Due to the advancement of globalization, overseas assignments are becoming increasingly necessary for the coordination of international subsidiaries or to guarantee the transfer of knowledge, among other things.
Since global competition has been on the increase, understanding and managing the effective adjustment of expatriates to a foreign culture has become increasingly necessary (Black&Gregersen, 1991)(1). Perhaps because of this individually-centered research tradition, power is an often neglected issue in studies of intercultural communication (Isolatus 2006, Jensen 2006, Landis&Wasilewski 1999. This article attempts to explore the possible relation between power and the culture learning. Before describing the process of culture learning, I would firstly like to explain principles of social systems by referring to the theory of structuration as described by Giddens (1984). I have chosen the theory of structuration because it entails the concept of the duality of structures.
In sum, the intercultural contact takes place inside social systems and a process of intercultural structuration starts. According to Giddens' assumptions regarding the constitution of society, adjustment has to be interpreted as embedded in the host cultural context and thus should be framed by the structures of signification, legitimation and domination, as well as communication, sanction and power on the interactional level. Since cultural learning takes place through interaction, this occurs according to Giddens through communication, power and sanction(10). How does the expatriate’s power bias the communication between the host country nationals and expatriates?
This article is part of a larger study, where a triangulation (Flick 2004) of quantitative and qualitative data has been applied. In the context of the case study, 22 German expatriates were questioned in semi-structured interviews (Meuser & Nagel (2003) about their sojourn. The interviews took place in 3 German organizations of the pharmaceutical sector and one Mexican automotive component supplier as well as one educational organisation in Mexico City, Chihuahua and Toluca. Following those steps it was concluded that power may be a hidden, influential dimension in the process of culture learning.
As I have explained in part 1.2 of this article, an expatriate is confronted with a social system which has different characteristics of social structures and interaction modes than the social system of the home country.
Therefore, for many expatriates the working context is the main place of interaction with HCNs and thus the main opportunity for acculturation and culture learning. In this case study, main points of intercultural friction may be influenced by the following factors: different interaction and communication modes, different working conditions and assumptions, including different interpretations of hierarchy. Problems with superiors are expressed mainly by persons who show ethnocentric attitudes and tend to maintain interaction routines (Giddens) which are more typical for the home culture than for the host culture, which is mainly the case in the automotive supplier organization. If I know that I am right I advance a view independently of the hierarchical position of the interlocutor. Thus, according to this interviewee, usually only people filling a higher hierarchical position are allowed to criticise inadequate behaviour. If you speak about that [criticism] with a co-worker it's ok, but if you tell it to your chief he feels that you are criticising him personally. Here in the building sit two people who are doing everything in their power to make me lose my job, however every time I see them on the floor they nearly hug me. In the following discourse the interviewee explained what is meant by that: Even if you reproduce interaction routines that are usual in the home cultural context, but interpreted as deviant behaviour in the host cultural context, this is apparently tolerated by the subordinates.
I had the impression – and that’s my opinion - that they [the Mexicans] aren't very tolerant if you are different to them.
In summary, power linked to the hierarchical position of expatriates seems to shape the interaction between the German expatriates and the Mexican subordinates. How far power may influence the interaction between the expatriate and host national seems to depend on the context (see Figure 3).
The structures of meaning which are linked to the origins of the actors seem to influence the interaction and the conditions of interaction (structure). Thus German expatriates who in this case study were normally used to a more egalitarian treatment in the work context (lower PDI) often did not even want to mark the differences between hierarchies and tried to implement a participative leadership style.
In addition, to wield power also means to know how to mobilize resources in the foreign culture and to apply them in the right way. On the level of interaction between the expatriates and the Mexicans three dimensions seem to be interrelated: communication, power and sanction. Since sanction often takes place by verbal expression, sanction also takes place in an indirect way; even if it is nonverbal, the interaction mode will rarely be open. Ethnocentric expressions and observations could mainly be observed in the automotive supplier organization. There seems to be some data evidence that an open democratic organization culture may help to create a more open atmosphere, which also favours criticism of superiors and thus possibly culture learning. The effect of power seems to be intensified by the organization culture and the societal context.
The practical implications of this study are as follows: there was some data evidence which suggested that the negative effect of power on the possibilities of culture learning seemed to be counteracted by an adequate organization policy with an open trust-building atmosphere. This study supports the contact theory (Hanvey 1979) and also points out the importance of interaction with host country nationals. 5 The duality of structure means according to Giddens that structures only exist in the moment of interaction.
7 Most approaches about expatriate adjustment often refer to adjustment as a unidirectional process of changes in expatriates’ behaviour patterns according to the rules of the foreign environment (Zimmermann & Sparrow 2007). 9 Giddens’ concept of power has the advantage of combining both the structural and interactional levels and isn’t seen as an isolated phenomenon, but is interrelated with other dimensions of social structures. 19 However, also the opposite might be the case: local employees might be demotivated because higher positions are filled by persons of the country of the companies’ headquarter (Dowling et al. Health professionals move for various reasons and for various periods of time, which entails consequences at various levels, ranging from governmental decisions regarding the policy of health mobility to shifts in mobile medical professionalsa€™ attitudes towards sojourning. Migrating to live and work in a foreign country, even if it is a short-term stay, can be a life-changing event. RJP provides the basic information specific to the work domain necessary in the process of adjusting to a new work setting in familiar or unfamiliar cultural settings. Previews provide mobile professionals with an idea of what they should be expecting to find in the new environment once their stay abroad starts. Cross-cultural training is one more type of host institution support that some scholars suggest to provide mobile professionals with. Skills related to the maintenance of self (mental health, psychological well-being, stress reduction, feelings of self-confidence), skills related to the fostering of relationships with host nationals, and cognitive skills that promote a correct perception of the host environment and its social systems (1990:117).
In other words, cross-cultural training facilitates developing the above listed skills in mobile professionals. Despite the fact that the literature describes cross-cultural training as contributing to higher levels of success, the majority of international assignment managers nevertheless report that a€?such training is not thought to be effectivea€™ and therefore do not encourage assignees to take it up (2006:159). It is important to realize that preparation for staying abroad is not only about receiving particular training and acquiring knowledge about the future stay abroad, but it is also about obtaining information.
Another significant factor that influences both the individuala€™s initiative with regard to seeking related information and the entire period of preparation for the stay abroad itself is motivation. The echoes of Gardner and Lamberta€™s motivation theory can be found in the self-determination theory (SDT) of human motivation, defined by Deci and Ryan (2002). In this case, even though the goal may be perceived as autonomous, the type of motivation that is at work is actually extrinsic. Cross-cultural adjustment is the process that mobile professionals undergo once they actually start living and working abroad.
Black provides definitions for each type of adjustment: work adjustment is presented as a€?involv[ing] the adaptation to new job tasks, work roles, responsibilities, and the new work environment in a new cultural settinga€™(123).
Two more aspects that are closely related to cross-cultural adjustment and may be seen as constitutive of it are those of cultural and social well-being. If learners a€?investa€? in a second language, they do so with the understanding that they will acquire a wider range of symbolic and material resources, which will in turn increase the value of their cultural capital. This closely relates to the previously discussed motivation theories: it appears that the success or failure to adjust to the new culture lies in how individuals perceive their motivation to adjust to the host culture and what goals they set for themselves.
However, a different perspective is adopted in the Acculturation Model proposed by John Schumann (1978). It has been shown that various stages of professional mobility have been paid due attention by the academics. In my study, I looked at how theoretical considerations regarding professional mobility are actually reflected in practice. As far as the content of the questionnaire is concerned, the questions presented to the research population relied heavily on the structure of the theoretical framework discussed in the first part of the present article.
During your preparation period, were you actively seeking information regarding your working and living conditions? Before your present position abroad, did you have any international experience that lasted at least three months? Secondly, I wanted to see how the combination of the various factors affected their stay abroad. After living and working abroad, has your motivation to stay in the foreign country increased or decreased? After the data were collected, the data were analysed and the analysis of the data reliedupon linking back the findings to the literature. The results of the study showed that the only support that nine out of ten respondents received was language training. However, aside from language training, the numbers show that host institutions do very little to ensure an (emotionally) comfortable exchange for mobile professionals as far as the practicalities of working and living in the new country are concerned. The fact that none of the respondents received any cross-cultural training may be seen as strikingly surprising in the era of increased internationalisation and, by extension, a€?greater interpersonal cross-cultural contacta€™ (Black and Mendenhall 113).
The mobile medical professionals demonstrated the general tendency to want to work abroad for career advancement reasons: seven out of ten respondents indicated coming to work abroad in order to advance their career. These findings seem to suggest that there are no direct connections between the international experience that the mobile professionals have and how they decide to deal with seeking information regarding their new position: an equal number of the mobile professionals with and without previous international experience actively sought information about their new position. As far as work and general adjustment is concerned, it is important to establish the link between obtaining a job and living conditionpreview. As far as living conditions are concerned, seven mobile professionals said they were a€?gooda€™, two people indicated that they were a€?very gooda€™ and one respondent described them as a€?relatively gooda€™. As far as the mobile professionalsa€™ relations with colleagues are concerned, the results showed that most respondents (n=6) had a€?gooda€™ work-related relations. Despite the professional satisfaction that mobile medical professionals report, a poignant tendency of dissatisfaction with their social networks can be observed in the findings of the present study. Even though this may be due to a variety of reasons, the results of the present study present an underlying connection.
Table 2 below summarizes the findings with regard to cross-cultural adjustment and individual initiative.
As far as the degrees to which mobile professionals identify with the new culture are concerned, most respondents (n=6) chose the middle option and described their identification as a€?moderatea€™.
Importantly, there is a strong correlation between the mobile professionalsa€™ identification with the new culture and their motivation to stay abroad. As presented and discussed in the previous section, the present study aimed at looking into the self-perceptions regarding working and living abroad as experienced by mobile medical professionals. The results of the study also point to an acute dissatisfaction with social networks of friends and acquaintances that the study population perceive. A previously mentioned female participant, who describes her social networks as a€?relatively gooda€™, reports her increased motivation being not only the product of her own wishes, but also of some of her practical aspects of life. Finally, the results of the study provide evidence that the mobile professionalsa€™ identification with the new culture is interconnected with their motivation to stay abroad. The findings of the study are based on too small a study population to be taken as exhaustive; however, they do represent some tendencies. The results of the present article, although based on a small-scale study, can be seen as providing valuable insights into first-hand experiences of mobile medical professionals.
