Royalty free school clip art of sir isaac newton's universal law of gravitation, demonstrated by a falling apple. One of the most important scientific breakthroughs of all times is Sir Isaac Newton's universal law of gravitation, all thanks to the falling apple. Gravity is the weakest of all and has an unlimited range, but in cases where matter is involved in massive quantities (for example: a black hole), it is the strongest and most dominant one.

Ever since it was discovered, the working process of gravity has been explained by numerous theories, which have been explained below.Newton's Theory of Gravity Sir Isaac Newton studied the reason behind the falling apple, and defined it as the law of universal gravitation. The interactive forces occur in object pairs of the same type and magnitude, in opposite directions, and have different effects. Inertial Mass x Acceleration = Gravitational Field Intensity x Gravitational MassThis principle was demonstrated for the first time on the moon by astronaut David Scott of the Apollo 15 mission, when he dropped a hammer and a feather. In recent times, attempts have been made to explain the phenomenon of gravitation by the combination several theories, mainly those of Einstein's theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

Superfluid vacuum theory: The basic and fundamental entity of vacuum is regarded as a superfluid (Bose-Einstein condensate), which mediates the working of gravity through space. Gravity as an entropic force: This theory consists of an association between gravity and thermodynamics, and states that gravity is purely an entropic force, and does not exist due an interaction between a quantum field and the subatomic particles.

Non-symmetric gravitational theory: It explains gravity on the basis of the flat rotational curves of galaxies, and consists of a symmetric part (gravity) and an antisymmetric part (electromagnetic field). Induced gravity: On a microscopic level, the Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitational forces are represented as a mean field approximation in association with fluid mechanics. Self-creation cosmology theory of gravity: This concept states that the Universe has been created from a self-established gravitational field in association with other scalar fields. Brans-Dicke theory: The gravitational forces are coordinated by tensor and scalar fields of general relativity, and the gravitational constant 'G' is not constant. Aristotelian theory of gravity: This concept states that all the elements and entities of the Universe ultimately move towards the geocentric region of the Universe, and all the elements are present in their natural states, forming a shield around the others. NA¶rdstrom's theory of gravitation: Also known as the effective theory of gravitation, it states that the effects of gravity totally depend on the geometrical framework of the curved spacetime fabric.

Whitehead's theory of gravitation: Along the geodesic lines, the gravitational waves travel along a flat background, and are controlled by the metric tensor of Minkowski spacetime, and hence, the gravitational potential can be represented by these tensors. The above-mentioned alternative theories do not have much experimental basis, and hence, are not considered extensively. Gravity Probe B, a satellite, was launched in 2004 to measure the curvature or warping of space around our planet. Gravity is the reason everything gets attracted towards the Earth's surface, and also for the formation and movement of all the planets and other heavenly bodies.

Due to the absence of air resistance in the Moon's atmosphere, both objects reached the surface at the same time.Einstein's General Theory of RelativityThis theory was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. Also, as several aspects are still on a theoretical level, this concept is right only if gravity is understood on a subatomic scale.A German physicist called Max Planck originated the quantum theory, in 1900, while studying the phenomenon of black body radiation. On a subatomic scale, gravitons are spin-2 interactive particles, which do not have any mass.

This fluid is composed of fermion and anti-fermion pairs, which impart a wave function to the medium for the propagation of gravitational waves. This concept states that all the materialistic objects are hit by tiny microscopic particles (ultra-mundane corpuscles) from all directions.

Please note: this image is protected by copyright law and may not be used without buying a license. The fundamental forces of the universe include the electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, and gravitational forces.

He explained that gravity is a property of spacetime itself, and it is a force that results from the geometry of spacetime and interaction of matter with space, and vice versa.

