s responsibility to actively promote the application of moral and ethical standards in the consultation and examine ethical issues in organizational decisions and policies. This caused management to grow concern about work productivity and worker attitude surveys became of much interest in the field. It combines an understanding of the science of human behavior with experience of the world of work to attain effective and sustainable performance for both individuals and organizations. The observers are also asked to provide information about what the actor in the situation could have done differently to influence the outcome. As a simpler example, consider an extended observation of a worker, which might include videotaped episodes of performance – a qualitative measure. I–O psychologists must evaluate evidence regarding the extent to which selection tools predict job performance, evidence that bears on the validity of selection tools.
An example is motor skills that involve the coordination of physical movements such as using a special tool or flying a certain aircraft, whereas technical skills might include understanding a certain software program, or exhibiting effective customer relations behaviors.
Task analysis can consist of developing task statements, determining homogeneous task clusters, and identifying KSAOs (knowledge, skills, abilities, other characteristics) required for the job. Finally, intensity is the vigor and amount of energy employees put into this goal-directed work performance. Teams that are composed of members that have the same KSAs may prove to be ineffective in meeting the team goals, no matter how talented the individual members are. Team-specific human resources represent the individual contributors that are selected for each team as team members. For example, it would be an unfair situation to reward the entire team for a job well done if only one team member did the great majority of the work.
This individual performance generally contributes to improved team performance which can, in turn, lead to team recognition, such as a league championship. By taking both in-role and extra-role performance into account, industrial–organizational psychologists are able to assess employees’ effectiveness (how well they do what they were hired to do), efficiency (their relative outputs to relative inputs), and their productivity (how much they help the organization reach its goals). Managers undertake the tasks of planning, budgeting, organizing, staffing, controlling and problem solving.
The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model focuses on how leader–subordinate relationships develop. And the third is authentic leadership which is centered around empathy and a leader’s values or character. Because organizational employees are frequently structured in the form of teams, leaders need to be aware of the potential benefits and pitfalls of working in teams, how teams develop, how to satisfy team members’ needs, and ultimately how to bring about team effectiveness and performance.
A change agent’s first task is diagnosis, where questionnaires and interviews are used to assess the problems and needs of the organization. The private industry set out to emulate the successful testing of army personnel, and mental ability testing soon became a commonplace in the work setting. Following Industrial Organizational Psychology’s admission into Division 14 of the American Psychological Association, there continued to be an influx of new tests for selection, productivity, and workforce stability. Although not unchallenged, validity generalization has broad acceptance with regard to many selection instruments (e.g. This technique is then used to describe the critical elements of performance in certain jobs and how worker behavior relates to outcomes. The qualitative video could easily be used to develop a frequency count of a particular behavior – a quantitative measure.
Affective is a type of learning outcome that includes attitudes or beliefs that predispose a person to behave in a certain way. That team member would most likely view teams and team work in a negative fashion and not want to participate in a team setting in the future. When team members individually and collectively commit to team goals, team effectiveness is increased and is a function of increased supportive team behaviors (Aube & Rousseau, 2005).
Finally, research has found that although a positive relationship exists between job satisfaction and performance, it is moderated by the use of rewards at an organization and the strength of employee’s attitudes about their job.
Behaviors associated with the category of consideration include showing subordinates they are valued and that the leader cares about them. Generally speaking, when a subordinate performs well or when there are positive exchanges between a leader and a subordinate, their relationship is strengthened, performance and job satisfaction are enhanced, and the subordinate will feel more commitment to the leader and the organization as a whole.[120] Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model focuses on decision making with respect to a feasibility set[119] which is composed of the situational attributes. If the leader understands their followers, they can inspire subordinates by cultivating a personal connection and leading them to share in the vision and goals of the team. An emerging area of research in the area of team leadership is in leading virtual teams, where people in the team are geographically-distributed across various distances and sometimes even countries. Most Master’s Degree students work, either full-time or part-time, while studying to become an I–O psychologist. Industrial psychology began to gain prominence when Elton Mayo arrived in the United States in 1924.[12] Mayo was fascinated by not the efficiency of workers, but their emotions and how work may cause workers to act in particular pathological ways.
Most notably, this technique has been employed to improve performance among aircraft crews and surgical teams, literally saving thousands of lives since its introduction. Employee needs can be assessed using a variety of methods that identify weaknesses that training and development can address. A final design element is the creation of an organizational culture that supports and rewards employees who believe in the value of teamwork and who maintain a positive mental attitude towards team-based rewards (Haines and Taggar, 2006). An example of a consideration behavior is showing compassion when problems arise in or out of the office.
Although there has been a limited amount of research conducted on these theories, they are sure to receive continued attention as the field of I–O psychology matures. While technological advances have enabled the leadership process to take place in such virtual contexts, they present new challenges for leaders as well, such as the need to use technology to build relationships with followers, and influencing followers when faced with limited (or no) face-to-face interaction. These observations of workers’ thoughts and emotions were studied to see how prone employees would be to resist management attempts to increase productivity and how sympathetic to labor unions they would become. Section, Title VII dealt with employment discrimination and required employers to justify and show relevance for the use of tests for selection. Practitioners should also design intervention programmes and preventive measures that focus on how to stimulate older employees’ engagement in community activities. The needs analysis makes it possible to identify the training program’s objectives, which in turn, represents the information for both the trainer and trainee about what is to be learned for the benefit of the organization.
First, motivation serves to direct attention, focusing on particular issues, people, tasks, etc. Behaviors associated with the category of initiating structure include facilitating the task performance of groups. This concern, however, is misplaced due to all methods of research, either qualitative or quantitative, ultimately requiring some sort of interpretation.
One example of an initiating structure behavior is meeting one-on-one with subordinates to explain expectations and goals.
The results of these studies ushered in a radically new movement known as the Human Relations Movement. When a researcher is developing and researching a phenomenon, all information available should be used, regardless of its form. Next, motivation results in persistence, preventing one from deviating from the goal-seeking behavior.
This movement was interested in the more complicated theories of motivation, the emotional world of the worker, job satisfaction, and interviews with workers.
To be most effective a leader should be able to influence others to behave in ways that are in line with the organization’s mission and goals. How influential a leader can be depends on their social power or their potential to influence their subordinates. There are six bases of power: coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, expert power, referent power, and informational power.

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29.11.2014 at 10:24:31

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29.11.2014 at 21:32:52

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