The present study has contributed to the literature regarding medical professional mobility in a number of ways. The results of the present study point at the complexity of the experiences of mobile medical professionals and show that the motivation of mobile professionals to continue their careers abroad is determined by a variety of factors, the most important of which seem to be satisfaction with professional functioning, satisfaction with social networks outside the work setting and identification with the new culture.
Self-perceptions that surround communication are a crucial factor in any interaction, and in professional mobility they can make the whole experience either easier or more challenging. In conclusion, the present study emphasises a number of significant aspects give insights into cross-cultural adjustment of mobile medical professionals. Donata LisaitA—has a Mastera€™s degree in English Literature and Linguistics from the University of Antwerp, Belgium. This section of the ATESL Curriculum Framework draws from the growing literature base and experiences of ESL practitioners who recognize the important role that culture plays in the language classroom. There is growing recognition within the field of ESL1 that it is important to focus not only on developing learners’ linguistic skills, but also on advancing their intercultural communicative competence, or their ability to communicate effectively and appropriately in English within a culturally diverse society, such as Canada.
ESL curriculum development in Canada has been influenced significantly by the view of language as communication. The example of time is offered to stimulate reflection and discussion about the interconnected nature of language, culture, and intercultural communicative competence (see Box 1). It is notoriously difficult to uncover the small “c” aspects of one’s own culture, in other words, to be self- and culturally- aware.
Instructors (as insider members of Canadian culture) mediate for learners the hidden culture of beliefs, values, and ways of knowing in Canada. Teaching English as a second language is not always synonymous with teaching intercultural competence. ICC encompasses intercultural competence and focuses attention on communicative competencies, especially the sociocultural element.
It is important to recognize the diversity of languages and cultures that are brought collectively into the classroom, as well as the various cultures of English. Classroom activities expand learners’ capacity to live and work in a multicultural environment by encouraging learners to… - Explore the impact of their own cultural assumptions on their own expectations, behaviours, choices, values, communication styles, etc. Most language learning tasks and activities that are taken up in the ESL classroom can lead to a consideration of culture.
While a number of different models of ICC have been proposed,24 the ATESL Curriculum Framework builds on the Intercultural Knowledge and Skills strand of the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework (the Massachusetts Model)25 which takes an instructional approach that is comprehensive, widely adaptable, and appealing to educators. For more information on developing learning outcomes, see Section 2: Setting and Assessing Outcomes.
Following are a number of tasks and a lesson plan designed to show how different ICC strands might be taken up within the context of the Canadian Language Benchmarks.
Instructional activities are culturally sensitive, and they encourage learners to share and celebrate aspects of their cultures, to explore their own and others' worldviews, and to expand their capacity to live and work in Canada.
ICC: Identifies and describes the significance of cultural images and symbols in Canadian cultures and their own.
Listening: Identifies main intent, main idea, factual details, words and expressions and inferred meanings in an oral presentation. The following adapted lesson plan addresses a different ICC strand: Compare and contrast differences and similarities in values and beliefs in their own cultures and in Canadian cultures. ICC: Compares and contrasts differences and similarities in values and beliefs in their own cultures and in Canadian cultures.
For more information on the Canadian Language Benchmarks, see Canadian Language Benchmarks, 2011. For more information on developing learning outcomes related to the CLB, see Section 2: Setting and Assessing Outcomes. For more information on selecting and sequencing tasks to support an outcome, see Section 3: Sequencing Tasks.
For further discussion of socioaffective learning strategies, see “Second Language Learner Strategies” in Section 6: Mindful Learning. Intercultural communicative competence is established in the ATESL Curriculum Framework as an interconnected, multifaceted element of adult ESL curriculum development and teaching practice. In many countries participating in the AFS exchange programs, this is the time of year when exchange students arrive to their new homes – they are just starting to get to know their new families and friends, the local communities and schools, as well as the first tangible elements of the culture they will be living in. Greeting another person is another one of those simple daily activities that we rarely think about when we are in our home culture.
Read more about specific greeting styles in this article by the BBC, covering different customs in Brazil, China, Singapore, UK, USA and the United Arab Emirates.
What is the first thing that crosses your mind when you think about another nation, country or a group of people?
Generalizing about cultures means that you assign the similar characteristics to most members of that particular culture, but you are still flexible enough to incorporate new information about that group once you have it.
Generalizations become stereotypes when you assume all members of a group have exactly the same characteristics. Even though everyone was at least once confronted with a generalization or a stereotype about a group they belong to, we often like to think that the internet is the one fair arena where equality prevails.
Cultural diversity is of paramount importance for AFS programs, enabling our exchange students to have first hand experiences with other cultures rather than relying on old stereotypes.
The traditional picture of group learning happening in the classroom or at least in a physical space that the learners share together is not the only way how knowledge is  shared and acquired in the second decade of 21st century. Today, we are featuring a list of free webinars for Interculturalists offered by our colleagues from the field. Too see the full overview of events and a link to a free book about Diversity, visit the original list in a blog post put together by fellow interculturalists Vanessa Shaw and Sabrina Ziegler.
The link between foreign language learning and culture learning has been established by the linguists and anthropologists a long time ago. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages has concluded that through the study of other languages, students gain a knowledge and understanding of the cultures that use that language. Culture is often taught implicitly, as a part of the linguistic forms that students are learning.
However, it is also important to help students understand that cultures are not monolithicand so a variety of successful behaviors are also possible for any type of interaction in any particular culture. Provide students with authentic materials – Watching films, news broadcasts or TV shows can provide students with ample information about non-verbal behavior, such as the use of personal space, eye contact or gestures. Compare and contrast proverbs – Apart from being very informative about the two cultures, proverbs can lead to a discussion about stereotypes or values represented in the proverbs of both cultures.
Use role plays – They especially support students in making the shift in perspective from their own culture, which can become a strange one and is looked at from the outside, and the target culture, which becomes more familiar. Research cultural items – While also practicing their presentation or writing skills in the target language, the students can inform their classmates about an assigned item from the foreign culture and contextualized the knowledge gained. Students as cultural resources – Many classrooms nowadays are very culturally and ethnically diverse and they often have exchange students from foreign cultures or returnees from an exchange program in the target culture. We strongly encourage you to also look at the our series ICL …for friends of AFS and find more culture related topics which can be used in the classroom, as well as some deeper explanations about the terms mentioned in this post. This was the main topic of the study the European Youth Forum conducted in cooperation with the University of Bath and GHK Consulting. The study found that there is indeed a strong positive correlation between involvement in youth organizations & non-formal education and the employment possibilities for young people. The study concluded that five of the six skills most frequently demanded by employers are developed in youth organizations. The study also reported that the more involved people are in youth organizations and the higher level of formal education they have, the higher skill levels they will develop. Employers also have a positive attitude towards young people’s experience in youth organizations. A few things that are important to note are that a special emphasis is put on the way and timeliness of presenting the skills and competences acquired during the participation in youth work, which is an area where there is still room for improvement.
An added value of youth work is the opportunity for young people to create social capital, networks and connections, which can aid in obtaining information about employment possibilities, and broaden the range of possible occupations and geographical locations where young people would consider working. AFS Intercultural Link BlogThe AFS Intercultural Link Blog is a space for sharing ideas, articles, materials, videos and recommendations related to Intercultural Learning, as well as the digital version of the AFS Intercultural Link Newsletter. This paper attempts to use Clementsa€™ linguistic confidence theory (Clement, 1980) to explore the relationship between students' intercultural communication strategies, and their linguistic confidence in their second language (L2) both before and during immersion programmes, particularly in the context of the homestay experience. Within immersion programmes, the homestay experience provides second-language (L2) learners with authentic situations for the development of both linguistic and intercultural communicative competence. However, past studies have not investigated whether L2 linguistic confidence is related to intercultural competence nor intercultural communication development. Most second language acquisition models focus on either linguistic or psycholinguistic aspects of language acquisition (e.g.
RQ1: How does L2 linguistic confidence impact the intercultural communication strategies employed before immersion? Hypothesis 1: Students who are linguistically less confident will employ particular intercultural communication strategies. RQ2: How does L2 linguistic confidence impact the intercultural communication strategies employed and language skills enhancement during immersion?
Hypothesis 3: Students who are linguistically confident will employ different intercultural strategies from those before immersion. In view of time constraints and the need for a broad-based investigation, it is believed that a questionnaire will collect sufficiently-reliable data to capture studentsa€™ linguistic confidence and intercultural communication strategies before departure and upon returning home, as it reduces bias and is less intrusive.
The sample in this study was comprised of 93 Hong Kong and Mainland China students majoring in English education; 12 weeks of English immersion was required by English Education major programmes.
Following the pilot study, all participants were invited to answer the questionnaire, to be completed in the lecture hall, where the supervising researcher read the questionnaire's instructions aloud. In order to distinguish participants who were linguistically (and less) confident and examine their intercultural communication strategies, all questionnaires were anonymously coded fir further data analysis. To observe to what degree the phenomenon is present in the population, the effect-size calculation is used.
Face-to-face interviews were conducted in an attempt to better understand student responses regarding how the quality and quantity of interaction affected their linguistic confidence and hence intercultural communication strategies employed and language skills development. RQ1: How does L2 linguistic confidence impact student intercultural communication strategies before immersion?
In the homestay pre-immersion stage, the quantity and quality of interaction with host families were non-existent. After identified the group of participants who were linguistically less confident (n=56), further statistical analysis procedures were conducted. My host family, because she is a 65 year old lady, I am afraid that she will have a very different accent.
Most of the participants in the pre-departure interviews repeated that their biggest concern was the different living styles between themselves and their host families. Students were also worried that the different living styles might bring conflicts between themselves and their host families. In summary, due to limited language contact or interaction before immersion, students were anxious and did not have sufficient L2 linguistic confidencea€“hence their intercultural communication strategies could be categorised as a€?rejectiona€?, a€?avoidancea€? and a€?passivitya€? (see Figure 2).
This indicates that a high quantity of interaction with the host families plays a significant role in improving student linguistic self-confidence and lowering anxiety levels (see Table 6).