He also presented the idea that energy is composed in the form of small packets called quanta. These bosons form the crux of this theory and are responsible for imparting the force of gravity to any mass-based object. If any two objects cover each other from these particles, a net imbalance results due to their pressure exerted during impact, and both the bodies are attracted towards each other. Provided below is a bit of extra information about the working mechanism of gravity with regard to plants.Effect of Gravity on PlantsIn 1806, a British physiologist called A. For example, all objects will fall in the same manner and will hit a surface, when the air resistance (or friction of the medium) is negligible or absent.In other words, if two objects of different masses and compositions are dropped at the same time, they will be attracted by gravity towards the ground at the same rate, regardless of their differing characteristics. He developed this theory through a hypothetical experiment that involved the effect of gravity on a free-falling elevator, and then predicted warping and the subsequent attraction of objects with different masses, which was later confirmed experimentally.The concept of relativity solved several of Newton's theoretical flaws and became more applicable for modern research. It explains the working process of gravity on a dominantly microscopic scale, as compared to the theory of relativity. The source of gravitons is called stress-energy tensors, which induce them to form the force of gravity. Knight demonstrated through an experiment, the control of gravity on the direction of a plant's root growth. The slight discrepancy in Mercury's orbit, the apparent bending of light rays due to gravity, several calculations involving astronomical values, etc., are some of the flaws or problems, which can be explained with the help of the general theory of relativity. Two major theories that work on similar lines of the unifying quantum field theory (standard model) with gravity are string theory and loop quantum gravity. As this particle type has still not been discovered, this theory lacks in importance regarding gravity, as much as the previous two theories.Developed in the 1960s, string theory is a concept that substitutes the subatomic particles by 1D objects called strings, and various quantum states of these strings are used to distinguish between the elementary particles.

Einstein stated that all objects tend to curve or warp the space around them, which leads to the appearance of a 4D space framework. Attempts have been made to unify all the theories into one single concept known as The Theory of Everything (TOE). The strings can vibrate and oscillate in numerous manners, and they are of two types: open and closed strings. Thus, the spacetime fabric allows the motion of free falling objects around the curved or warped space, along locally straight lines called geodesics. The former ones have two separate points, whereas the latter ones are present in a closed loop.One of the oscillatory modes produces the theoretical subatomic particles called gravitons, which in turn are responsible for the mediation of gravity, at least on a microscopic level.

This condition is caused by the resistance of gravitational force on the body, and it's also called Zero gravity or Free Fall. Though the lines are straight, they get curved in a 4D fabric that includes time.For example, place a heavy iron ball at the center of a trampoline. Thus, the string theory always exists in combination with the quantum field mechanics of gravity, and as the strings exist as the sources of these elementary particles, their different modes of vibration, depending upon the mass and frequency, can give rise to numerous types of other subatomic particles.Another concept that is modeled on quantum mechanics, loop quantum theory results in the formation of a compact and granular structure of the spacetime fabric.

Now, imagine the trampoline to be the space fabric, and the ball to be a large heavenly body. Positive geotropism is shown by the roots that grow in a downward direction, and negative geotropism is shown by the stem that grows upwards. Now, place a small marble ball on the trampoline surface, and observe as it travels along a curved path, but at the same time, a locally linear path towards the heavier ball. Galileo's theory, which stated that all things will fall with the same acceleration in the absence of air, was demonstrated by himself, when he released a ball of wool and a cannonball from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. This is exactly how gravity works in the universe according to general theory of relativity. Though it is the weakest fundamental force in the Universe, the effects of gravity are felt by all living beings more than the other remaining three forces (electromagnetism, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear). Both the objects hit the surface at the same time.Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by external forces impressed upon it. The heavy ball can be considered to be the Sun of our Solar System, and the marble ball as one of the planets. Throughout the last few centuries, numerous scientists, researchers, and physicists have explained the phenomenon of gravitation with as much clarity as possible. This curving of spacetime allows the revolution of planets in their orbits, the motion of comets and other heavenly bodies, the loss in intensity of light waves as they travel through space, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, etc.Supportive TestsVarious tests were performed to validate this theory, mainly for explaining the process of working of gravity. Technically speaking, explaining its working at the most fundamental level has not been possible as compared to the other universal forces.

The orbit of planet Mercury shows an anomalous precession of its perihelion position, which indicates that not only does the planet revolve around the Sun, but the orbit too undergoes a revolution, due to the curvature of spacetime under the influence of the Sun's gravity. Gravitational deflection and delay of light rays also explain the working mechanism of gravity, especially when such rays pass around large heavenly objects like the Sun.