Since participants were requested to fill in the same questionnaire upon their returning from immersion, the researcher was able to analyse what intercultural communication strategies they employed during immersion. When interviewed, most students agreed that having more interaction with host families could enhance their linguistic confidence, and thus emboldened, they would be more willing to negotiate cultural and linguistic differences with the target language group members. Students observed cultural differences enabling them to behave in a culturally correct manner (Excerpt 10) resulting in better social and cultural adjustment. I think I learn a lot about the country, because I just shared the culture between the Chinese and Italian with my host family. The following excerpts also show that students were eager to integrate with the local community by taking part in a variety of social gatherings.
Prior to immersion, students were not very confident about interacting with their host families due to lack of experience, hence they initially tended to use the intercultural communication strategies of rejection, avoidance and passivity. Before immersion, students were anxious about the homestay experience due to their lack of quality and quantity of interaction with the host families in this study. Upon commencement of the immersion programmes came the chance to interact with host families, and anticipated uncertainties of many students were soon addressed and minimised.
The results found in the present study bore witness to the proposed models of Bennett (1986) and Kohls (1996). Also evident in the study was the common nature of the intercultural communication strategies employed. Apart from the impact of Chinese ideology on intercultural communication, host families also played a significant role. Homestay experience in immersion programmes provides learners with authentic situations and an environment conducive to the development of both linguistic and communicative competence.
However many of these assignments are unsuccessful in that either the business expatriates return earlier as planned or they do not perform as well as expected. Social systems build the framework in which international assignments take place, since the expatriate leaves one particular social system in order to enter a new one. This means it is not only the social structures which form the most important phenomenon of social systems but also the agents and their interaction with each other. The 'agents' of each society revert to particular resources and rules, that are mainly anchored in the practical consciousness of agents. Signification gives sense to the rules and resources and is transmitted in the interaction through communication, which reverts to interpretative schemes.
Thus expatriates are accustomed to certain social structures different from those of the host culture. As I have explained above, the expatriate is confronted with foreign rules and modes of interaction. This may be on the one hand the national or regional origin, but also sociocultural affiliations in the sense of Pierre Bourdieu (1987) as well as organization origin (e.g. Since virtual assignments are increasing, we have to take into account if the contact takes place face to face or is virtual. The former is usually defined as the achievement of psychological comfort while interacting with HCNs and foreign living conditions (Black et al. According to Parker&McEvoy (1993), adjustment encourages the success of the overseas assignment and thus is important to achieve.
Due to this interrelation (see figure 1), power affects on the one hand communication and on the other hand sanction or level of tolerance on the interactional level, and on the structural level domination is interrelated with signification and legitimation.
Thus cultural learning may be influenced by the expatriates’ power, which is connected to the hierarchical position they fill in a organization and thus by the potential threat they possess. It is based mainly on a case study, as the openness of the method allows a form of data collection which is not constrained by predetermined categories of analysis and thus permits a level of depth and detail that quantitative strategies alone can not provide (Lamnek 2005, Mayring 2002). Additionally, four interviews with Mexican employees have been conducted in order to contrast them with the Germans’ statements and to detect culturally influenced perceptions as well as to highlight the Mexican cultural background.
An argumentative validation was conducted during which the results were presented in different scientific settings including colloquiums and conferences. In becoming aware of these differences culture shock may occur and, in the best case, culture learning should take place, but on the other hand resistence and separation also is possible. Additionally, an underestimation of cultural differences can be observed in many German interviewees who indicate a lack of knowledge of the host culture which seems to result in an underestimation of the need to adapt. Such problems seem to have their origins in different understandings of hierarchy and may be ascribed to a power struggle.
Inappropriate behaviour seems to be tolerated by those who have a position lower than that of the German. In the opinion of the expatriate, Germans show less tolerance to foreigners and try to teach them to be more like Germans. This was especially asserted regarding contact with subordinates who were regarded as deceitful. Since the contradiction and criticism of superiors appear to be less usual in the Mexican work context, a tolerance of inappropriate behaviour has been described by many German interviewees in higher positions. The social system (green) in general, as well as the work context (violet) seem to shape the situation in this case. Since the dimensions of social systems, according to Giddens (1984), are interrelated, the conditions for domination are linked to signification.
Many German interviewees commented about the importance of status symbols and the right clothing in Mexico, as well as about the special rules that are linked to corruption etc.
If the agents are not aware of the right usage of resources, unintended consequences of interaction (Giddens) may be the result. Related to the special position of German expatriates, aberration is more or less tolerated by the colleagues and subordinates. Even if the Mexicans working together with the Germans suddenly adapt to this form too and get a lot more direct. The data displayed some evidence which suggests that expatriates due to their position seem to have a certain potential for threat, what means they possess some symbolic power. While the Mexicans tend towards a high context communication, the Germans tend towards a low context communication which often seems to be a source of conflict and misunderstanding.
The advantages of this approach include the possibility of clarifying the expatriate's perceptions of the overseas assignment in depth and also the possibility of contextualizing them. The small sample of interviewees and the individual approach does not allow for a generalisation of results; additionally, this study is limited to Mexico. In this study most of the interviewees had a more egalitarian understanding of a superior-subordinate relationship than is usual in Mexico.
It supports the idea that interaction outside of the work place seems to be especially important (Selmer 2001) because the distribution of power is different. According to newer approaches it may be understood as a process of mutual adjustment (Zimmermann & Sparrow 2007). Furthermore, it is more complex than other concepts which mainly focus on the interactional level or only take into account the structural level, as for example in the work of Luhmann (1984). The present paper looks into the self-perceptions of working and living abroad of mobile medical professionals. Methods that may be employed include bi-lateral agreements, structured international recruitment, facilitated recognition of diplomas, joint training programmes and other initiatives (2011:4). Therefore, throughout the academic literature, the preparatory stage of the stage abroad is discussed extensively.
Its positive effects are reported extensively throughout the literature (Black and Mendenhall 1990; Templer et al.
Importantly, Black and Mendenhall take these three dimensions, namely, the self dimension, the relationship dimension and the perception dimension, and analyse how cross-cultural training improves the well-being of mobile professionals. The major reason for their unwillingness to support cross-cultural training is that managers tend to take for granted that a successful professional will be successful everywhere. The second part of the theoretical framework will therefore deal with cross-cultural adjustment which by some scholars is defined as a crucial element determining the success of the individuala€™s stay abroad (Templer et al.
General adjustment is seen by Black as a€?the overall adaptation to living in the foreign countrya€™ and interaction adjustment as a€?the comfort achieved in interacting with host nationals in work and nonwork situationsa€™ (Templer et al. To some extent, the success of cross-cultural adjustment lies in how well a mobile professional will accept and adjust to the cultural changes. As the value of their cultural capital increases, so learnersa€™ sense of themselves and their desires for the future are reassessed (1977:122). In other words, individualsa€™ behaviour with regard to the host culture may be modified depending upon what rewards they expect from adjusting to it.
Ricento summarizes it by providing a language-learning related example and stating that the higher a€?the degree to which the learner identifies with another culture, the more motivated he or she will be to acquire that culturea€™s languagea€™ (2005:897, Ricentoa€™s emphasis). Different conceptual frameworks have been employed to explain the phenomenon and its related consequences.
More in particular, I was interested in how mobile medical professionals experience their life and work situation abroad. Namely, the focus of the study concentrated on instrumental motivation, international experience and initiative on the individual mobile medical professional on the one hand and support provided by the host institution and effect of cross-cultural training on the other. First, I included questions looking into how the mobile medical professionals experienced the preparation stage, i.e.


To this end, I asked the respondents to indicate their level of cross-cultural adjustment (Black and Mendenhall 1990); their level of identification with the host culture (Ricento 2005) and the dynamics of their motivation to stay in the foreign country. The crucial importance of successful intercultural communication has been extensively discussed throughout the literature (Black and Mendenhall 1990; Larkey1996). This points to the conclusion that the respondents demonstrate a high degree of instrumental rather than integrative motivation. The results of the present study suggest that the link between the two as reported by Richardson et al. The relationship between receiving realistic job and living condition previews and the professionala€™s successful adjustment in the new working and living environment is stressed in the literature concerning aspects of professional mobility (Templer et al.). These findings may be perceived as pointing to the possibility that relating work adjustment to a job preview and the satisfaction with general living conditions to a living condition preview at least in this case is overestimated. It stands in sharp contrast with overall satisfaction with professional functioning: strikingly, four out of ten professionals said their social networks were either a€?not gooda€™ (n=3) or a€?not good at alla€™ (n=1). It is important to underscore that three out of four respondents who indicated perceiving their social networks as a€?not gooda€™ or a€?not good at alla€™ also said that they had not taken any initiative to find out more about their new position abroad.
The figures express that most of the participants who expressed a high degree of satisfaction with cross-cultural adjustment (i.e. The remaining four participants said they identified with the new culture either a€?stronglya€™ (n=2) or a€?hardlya€™ (n=2). The two participants who indicated that their motivation to stay abroad was decreasing over time were the only ones who specified that they hardly related to their new cultures. The results suggest that there is a close link between the individualsa€™ motivation to continue living and working abroad and the degree of identification with the new culture, and satisfaction with professional functioning and social networks. As discussed in the previous section, the results revealed that the vast majority of the respondents perceived their performance on the work-floor as highly satisfying. However, it is important to note that the consequences of this perceived dissatisfaction with social networks are not entirely straightforward. She explains her increased motivation to continue living and working abroad in terms of her family situation.
Importantly, the two participants who indicated that their motivation to stay abroad was decreasing over time were the only ones who specified that they hardly related to their new cultures. The data suggest that ensuring that mobile medical professionals continue working abroad and feel cross-culturally adjusted to the new environment lies not solely in their functioning as professionals in the new working environment. The results of the study provide insight into how mobile medical professionals present their self-perceptions of the various aspects of their sojourns.
2006) focuses on the importance of institutional support provided to mobile individuals, I expected that the levels of cross-cultural adjustment and the intention of mobile medical professionals to continue their careers abroad to a great extent would rely on the various types of support they receive from the host institution. The high number of participants who received this particular type of support may have to do with the fact that the majority of the respondents were using the language-learning tool provided by the Medics on the Move (MoM) project while the research data was collected. Therefore, it may be useful to further investigate what role the self-perceptions of mobile medical professionals play as far as their actual communicative competences are concerned. With increasing rates of professional mobility in general and medical mobility in particular, the research in the field is crucial for better mobility and diversity management, development of language, cross-cultural training and related programmes. In this section, we will further refine our collective understanding and appreciation of the cultural knowledge, awareness, skills, and attitudes that curriculum developers, instructors, and learners bring to the adult ESL context. As the ATESL Curriculum Framework was developed, consultations were conducted with English language providers, curriculum developers, and instructors across Alberta.
The essential elements for building communicative competence include discourse,3 strategic,4 functional,5 linguistic,6 and sociocultural7 competencies.
The purpose of the discussion is to re-examine how culture is addressed in the ESL classroom, and to offer strategies that promote the intentional integration of ICC into ESL curriculum, teaching, and learning. Thomson and Derwing (2004) found that when textbooks do attend to Canadian culture, “the focus is on superficial, supposedly static manifestations. The cultural aspects of language and communication need to be made explicit and investigated as part of the second language learning process. It also highlights the need to acknowledge the diverse perspectives, practices, and products of cultures that are an integral part of being a multicultural society. It is also essential to consider the dynamic intercultural communicative aspect between learners.
Intercultural communicative language teaching is more of a stance than body of content or method.
The Massachusetts Model offers seven standards or ways of demonstrating awareness of cultural differences and attitudes, as well as the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to function in a culturally diverse society. They have been adapted to reflect Albertan and Canadian contexts, as well as the unpredictable way in which intercultural communicative proficiencies may develop. Adapted Intercultural Knowledge and Skills Strand of the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework (2005).
Note that the strands are presented intentionally in a different order than that in Figure 2 to highlight their complementary, non-sequential nature. Learners might discuss the values and behaviours embedded in the English proverbs and how differences might underscore historical and cultural backgrounds. Ask learners to identify a sub-culture other than their own and create a presentation of its main characteristics and relationships with other groups.
Each of the three sample tasks below addresses the following ICC strand: Identify and describe the significance of cultural images and symbols in Canadian cultures and their own. Ask learners to bring samples or provide pictures of money from their home countries, and compare the images on Canadian money to those found on money from their own countries. In small groups, with reference to the various images and symbols presented, ask learners to discuss and compare their thoughts about Canada before they moved here (often Culture) with what they have learned about Canada from living here (often more culture).
The original lesson plan, found on CBC Manitoba’s EAL website,36 has been adapted to demonstrate how ICC can be planned and introduced intentionally in the ESL classroom. Write a personal essay about the challenges you can imagine facing as you look for a mentor. While building language knowledge and proficiency is the focus of ESL programs, it is also essential to acknowledge the connection between language and culture. All these new encounters will require a lot of greetings – but are we aware of the appropriate ways to say hello in a different culture? Not only for the purpose of leaving a good first impression, although this is very important too, knowing what the appropriate greeting style is reveals a deeper understanding of the values of the other culture.
Hopefully, this flexibility can also turn into more cultural curiosity and awareness and improve your intercultural relationships. If you want to read more about generalizations and stereotypes or other intercultural topics, we encourage you to visit the ICL for friends of AFS section on our website. In AFS Intercultural Programs, we see and appreciate the value of various virtual learning opportunities and we encourage the community of AFS volunteers and staff as well as others to seek and use on-line resources that can help us improve our work in the intercultural field (check out the list of on-line resources on this blog). They cover a variety of different topics, they are all in English, happening at different times and most importantly, they are all coming up soon. Moreover, students cannot truly master the language until they have also mastered the cultural contexts in which the language occurs. To make students aware of the cultural features reflected in the language, teachers can make those cultural features an explicit topic of discussion and bring them to the forefront when appropriate.
Teachers can make it possible for students to observe and explore cultural interactions from their own perspectives to enable them to find their own voices and language egos in the second language speech community.
On the other hand, reading authentic fictional or non-fictional materials can also be a good introduction about the values and norms of the target language culture. Furthermore, proverbs and idioms form a significant part of every language and knowing them is a plus for every learner. They can be invited to the classroom as expert sources and share authentic insights into the home and cultural life of native speakers of the language. More than 1300 young people from over 245 youth organizations based in more than 40 European countries took part in a survey, while qualitative workshops and interviews were conducted with employers and relevant stakeholders in order to obtain data for creating the study.
Participation in non-formal education outside their home country brought young people even higher levels of development of some competences, especially in relation to intercultural communication, foreign languages and leadership skills.
They perceive the youth sector as offering a pool of specialist skills and say that involvement in such organizations is a good indicator of a person’s motivation level and potential to fit in with the new company.
Also, youth organizations need to brand themselves better to employers, who are insufficiently aware of what is happening in the youth sector, which makes some employers mistrust the information presented about the involvement in youth organizations by job seekers. It particularly stresses that the quality of non-formal education and the accessibility of it to more young people, on top of increased mobility, are core factors influencing the employability of young people.
Questionnaire and student interviews were conducted before and after the immersion programmes to investigate levels of anxiety and linguistic confidence which in turn affected the intercultural communication strategies employed.
These include naturalistic and ethnographic research, historical research, longitudinal research, correlational research, action research, ex post facto research, quasi-experiments and single-case research.
A questionnaire based on a five-point rating scale was set for a group of English major university students (N=93) to determine their L2 linguistic confidence and the anticipated intercultural communication strategies when communicating with host families before immersion. Students were allowed to state a preferred destination from among four countries: the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia or Canada.
Students completed the questionnaire and were invited to comment on its language and content. Students were assured that the information they provided would only serve the purpose of this study. To address research questions, data analysis included several procedures: First was descriptive data analysis which aimed to outline participantsa€™ linguistic confidence and their inclination to the immersion programme. The effect size is used to express the magnitude of a difference in means in standard deviation units. The only information given was the host family's name, address, occupation(s), number of children, and whether they had pets. Before the immersion, less than 40% of the students believed that they were confident or very confident in using English to speak with their homestay family (see Table 2). The following table shows that loadings of each intercultural communication strategy which are greater than 0.3. Interviews revealed why speaking with homestay hosts was particularly concerning to students.
Schmidt-Rinehart & Knight (2004) found that food, telephones, opposite sex issues, messy rooms and door-slamming were the most common adjustment problems for immersion students.
The quality and quantity of interaction and language contact lowered student anxiety levels and increased their L2 linguistic confidence. With the linguistically confident group (n=89), same statistical analysis procedures as RQ1 were conducted. We shared the concept of family and siblings and friends and lovers and affairs in our culture.
Further proactive behaviour was also evidenced by voluntary questioning of hosts and taking initiative to introduce Chinese cultures to hostsa€“all indicative of positive integration. However, after sufficient positive interaction with the host families, students were less anxious and thus became confident in communicating with the host families. Without such interaction, students had mixed feelings towards the homestay experience because of anticipated uncertainties.
The quantity and quality of interaction indeed helped to increase their linguistic self-confidence.
Bennetta€™s (1986) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) states denial, defence, minimisation, acceptance, adaptation and integration are identified as stages of awareness of cultural difference, which is relevant to the explanation of the intercultural communicative process. As Berry (1997) mentions, acculturative outcomes are subject to the influence of a number of social and collective factors. The present study revealed that student L2 linguistic confidence was improved and language anxiety was reduced. Ruth Wong is an assistant professor at Department of English Language Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education. Multiple reasons for the failure of such assignments have been identified, most of which are related to the ability of an individual to adapt to the host culture and culture learning.
Reasons for the low rate of success are mainly attributed to problems in adapting to the host culture associated with personality, self-monitoring, and self efficacy (Caligiuri 2000, Hechanova et al.
Contrary to most studies with a psychological research tradition, this article is focused on a collective level and thus based on a sociological theory.
These agents are knowledgeable individuals who have the ability to reflect their agency and reproduce or transform the social structures. The practical consciousness means tacit knowledge about how to behave in certain situations and contexts and is linked to particular social systems.
The signification of the structures differs from one social system to another as well as the ways of interaction. But in my opinion that is not sufficient for an analysis of a situation of cultural overlap..
Thus the signification of the agent's origin may be biased by the position the person fills etc. The degree of adaptation which is required varies depending on the host culture (Berry 1998, 297).
Power could be viewed as a form of influence (Russel 1973, Krüger 1980, March 1955), as the achievement of goals (Mann 1991), as a capacity (Trias 1993, Holm 1969) and as an end in itself (Moore 1958). Therefore I draw the conclusion that, by relating Giddens’ ideas to the intercultural context, power affects the quality of communication between expatriates and HCNs as well as the degree of toleration by HCNs in the case of aberrant behaviour by the foreigner. The extent to which the dimensions affect each other depends – as I suppose – on the meaning of power in the particular context. The qualitative and quantitative methods are combined to amplify the results of each other rather than to deepen the investigation.
The goal of the study was to gain insights of the situation of German expatriates in Mexico and their challenges, as well as to extract tendencies of usual working styles in Mexico, in order to give a scientific basis for intercultural trainings and future expatriates. In order to interact effectively, culture learning and adjustment is necessary (Palthe 2004). The German expatriates seem to be used to more equal hierarchical structures than their Mexican colleagues. Dislike is not expressed openly; the expatriate only knows that he is disliked through other informants or through subliminal behaviour, which is for the expatriate normally not so easy to distinguish(16).
Following the idea of the social learning theory that depends on the feedback of peers, this may have the consequence that culture learning and thus adjustment are more difficult to realise. Secondly most Germans came from the parent company or a privileged subsidiary (as it is the case of the automotive company where the R&D department is located in Germany). Being a German and part of the parent organization, a certain position in the organization is ascribed and the facility to mobilize allocative and authoritative resources is determined in a certain way.
This seems on one hand to be connected with the general norms in a society regarding how much a foreigner is expected to assimilate (Berry 1997, 297; see also citation of bc2 above), but as we have seen in the examples above it also seems to vary in the working context depending on the expatriate's power or the hierarchical position he fills.
Since in Mexico the dismissal laws are very lax, the threat potential of a superior is much higher than in Germany, and thus it is understandable that an inharmonic relationship is avoided by the subordinates. Being in a powerful position and therefore having the potential for threat is linked to the social structure of a society and the hierarchical constitution of the organization culture and therefore the interaction to subordinates appears to be biased.
This seems to influence the interaction with host national subordinates, for since they appear not to dare to contradict and criticise their superiors, communication is less direct and the sanction of inappropriate behaviour seems to be reduced. This is linked to lax laws of dismissal protection which intensify the superiors’ threat potential.