This test measures the redshift (low frequency) or blueshift (high frequency) of an object, which follows a path of motion due to gravity. Gravitational waves or radiation have been indirectly studied and confirmed from binary star systems, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, etc.EquationsEinstein developed a set of simultaneous, non-linear, and differential field equations that explain the relationship between objects and the spacetime fabric curvature.

Ever since it was discovered, the working process of gravity has been explained by numerous theories, which have been explained below.Newton's Theory of Gravity Sir Isaac Newton studied the reason behind the falling apple, and defined it as the law of universal gravitation. The interactive forces occur in object pairs of the same type and magnitude, in opposite directions, and have different effects. Inertial Mass x Acceleration = Gravitational Field Intensity x Gravitational MassThis principle was demonstrated for the first time on the moon by astronaut David Scott of the Apollo 15 mission, when he dropped a hammer and a feather. In recent times, attempts have been made to explain the phenomenon of gravitation by the combination several theories, mainly those of Einstein's theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

Superfluid vacuum theory: The basic and fundamental entity of vacuum is regarded as a superfluid (Bose-Einstein condensate), which mediates the working of gravity through space. Gravity as an entropic force: This theory consists of an association between gravity and thermodynamics, and states that gravity is purely an entropic force, and does not exist due an interaction between a quantum field and the subatomic particles.

Non-symmetric gravitational theory: It explains gravity on the basis of the flat rotational curves of galaxies, and consists of a symmetric part (gravity) and an antisymmetric part (electromagnetic field). Induced gravity: On a microscopic level, the Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitational forces are represented as a mean field approximation in association with fluid mechanics. Self-creation cosmology theory of gravity: This concept states that the Universe has been created from a self-established gravitational field in association with other scalar fields. Brans-Dicke theory: The gravitational forces are coordinated by tensor and scalar fields of general relativity, and the gravitational constant 'G' is not constant. Aristotelian theory of gravity: This concept states that all the elements and entities of the Universe ultimately move towards the geocentric region of the Universe, and all the elements are present in their natural states, forming a shield around the others. NA¶rdstrom's theory of gravitation: Also known as the effective theory of gravitation, it states that the effects of gravity totally depend on the geometrical framework of the curved spacetime fabric.

Whitehead's theory of gravitation: Along the geodesic lines, the gravitational waves travel along a flat background, and are controlled by the metric tensor of Minkowski spacetime, and hence, the gravitational potential can be represented by these tensors. The above-mentioned alternative theories do not have much experimental basis, and hence, are not considered extensively. Gravity Probe B, a satellite, was launched in 2004 to measure the curvature or warping of space around our planet. Gravity is the reason everything gets attracted towards the Earth's surface, and also for the formation and movement of all the planets and other heavenly bodies.

Due to the absence of air resistance in the Moon's atmosphere, both objects reached the surface at the same time.Einstein's General Theory of RelativityThis theory was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. Also, as several aspects are still on a theoretical level, this concept is right only if gravity is understood on a subatomic scale.A German physicist called Max Planck originated the quantum theory, in 1900, while studying the phenomenon of black body radiation. On a subatomic scale, gravitons are spin-2 interactive particles, which do not have any mass.

This fluid is composed of fermion and anti-fermion pairs, which impart a wave function to the medium for the propagation of gravitational waves. This concept states that all the materialistic objects are hit by tiny microscopic particles (ultra-mundane corpuscles) from all directions.

Please note: this image is protected by copyright law and may not be used without buying a license. The fundamental forces of the universe include the electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, and gravitational forces.

He explained that gravity is a property of spacetime itself, and it is a force that results from the geometry of spacetime and interaction of matter with space, and vice versa.