Since it is difficult for those who are used to low context communication to decipher the messages of a high context of communication, the communication style seems to intensify a lack of culture learning.
Also, host country nationals have been included into the sample, which was useful in that their perceptions could be contrasted with those of the German expatriates, which differed widely. It was observable that the expatriates underestimated the power they had and displayed, which had unintended consequences. Cross-cultural training: A critical step in ensuring the success of international assignments.
Interkulturelles Coaching, Mediation, Training und Consulting als Aufgaben des Personalmanagements internationaler Unternehmen.
Critical Success Factors of Finnish-Mexican interpersonalö Communication in the business Context. Teamwork in a Globalised Context – influencing factors on achievement in German Mexican collaboration. La defensa de los derechos de las minorías culturales en los estados liberales actuales. Toward the boundaryless career: A closer look at the expatriate career concept and the perceived implications of an international assignment.
Motivational, Cultural Intelligence, Realistic Job Preview, Realsitic Living Conditions Preview, and Cross-Cultural Adjustment.
While Brewster (1988) states a averaged quote of 5% early returns in British, German, French, Swedish and Dutch firms, Horsch (1995) states a quote of 13% for German multinational companies (see Lindner 1999). An online questionnaire was conducted in order to gain an insight into how mobile medical professionals experience living and working in a foreign environment and which factors make it easier or more difficult.
As far as the self-dimension is concerned, cross-cultural training manages to raise the individualsa€™ levels of a€?confidence in themselves and their ability to act effectively in a cross-cultural settinga€™ (1990:123). Importantly, the direct links between effects of cross-cultural training and cross-cultural adjustment are established. For the purposes of the present article, Gardner and Lamberta€™s theory of motivation is employed. Instrumental motivation can be seen as more or less adequately expressed through the category of extrinsic motivation.
Throughout the literature dealing with the experiences of mobile professionals, cross-cultural adjustment is defined as a€?the degree of psychological comfort and familiarity an individual has for the new environmenta€™ (Black 1990:123).
According to Allwood (1985), culture refers to a€?all the characteristics common to a particular group of people that are learned and are not given by naturea€™ (10).This definition of culture leads to what throughout literature is referred to as a€?cultural capitala€™. Even though the example illustrates the motivation to learn a foreign language, it may be easily transferred to adjusting to the host culture. I use some of the theoretical constructs discussed in the article to analyse the case study presented below.
The aspect that interested me most was whether they feel adjusted to live and work in a foreign culture since this has an impact on their communicating and functioning. Therefore, it was expected that the combination of these aspects would lead to successful cross-cultural adjustment.
Such responses carry important implications with regard to international assignment management. Even though the positive effects of successful intercultural communication have been established as crucial, the researchersa€™ suggestion to incorporate cross-cultural training into international assignment management seems to fall on deaf ears.
What also corroborates this conclusion is the fact that none of the respondents indicated willingness to become an a€?indistinguishable membera€™ of a particular society as one of the reasons for going abroad (Ricento 897). In the present study, these theoretical observations seem reflected to some extent; however, they cannot be seen as entirely true. Their holistic approach provides a good basis for an analysis of adjustment by mobile medical professionals in the present study. In the case of the present questionnaire, this relationship seems to be overrated: despite the low rate of the respondents who received any of these previews, the satisfaction with functioning on the work floor and living conditions was generally very high.
Four out of the seven participants who perceived their relations with colleagues to be either a€?very gooda€™ or a€?gooda€™ also said that they showed initiative in finding out more about their position abroad. Two more respondents perceived their social networks as a€?relatively gooda€™, which means that, in total, about two thirds (n=6) of the study population report their social networks to be problematic.
Moreover, there is also a correlation between initiative taking and an increased motivation to stay abroad: four out of seven respondents who took initiative to find out about their new position abroad also indicated an increased motivation to continue their careers abroad. The respondents who answered that they a€?stronglya€™ identified with the new culture were a British and an Italian mobile professional living and working in Belgium and in Germany respectively.
The same holds true for the contrary as well: seven respondents who indicated an increased motivation to stay abroad, expressed either a a€?stronga€™ (n=2) or a€?moderatea€™ (n=5) identification with the new culture.
This finding can be seen as reflecting Ricentoa€™s interpretation of Shumanna€™s Accultural Model where the learner who identifies with a particular culture is willing to learn its language (2005:897). The same degree of satisfaction was reported as far as their relations with colleagues are concerned. She says her motivation to continue her career abroad has increased because she a€?would like [her] children to finish their schooling in Belgium.a€™It would be interesting to see whether the fluctuations in the levels of motivation would be the same should the family situations in such cases be different. The same logical pattern of reasoning applies to the opposite: the seven respondents who indicated an increased motivation to stay abroad, indicated either a a€?stronga€™ (n=2) or a€?moderatea€™ (n=5) degree of identification with the new culture. This is a very common simplistic stance that is often taken when international experiences of mobile professionals are considered and that is proved wrong by the findings of the study. Some important tendencies such as the reasons for going abroad and initiative-taking patterns of mobile medical professionals have been established. However, the results reveal that this is not the case as institutionalised support is very limited.
Since the data have shown that no cross-cultural training support was provided to the participants, the MoM language-learning tool can be seen as partly replacing such training. Participants who showed active individual initiative were more satisfied with their social networks, which eventually led to a higher motivation to continue working and living abroad. Findings from the interviews and e-survey reveal an interest in better understanding how to integrate intercultural content into language learning tasks and how to incorporate strategies for promoting intercultural awareness in the classroom.
Figure 1 represents this taxonomy.8 These elements are interconnected and each helps build communicative knowledge and skills when integrated into curriculum and practice in intentional ways. Hanley’s (1999) iceberg model of culture shows Culture as the (more or less) easily visible, surface aspects, such as fine arts, literature, drama, classical and popular music, folk dancing, games, cooking, and dress.
For example, before a hockey game begins, each team skates around the rink while the audience applauds).
The intention of ICC is to blend understandings of the linguistic and cultural knowledge, awareness, skills, and attitudes that each individual brings to the ESL classroom. Seidl (1998) contextualizes the dynamic nature of ICC with this question: “How appropriate is it for an Italian to be competent in conversational gambits which are typically British if he is doing business in English with a woman from Germany and someone from Japan?”23 Within the context of ICC, ESL teaching and learning is approached as a multi-way process of learning to communicate respectfully and appropriately within a multicultural context.
The idea is not to separate culture from language, but to recognize its inherent presence in language and to see language as culture. Standards are not proficiency levels or benchmarks, but are intended instead to describe what learners should know and be able to do within a specific content area. For example, after practising greeting someone of the same age versus someone older, learners might role-play a situation in which an inappropriate greeting or intonation is used. The purpose of providing this series of sample tasks is to demonstrate the applicability of one strand across a range of proficiencies.
Ask learners to provide a short oral description of one bill or coin (in pairs or as a group) and write new vocabulary on the board. Then, learners will prepare a 15-minute group multimedia presentation for their peers, outlining their individual preconceptions of various Canadian symbols and images and how they understand the images and symbols now. The adaptations (bolded) also demonstrate how ICC can be worked into an existing lesson plan, highlighting the concept that culture is inherently present in language. Attending to ICC in an intentional way builds on the cultural knowledge, awareness, skills, and attitudes that instructors and learners bring to the classroom and the less visible aspects that promote a deeper understanding of culture as a dynamic process.
A linguistic anthropological perspective on language and culture in second language curriculum.
Adult basic education curriculum framework for English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).
Intercultural communicative language teaching: Implications for effective teaching and learning. Critical incidents for intercultural communication: An interactive tool for developing awareness, knowledge, and skills. For example, the appropriate order in which you greet people in case you meet with a group may show that culture’s view on seniority and respect. Generalizations are unavoidable and they can even be helpful in making sense of complex intercultural settings. More often than not, they are very negative and tend to be less flexible to new information. A list of suggested endings to those questions immediately pops up, and it might not always be a flattering one. Follow the link at the bottom of this post to register for the webinar most appealing to you!
Linguistic competence alone is not enough for learners of a language to be competent in that language. It is of utmost importance that cultural information be presented in a nonjudgmental way which doesn’t evaluate the distinctions between the students’ native culture and the culture explored in the classroom. These materials also help the students improve their language skills, especially in terms of listening and understanding written texts. European Federation for Intercultural Learning (EFIL), the umbrella organization for AFS in Europe, also took part in this survey and invited its members to give their contributions. Many young people are aware that such opportunities lead to personal growth, even though this can be further enhanced by the existence of an assessment or strategic plan for skill development within the organization.
A background in non-formal education activities is especially important for young people with less work experience, particularly with regard to the number and type of previous involvements in the field.
The findings of this study are significant for AFSers around the world, as they comply with the organization’s educational goals, which aim at developing personal and interpersonal skills as well as intercultural knowledge and global issues awareness.
With the results found in this study, this paper also attempts to modify and elaborate Clementa€™s (1980) linguistic confidence theory. It also allows for tertiary socialisation into the target community, as stated by Alfred & Byram (2002). Data is collected using questionnaires, interviews, accounts, role-playing, observation, tests and personal constructs. The questionnaire was designed based on the interview data collected from the previous cohort of students who had been to immersion.
Appropriate changes were made after several items were determined to be vague and other questions found to be statistically unreliable. Respondents were reminded that their participation was completely voluntary and that all data collected would remain confidential. Second was a Principle Components Analysis of the questionnaire items set in the questionnaire which aimed to screen out any factors with loadings lower than 0.4 within their own factors (Stevens, 1996), and thus to perform data reduction. Standardized effect sizes are obtained by removing the effect of the metric, allowing for comparison of results across studies when different metrics are used to measure dependent variables (Thompson, 2006). Anticipating interaction with this limited knowledge, about 35% of students did not look forward to the homestay experience, and nearly 30% had mixed feeling about it (see Table 1).
Principal components analysis aims to discard strategies that have loadings lower than 0.4.
Since students had no interaction with the host families before the immersion, they could not anticipate the linguistic environment based simply on the background information about the host family. Anxiety over different living styles and the language barrier had brought on language contact avoidancea€”an intercultural communication strategy in the pre-immersion stage. But in Englanda€¦ using the computers, Ia€™ll have to ask them for permissiona€¦ for television, Ia€™ll have to ask them again too.
According to Meara (1994), the amount of social time spent with native speakers could play an important role in language improvement. Students also significantly improved their confidence in speaking with host families (see Table 5), with almost 96% of students feeling confident or very confident in this regard.
Immersion increases language contact and cultural contact in many ways, through the influence of cultural immersion via TV, films, newspapers, music and even overhearing native conversation.
Due to lack of contact with the host family in the pre-immersion stage, students adopted rather reserved intercultural communication strategies. Her research areas include student learning motivation, teaching pedagogy and cultural issues related to education. In this article it will be argued that power may affect the quality and nature of an expatriate's culture learning and thus may undermine the chance to adapt adequately.
Thus social structures do not determine interaction, rather they enable action and restrict it at the same time. Rules are generalised behavioural patterns which portray a sense of action within a social system. The specific constellation of the agents' origins may influence the situation of cultural overlap in determining factors such as cultural distance(8) and thus influencing all dimensions of Giddens' model. The signification of certain behaviour influences in how far it is sanctioned or tolerated. Giddens' understanding differs here from that of Elias Canetti (1981), who believes that power only exists in the moment of its manifestation. In the quantitative part, 1430 questionnaires have been sent to Mexicans working in national and international organizations, 810 have been statistically evaluated(11).
The material was read step by step using the open coding technique of Strauss and Corbin (1996). Subordinates are also described as tolerant in situations where expatriates revert to the cultural interaction routines of their homeland. Superiors were perceived to be more honest, but at the same time less friendly because they seem to sanction unusual behavior. The positions filled by the expatriates were key positions, embodying a certain threat potential for the colleagues and subordinates and influencing the structure of signification.. How much domination may take place or how much power may be wielded seems to depend on the one hand on how the society handles authority and how strictly hierarchical differences are tolerated, which could mean how the power distance index of Hofstede (1991) is developed, but also on the personal will of the expatriate to wield power, which is related to his personality on the one hand but also to the specific norms in his culture on the other. With an adequate change management, the unusual leadership style could finally be introduced successfully in one organization. We [the Germans ] are not very good at that because we never learnt how to negotiate in situations of corruption.
In the organizations of the pharmaceutical sector, a more egalitarian organization culture was described, even if it was also said that it was quite a process to establish this culture.
Additionally, the organization culture seems to be important: where a more egalitarian understanding of leadership was established, interviewees seemed to be less ethnocentric and described an open communication atmosphere which seemed to favour culture learning. The extended framework of analysis of Giddens has been very useful for analysing this context since it takes into account the perception and significative schemes of the probands which are often neglected. Only by establishing new organization norms could a trustful and egalitarian organization culture be created. The Big Five personality characteristics as predictors of expatriate’s desire to terminate the assignment and supervisor-rated performance.
Sources of Support and Expatriate Performance: The Mediating Role of Expatriate Adjustment, Personnel Psychology, 54, 71–99. Reflections on 22 Years of the International Journal of Intercultural relations and 23 years in other areas of intercultural practice.
Interkulturelle Kompetenz als neuartige Anforderung an Entsandte: Status quo und Perspektiven der Forschung. Relative importance of personality dimensions for expatriate selection: A policy capturing study. Globalisierung und Personalmanagement- Perspektiven für ein strategisches internationales Personalmanagement. The results suggest a close link exists between the perceived willingness to continue the sojourn and the degree of identification with the new culture, satisfaction with professional functioning and satisfaction with social networks. It is further specified that, among other initiatives, this may include a€?promoting more social and ethnic diversity in recruitmenta€™ and a€?developing possibilities for providing language training to assist in potential mobilitya€™ (2008:7-8). The aim of the present study is to explore how mobile medical professionals manage to adjust to life and work in a foreign culture, i.e.
Aspects such as the support on the part of the host institution, individual initiative, motivation, cross-cultural adjustment and identification with the new culture will be taken into account (Black and Mendenhall 1990, Ricento 2005, Richardson et al. 2008) analyse preparation from a two-fold perspective, namely, the role of the host institution and that of the mobile medical professional were looked into. The authors argue that cross-cultural training helps enhance the skills required to establish effective relationships with members of other cultures and therefore the relationship dimension is positively affected.


However, this kind of logic sometimes turns out to be thoroughly false: it happens that so-called a€?gooda€™ professionals cannot function optimally in a foreign environment. However, even though integrative motivation shows some characteristics of intrinsic motivation, the two types are not entirely overlapping as Gardner and Lamberta€™s integrative motivation includes the aspect of a€?internalised goala€™ if looked at from the point of view of Chirkov et al. It is important to note that interaction adjustment is reported to be the most difficult to achieve.
Norton and Toohey note that a€?Bourdieu and Passeron (1977) use the term a€?cultural capitala€™ to reference the knowledge, credentials, and modes of thoughts that characterize different classes and groups in relation to specific sets of social normsa€™ (122). It is not clear, however, how the aspect of a€?identificationa€™ with another culture can actually be judged. The figure below represents the interrelations between the different factors leading to cross-cultural adjustment. To some extent, this may also be seen as relating to language training: the fact that most professionals were involved in a language training programme indicates that international assignment managers consider the ability to communicate in the language of the host country as the most important factor influencing the success of an individual working and living abroad. The degree of integrative motivation in these individuals can therefore be expected to be rather low. One third of the respondents answered that they had actively sought information regarding their stay abroad; however, they had no previous international experience. In the present study private initiative and international experience are not interconnected.
Eight out of ten people described their professional satisfaction at work as either a€?gooda€™ (n=4) or a€?very gooda€™ (n=4). However, some of those who received neither of the previews specified their professional functioning and living conditions as a€?very gooda€™. Importantly, the category of social networks was the only domain where respondents expressed such negative perceptions.
Interestingly, the respondents who specified that they hardly related to their new environments were two Eastern European mobile professionals (a Lithuanian and a Pole who work in France and Denmark respectively). This reflects a high correspondence with Templer et al.a€™s interpretation of John Schummana€™s Acculturation Model. The same holds true for willing to continue the sojourn: the individuals who identify with the culture better, show more motivation to continue living abroad. Therefore, the situation of mobile medical professionals on the work floor points to the fact that they do not have any difficulties adjusting cross-culturally at work.
A comment from one of the mobile medical professionalsa€™ comments who is highly dissatisfied with his social networks represents one tendency. Rather, sometimes the social functioning outside the work settings of the mobile professionals influences their decision to either continue working and living abroad or leave. It has also been revealed that being a mobile professional entails not only searching for a more rewarding professional functioning, but also looking for general well-being on a social and personal level. Cross-cultural training was not provided to any of the respondents participating in the study. Namely, MoM as a language-learning tool has a strong focus on tailoring communicative competences of mobile medical professionals with regard to the foreign cultures in which they function professionally and socially. It may be interesting to investigate what effects proactive individual initiative (or the lack of it) has on cross-cultural adjustment and motivation in larger scale studies dealing with professional mobility. Several interviewees indicated that cultural and intercultural content was not addressed in their curriculum documents, but tended to emerge organically in the classroom. This intersection of culture and language carries implications for curriculum development and teaching practices. Integrating ICC into curriculum and instruction is about intentionally highlighting this dimension within existing program goals, language learning outcomes, tasks, materials, and assessments. The Massachusetts Model is helpful for integrating intercultural communicative awareness into ESL curriculum and teaching practices in an intentional, contextualized way. Here, ICC learning is viewed as a dynamic process that has applicability and resonates across all proficiency levels and contexts. To assess understanding, other learners might be asked to identify the reason for the misunderstanding. Develop this task over a few classes so that learners have the opportunity to do some research and prepare. To guide, support, and refine an understanding of ICC practices, the Intercultural Knowledge and Skills component of the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework39 has been introduced and adapted. Developing intercultural sensitivity: An integrative approach to global and domestic diversity. Developing and assessing intercultural communicative competence: A guide for language teachers and teacher educators. Physical closeness or touching may speak about the notions of personal space upheld in that particular culture.
They often create prejudice and discrimination, not allowing us to understand individual differences and understand others. From simple, everyday things, like forms of address to appropriate ways of expressing disagreement, culture forms an integral part of the language learning curricula. Claire Kramsch uses the term “third culture” of the language classroom to describe an ideal learning environment, one where learners can explore and reflect on their own and the target culture and language.
The topic of the study was of particular interest for AFS, seeing that this organization provides non-formal learning opportunities both for its program participants and volunteers, who are often from the age group covered by the study.
Through their exchange experience, sojourners and volunteers alike have the opportunity to develop higher levels of intercultural competences and leadership skills, which prove to be beneficial for their future careers. You can read the full study or its executive summary for more information.
Results indicated increased L2 linguistic confidence and lower anxiety levels after students interacted with their host families.
This motivation model emphasises the importance of L2 confidence in bringing out the desire for future communication. This study will adopt mixed method to investigate how linguistic confidence affects intercultural communication strategies. The first part of the questionnaire aimed to examine participantsa€™ linguistic confidence and their perception of language skills competency. A reliability test on the questionnaire items was run to determine their internal consistency.
Respondents were also reminded that the interview would be tape-recorded, and that their responses would remain confidential. Second, to isolate which intercultural communication strategies were significant to the participantsa€™ intercultural communication, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was employed, mainly due to its ability to elicit clusters of intercultural communication strategies as well as spot inter-relationships within a set of variables. The Pearson r value is 0 .874 which shows there is a positive relationship between variables.
According to the analysis, seven intercultural communication strategies were generated: self-study, passivity, minimalism, physical absence, attitude, integration and proactivity. That is, they attributed their lack of linguistic confidence in L2 to expectations of different accents (Excerpt 1), the pace of the speech (Excerpt 2), limited conversation topics (Excerpt 3), and difficulties in expressing themselves (Excerpts 4). Chinese students are generally passive players in cultural negotiation and would rather comply with the host's rules than express their own preferences. During immersion, students were found to be linguistically confident, employing the intercultural communication strategies of a€?observationa€?, a€?open-mindednessa€?, a€?proactivitya€? and a€?integrationa€? in a community of different speech and culture. However, both Bennetta€™s and Kohla€™s models do not capture the fluidity of how Chinese culture itself impacts intercultural adjustment. However, intercultural communication strategies were employed differently after having face-to-face authentic language and social interaction with the host families. A mixed methodology investigation of the linguistic and affective outcomes of summer study abroad. Language, identity and adjustment: The role of linguistic self-confidence in the adjustment process. Intercultural competency: A transformative learning process, Adult Education Quarterly, 44 (3), 154-173.
She has published textbooks, professional articles and research papers in various international journals. The article presents first results of a case study regarding German expatriates of five organizations in Mexico. Section one of this article highlights that which occurs when a person travels overseas and joins a foreign culture. Giddens also recognizes that social systems are not homogeneous, for they differ inside, an idea which he illustrates through his concept of regionalization (1984, 376). Domination depends on the mobilisation of resources; the methods of mobilization as well as the tolerance of how much power may be wielded in which context may differ between societies.
Regarding signification, the value that is ascribed to the origin of the agents may influence the modes of interaction and depends also on the political constellations of the countries of origin. The percentage of female expatriates is comparatively high; most women came from the educational or the pharmaceutical organizations and were relatively young. Relevant passages of text were identified and subsequently, in the axial coding phase, categories were refined and interrelated. If you speak here with people who study law – I have 3 or 4 students who study law, they told me that they learn in the 7th or 8th semester of their studies, among other things, how to bribe.
According to Perlmutter (1969), we can differentiate between four strategies of internationalisation: the ethnocentric, polycentric, regiocentric and geocentric strategies(17). Subordinates have been encouraged to confess faults, trust-building processes have been stimulated and so on. Additionally, it seemed that often it wasn’t deciphered by the Germans, when inappropriate behaviour was sanctioned. It is worth noting that the expatriates who worked in a more egalitarian organization culture seemed to display a higher overseas effectiveness than those working in organizations with a strict marcation of hierarchical differences, but positive proof is still lacking and could be the content of further investigations. Thus the study supports the proposal of Thomas & Stumpf (2003), Bolten (2002b) and Barmeyer (2000) that a synergy of elements of both cultural backgrounds is necessary.
Cross-cultural training effectiveness: A review and theoretical framework for future research. The influence of the spouse on American expatriate adjustment and intent to stay in Pacific Rim overseas assignments. Antecedents and consequences of employees’ adjustment to overseas assignment: A meta-analytic review.
Even though the majority of the respondents feel well adjusted in their new working environment, they experience their social networks as inadequate, which sometimes provides mobile medical professionals with an impetus to abort their careers abroad. As far as institutional support is concerned, providing medical professionals with a realistic job and living condition preview and cross-cultural training are considered to play an important role in successful cross-cultural adjustment (Black and Mendenhall 1990; Richardson et al. Finally, cross-cultural training also carries important implications as far the perception dimension is concerned. This is so not because their capacities or efficiency are overrated, but because they are immersed into a new working and living environment with no guidelines as to how they are supposed to deal with it. What is instrumental in acquiring at least some parts of a certain cultural capital within oneself is an idea that this cultural capital can be useful in one way or another.
A somewhat more tentative method to deal with attitudes towards different cultures is offered by Earley and Ang: the two scholars propose to take the concept of cultural intelligence (CQ as opposed to IQ) while discussing cross-cultural matters (2003). The research population consisted of ten medical professionals working in five European countries, i.e.
The replies show that in principle the only aspect that the host institution arranges for mobile professionals is language support. However, those respondents who indicated personal reasons (n=3) as the main motivation to go to live abroad probably have a higher degree of integrative motivation. Another third of the mobile professionals indicated they were actively seeking information and they also did have international experience. In this section, the results of cross-cultural adjustment are also mapped onto the role of individual initiative. Importantly, five out of eight of the participants who perceived their professional functioning either as a€?gooda€™ or a€?very gooda€™ also said to have taken initiative to find out more information about their position abroad. While this may be seen as an indication that the actual importance of realistic job and living condition previews is not very high in practice, there is another interpretation that cannot be totally excluded. These findings corroborate Templer et al.a€™s claim that interaction adjustment is indeed the most complicated aspect to achieve in a new culture. At first glance, this may come across as somewhat surprising given that the two respondents coming from the Middle East indicated a higher, i.e.
Therefore, the perceived motivation to stay abroad can be observed as a factor that is very dynamic and changes in response to interaction between factors such as satisfaction with professional functioning and satisfaction with social networks outside the work floor. Importantly, six of the participants who indicated their professional functioning as either a€?very gooda€™ or a€?gooda€™ also perceived their motivation to stay abroad as increased.
Namely, the comment illustrates the view that the dissatisfaction with social life abroad can become the reason why the mobile medical professionals decide to go back to their homelands instead of continuing building a career abroad. Even though the study focused on the medical profession, it may be applicable to a wider variety of professions. Even though numerous scholars study and develop cross-cultural training, this study has shown that in practice international assignment managers do not take suggestions offered by academics into account. It may be interesting to investigate further the extent to which language-learning tools facilitate effective cross-cultural functioning of mobile professionals. There was often little direction for instructors in terms of how to “handle” culture.2 This framework presents ICC as a core piece in ESL curriculum development. In other words, each standard may be taken up in various ways at different ESL proficiency levels. Together, group members identify the meaning of new vocabulary and prepare a set of 3-5 comprehension questions related to the reading.
As well, ask learners to conduct an informal survey of their classmates, neighbours, and colleagues to gather their impressions of the learner’s home country.
The seven strands of this model (and their respective examples) illustrate how intercultural communicative proficiencies may be developed intentionally and contextualized to reflect Albertan and Canadian contexts. These assumptions are wide spread and they fall into the categories of generalizations and stereotypes.
In any case, in order for communication to be successful, language use must be associated with other culturally appropriate behavior, not only linguistic rules in the narrow sense. Intercultural communication strategies employed at the pre-immersion stage and during immersion differed.
The use of mixed methods may answer the set research questions from several perspectives hence lead to greater validity.
The second part aimed to investigate the intercultural communication strategies participants would employ during immersion. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach alphas) was high, with an alpha value of 0.857, meaning the internal consistency of the questionnaire was high. Thirty minutes were allocated to complete the questionnaire, with additional time given upon request.
According to the data analysis, the seven intercultural communication strategies accounted for 82.12% of the total variance explained. According to the analysis, six intercultural communication strategies employed during immersion were: initiation, observation, acceptance, integration, self-study, perseverance and attitude. Byram also (1997: 34) identifies a€?attitude, knowledge and skilla€? as important factors in the development of intercultural communicative competence. However, it is not possible to conclude whether these intercultural communication strategies were adequately employed, or whether intercultural communicative competence could be developed, because in the pre-immersion stage there has yet to be any face-to-face language contact or interaction. Among the strategies found, a€?avoidancea€?, a€?passivitya€?, a€?observationa€?, a€?tolerancea€? and a€?proactive behavioura€? as Chinese characteristics have never been studied by previous research.
The use of positive intercultural communication strategies will serve to minimise the level of anxiety and enhance linguistic self-confidence.
Aptitude, attitude and motivation in second language proficiency: A test of Clementa€™s model. Willingness to communicate in a second language: The effect of context, norms, and vitality. Maximising Study Abroad: A studenta€™s guide to strategies for language and culture learning and use. The data displays evidence that power may restrict sanctions of host country nationals (HCNs) of an expatriate’s culturally inappropriate behaviour. In this context key concepts will be addressed: The sociological theory of structuration (Giddens 1984) will be combined with concepts of culture learning and adjustment. Consequently he promotes a dynamic concept of society that seems to be suitable to analyse intercultural encounters.
Rules are reproduced in three dimensions of structure: signification, domination and legitimation (see figure 1) which - due to the duality of structure(5) – are exercised in interaction through communication, power and sanction. The legitimation of particular behaviour may differ from the home context, since different norms are established. For example, a North American agent might be treated different than a German one, since the political relationships are perceived as less positive between Mexico and United States than between Germany and Mexico. This study tries to explore power as a possible factor of cultural learning and adjustment. It is considered to be the process of getting acculturated to the host country, implying that sojourners experience psychological comfort with various aspects of their new setting, thus allowing them to form appropriate routines of interaction with others and decreasing their chances of getting into a conflict situation because of intercultural misunderstandings. Weber 1947, Krüger 1980) that power enables the possibility of doing or achieving something. During the 1990s the quota of female expatriates in German organizations was about 10% (Stahl, Miller & Tung 2002), in European organizations the average is about 9% (Price Waterhouse Coopers 2001). In a following step the results were compared and an explanation was sought for the results.
The perceived harmonic working atmosphere regarding the Mexican subordinates may be a result of the higher tendency to subordinate, which means that the contradiction and criticism of superiors is avoided or achieved indirectly through communication and interaction. An ethnocentric strategy, where all high positions in the foreign location are filled by persons from the mother organization and the foreign organization has to follow the guidelines of the parent organization, dictates that expatriates will have a different status to those in a organization with a polycentric strategy of internationalization, where the foreign locations act nearly autonomously(18), implementing their own management structures(19).
Interestingly, in this organization the expatriates have made an impression of being interculturally more competent than the others.
The working context for many expatriates seems to be the main place of interaction with HCNs. This model unifies dimensions which are normally neglected or only investigated separately.
This has the implication that during intercultural trainings future expatriates should be sensibilized to the possible potential for threat that they may display. Throughout cross-cultural training mobile professionals receive a€?information about how people of other cultures view the world as well as their cognitive tendenciesa€™ (1990:123).
Furthermore, the level of self-determination is further subdivided into a€?autonomous and volitional versus controlled and coerceda€™ (2007:202). This theoretical construct is a€?defined as a persona€™s capability to deal effectively in situations characterized by cultural diversitya€™ (Templer et al. In the context of the present study, the results can be explained by the fact that the vast majority of the respondents (n=8) were using the language-learning tool provided by the European project Medics on the Move. Also, these participants were the ones to report an increased motivation to continue living abroad. The final third of the research population said they were neither seeking any information actively nor had they had any previous international experience.
Namely, it is possible that the correlation between receiving these previews and their effects on the professionalsa€™ adjustment in the present questionnaire may be of a coincidental nature.
The general tendency of a relatively high degree of satisfaction with relations with colleagues can be seen as a component adding to the high satisfaction with professional functioning on the work floor.
These results may therefore serve as guidelines for conducting further research into aspects related not exclusively to medical professional mobility. Also, the other kinds of support (provision of realistic job and living condition previews and cross-cultural training) on the part of the host institution were scarce.
Time can be explored in a number of ways, depending on your teaching and learning context, your learners, and your own intercultural capacity. Therefore, Figure 2 represents the standards as equally important and interconnected aspects or strands of ICC. Reconfigure groups so each new group is comprised of members who have read different passages.
Following their group presentations, each learner will write a 3-page personal response essay about the symbols and images of their home countries, incorporating the survey feedback from their peers.
Research and experience suggest that integrating ICC into ESL curriculum and instruction advances the knowledge, awareness, skills, and attitudes necessary for communicating with others who represent diverse linguistic and cultural perspectives. The intercultural communication strategies employed in the pre-immersion stage were decidedly passive which directly affected studentsa€™ linguistic confidence, but students became less anxious as they interacted directly with host families which in turn led to stronger linguistic confidence.
However, no studies have examined how the quality and quantity of interaction with a target group member of another speech community has affected the adoption of intercultural communication strategies, nor have any evaluated how L2 linguistic confidence affects the development of the intercultural communication process. After the questionnaire was piloted, the students completed the same questionnaire upon returning from their host countries in order to ascertain changes in linguistic confidence and intercultural communication strategies.
Among them, avoidance was the intercultural communication strategy that mostly taken by the students, as predicted by the students before immersion, followed by avoidance, passivity, observation, open-mindedness, integration and proactivity. According to the data analysis, the six intercultural communication strategies accounted for 79.98% of the total variance explained. The following figure shows the relationship between linguistic confidence and intercultural communication strategies.
In the pre-immersion stage, students relied upon a€?avoidancea€?, a€?rejectiona€? and a€?passivitya€? as their intercultural communication strategies; therefore little intercultural communication could be developed or facilitated. An official Chinese government website (Index-China, 2009) states, a€?Chinese in general are reserved and humble. There is great opportunity to gain first-hand knowledge of what family life is like in the target culture and to use the language in an informal setting (Paige, Kappler, Chi and Lassegard, 2002: 77).
With the findings of this study, future studies may focus on whether pre-immersion communications between students and host families can facilitate or reduce linguistic anxiety. The effects of induced anxiety on three stages of cognitive processing in computerized vocabulary learning. Minneapolis: Centre for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota. This tendency appears to be reinforced by the high value placed on power distance and an emphasis on hierarchical structures within an organization. Thus they are limited when it comes to measuring sociocultural adjustment; a lack of mirror-inverted designs comprising HCNs and expatriates can be stated. The second section explains the methodological approach, and section three presents the results. The status of a Guatemalan will be different to that of a German who is supposed to be member of a rich industrial nation, while many Guatemalans come to Mexico because of financial benefits. The concept of domination relies upon the mobilization of allocative and authoritative resources. For this purpose and after the process of open and axial coding, the theory of structuration was integrated into the process of interpretation. These results have been also confirmed by the quantitative data(14) (see table 1), as well as by the qualitative data. Following the geocentric strategy, the filling of key positions occurs independently of the aspirant's nationality and synergies are aspired to. Differences between those who stayed longer in Mexico to those who were new could not be observed. This is especially the case if the understanding of hierarchical implications differs between the home and host culture. In order to present a holistic view on medical professional mobility, both the professional and private component of the stay abroad will be considered.
Importantly, cross-cultural training provides mobile professionals with an opportunity to learn some culture- and communication-related patterns that they may use as the basis for acquiring an adequate perception of the host culture.
The two researchers suggest that instrumental motivation emerges when a certain target has to be achieved (for instance, career advancement), whereas integrative motivation a€?is the desire to become an indistinguishable member of the target speech communitya€™ (2005:897). The majority of the respondents (n=8) were contacted through the European project Medics on the Move.
This may be seen as very important in terms of longitudinal self-evaluation: when asked how their motivation to stay abroad had changed throughout the course of time, they focused on quite different aspects. Only one person answered that, even though he had international experience, he had not actively sought any further information related to his new position abroad. This observation subverts the intuitive assumption that it should be easier to relate to the cultures within onea€™s own continent. A follow-up study in a different field would allow us to see if similar conclusions are reached. Papers in Anthropological Linguistics 12, Department of Linguistics, GA¶teborg University, Sweden. Each group member provides a summary of the reading about the Canadian icon and asks the group the comprehension questions based on the summary. Expressing oneself appropriately, whether inside or outside an ESL classroom, relies on an understanding of and an ability to work within plurality. Therefore this paper will investigate how L2 linguistic confidence affects the development of intercultural communication strategies.
In a multiethnic context, a positive attitude on the part of the L2 learners would direct them to seek contact with the target L2 community members.
Pre-departure and post-return interviews were also conducted with 10 randomly chosen respondents to elicit further details on the quantitative data collected, as well as to fill any gaps in understanding. They believe in harmony and never look for confrontation.a€? This is an accurate description of Chinese people generally, confirming that a€?avoidancea€?, a€?passivitya€?, a€?observationa€?, and a€?proactivitya€? should not be surprising results of the present study. Immersion students benefit from a host family's welcoming attitude and caring approach, while both sides should exhibit an open attitude towards the different living and communication styles of the other culture. Besides, a longitudinal study may also be conducted to examine whether Chinese studentsa€™ intercultural strategies employed would be adjusted over time with the increasing understanding of the major culture in a foreign country through the host families.
Crew (Eds) Language and Cultural Immersion: Perspectives on Short Term Study and Residence Abroad. In this regard, the possible influence of power on the interaction process of German expatriates with HCNs will be explored. Taking into account what Giddens states about the legitimizing dimension of a social structure, the expatriates’ behaviour patterns which are inappropriate in the foreign culture would be sanctioned by the co-present members of the foreign social system, according to the social position of the agent in the social system what means the possibility to wield power. Domination, or the facility to wield power, also depends to a certain extend on the origin of the persons and thus legitimation and sanction will also be influenced due to the interrelation of all dimensions.
Allocative resources refer to the transformative capacity one has to regulate or control objects, goods, or material phenomena, whereas authoritative resources refer to the capacity one has to command other people. The expatriates inherit a formal or legitimizing power (French & Raven 1959), not only in the sense that they can wield power, but their ability to mobilise resources may encourage a certain respect and behaviour from subordinates as an unintended consequence.
The choice of theory was made largely because the data showed some evidence of the predominance of power asymmetries. 35,2% of Mexican respondents are afraid to advance their view and only 6,8% don’t worry about the hierarchical position of the interlocutor when expressing their opinion openly.
The regiocentric conception attempts to adapt the management structures and personell decisions to regional costumes and necessities. This is consistent with the findings of Isolatus (2004; 2002) in the case of Finnish expatriates in Mexico who also confirms a relationship between power and adjustment. Nevertheless, a long term study should be applied in order to measure the relationship between power and culture learning over time. Additionally, these different understandings of hierarchy and possible consequences, such as the taboo of criticising a superior, should be addressed in trainings. In Part two, the findings of a small-scale European study will be presented, analysed and mapped onto the theoretical implications regarding professional mobility found in the literature. As it will be discussed further on, the distinction between the two kinds of motivation, in turn, also has important implications for cross-cultural adjustment.
Given that the aspect of efficiency is brought out in the definition of cultural intelligence, it makes sense to think in terms of a€?a conscious willingness to identify with the new culturea€™.
The national background of the medical professionals is diverse: two respondents came from Lithuania, one from each of the following countries Belarus, England, Italy, Iran, Iraq, Germany, Poland and the Netherlands. Not only does the tool help mobile medical professionals develop their competences in a foreign language, but it also facilitates cross-cultural functioning of mobile medical professionals. It also draws attention to the almost identical lines of reasoning that the two Eastern Europeans provide: their living and working abroad, they note, enabled them to develop a stronger appreciation of their own culture and pride of origins. It appears that throughout the years working as a mobile professional he comes to the conclusion that the financial aspect does not outweigh what he misses out on due to the inability to combine living in Poland and working in Denmark.
Once each group member has had a turn, learners discuss a set of questions on the board regarding iconic females in their own countries and the contributions they have made. These approaches will help ensure successful acculturation, adaptation, and effective language learning during each student's immersion. In section four concluding remarks will be made and limitations and the need for further research will be pointed out.
This is, among others, the idea of Ortmann, Windeler, Becker & Schulz (1990, 16), who, in reference to an organizational context, state that power functions through an inherent logic of a potential threat. In the first case the potential for threat may be much higher because the expatriates probably have more power and control. Here the context variables should be selected carefully: different organization cultures, levels of intercultural competence and hierarchical positions as well as organizations’ strategies of internationalization should be considered.
Innovation may be hindered if the subordinates do not express their ideas or criticise the false suppositions of the superiors. In this way, the article will provide a view on how the various aspects and stages of professional mobility within a medical context are experienced by mobile medical professionals.
The two types of motivation are represented through human behavior: if individualsa€™ behavior is driven by genuine enjoyment they gain by engaging in a certain activity and not the promise of a reward after the activity is completed, it can be claimed that intrinsic motivation is at work. This attitude also relates to the type of motivation igniting certain behaviours in individuals. Namely, the MoM materials can be seen as a cultural awareness-raising tool that facilitates the adaptation of communication patterns in the foreign environment.
This can be seen in one of the respondenta€™s comments as to why her motivation to stay abroad has increased over time: a€?I would like my children to finish their schooling in Belgiuma€™.
Such reasoning does not lend itself to straightforward interpretation: possibly these are just individual perceptions of cultures, but it is also possible that the two participantsa€™ comment points to the fact that cultural differences within Europe may be perceived as profound in quite an acute way. The culture shock is normally caused because agents become aware of incompatible interaction routines. Another implication is that it is difficult to install a participative leadership style from one day to another because of the above mentioned customs.
A discussion of the results will follow (Part three) and, finally, suggestions for further research (Part four) will be made.
Interestingly, some important changes in attitudes can be observed as well: one of the two respondents who indicated personal reasons as the only factor stimulating her moving abroad, commented that she expected to stay abroad because she preferred the a€?culture at work [abroad] bettera€™. Prediction of the others’ behaviour fails to a certain degree and may cause acculturative stress.
The meaning of symbols depends mainly on the interpretation of their recipients (Blumer 1986). Since the structure of signification differs between the host and home society of the expatriate, the possibility that the HCNs have different interpretation patterns of particular symbols, in this case of power symbols, is high and may lead to misunderstandings.
As a follow-up, learners write a short paragraph describing a (famous) woman, her contributions, and why she is important to her home country.



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