He also presented the idea that energy is composed in the form of small packets called quanta. These bosons form the crux of this theory and are responsible for imparting the force of gravity to any mass-based object. If any two objects cover each other from these particles, a net imbalance results due to their pressure exerted during impact, and both the bodies are attracted towards each other. Provided below is a bit of extra information about the working mechanism of gravity with regard to plants.Effect of Gravity on PlantsIn 1806, a British physiologist called A. For example, all objects will fall in the same manner and will hit a surface, when the air resistance (or friction of the medium) is negligible or absent.In other words, if two objects of different masses and compositions are dropped at the same time, they will be attracted by gravity towards the ground at the same rate, regardless of their differing characteristics. He developed this theory through a hypothetical experiment that involved the effect of gravity on a free-falling elevator, and then predicted warping and the subsequent attraction of objects with different masses, which was later confirmed experimentally.The concept of relativity solved several of Newton's theoretical flaws and became more applicable for modern research. It explains the working process of gravity on a dominantly microscopic scale, as compared to the theory of relativity. The source of gravitons is called stress-energy tensors, which induce them to form the force of gravity. Knight demonstrated through an experiment, the control of gravity on the direction of a plant's root growth. The slight discrepancy in Mercury's orbit, the apparent bending of light rays due to gravity, several calculations involving astronomical values, etc., are some of the flaws or problems, which can be explained with the help of the general theory of relativity. Two major theories that work on similar lines of the unifying quantum field theory (standard model) with gravity are string theory and loop quantum gravity. As this particle type has still not been discovered, this theory lacks in importance regarding gravity, as much as the previous two theories.Developed in the 1960s, string theory is a concept that substitutes the subatomic particles by 1D objects called strings, and various quantum states of these strings are used to distinguish between the elementary particles.

Einstein stated that all objects tend to curve or warp the space around them, which leads to the appearance of a 4D space framework. Attempts have been made to unify all the theories into one single concept known as The Theory of Everything (TOE). The strings can vibrate and oscillate in numerous manners, and they are of two types: open and closed strings. Thus, the spacetime fabric allows the motion of free falling objects around the curved or warped space, along locally straight lines called geodesics. The former ones have two separate points, whereas the latter ones are present in a closed loop.One of the oscillatory modes produces the theoretical subatomic particles called gravitons, which in turn are responsible for the mediation of gravity, at least on a microscopic level.

This condition is caused by the resistance of gravitational force on the body, and it's also called Zero gravity or Free Fall. Though the lines are straight, they get curved in a 4D fabric that includes time.For example, place a heavy iron ball at the center of a trampoline. Thus, the string theory always exists in combination with the quantum field mechanics of gravity, and as the strings exist as the sources of these elementary particles, their different modes of vibration, depending upon the mass and frequency, can give rise to numerous types of other subatomic particles.Another concept that is modeled on quantum mechanics, loop quantum theory results in the formation of a compact and granular structure of the spacetime fabric.

Now, imagine the trampoline to be the space fabric, and the ball to be a large heavenly body. Positive geotropism is shown by the roots that grow in a downward direction, and negative geotropism is shown by the stem that grows upwards. Now, place a small marble ball on the trampoline surface, and observe as it travels along a curved path, but at the same time, a locally linear path towards the heavier ball. Galileo's theory, which stated that all things will fall with the same acceleration in the absence of air, was demonstrated by himself, when he released a ball of wool and a cannonball from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. This is exactly how gravity works in the universe according to general theory of relativity. Though it is the weakest fundamental force in the Universe, the effects of gravity are felt by all living beings more than the other remaining three forces (electromagnetism, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear). Both the objects hit the surface at the same time.Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by external forces impressed upon it. The heavy ball can be considered to be the Sun of our Solar System, and the marble ball as one of the planets. Throughout the last few centuries, numerous scientists, researchers, and physicists have explained the phenomenon of gravitation with as much clarity as possible. This curving of spacetime allows the revolution of planets in their orbits, the motion of comets and other heavenly bodies, the loss in intensity of light waves as they travel through space, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, etc.Supportive TestsVarious tests were performed to validate this theory, mainly for explaining the process of working of gravity. Technically speaking, explaining its working at the most fundamental level has not been possible as compared to the other universal forces.

The orbit of planet Mercury shows an anomalous precession of its perihelion position, which indicates that not only does the planet revolve around the Sun, but the orbit too undergoes a revolution, due to the curvature of spacetime under the influence of the Sun's gravity. Gravitational deflection and delay of light rays also explain the working mechanism of gravity, especially when such rays pass around large heavenly objects like the Sun.

This test measures the redshift (low frequency) or blueshift (high frequency) of an object, which follows a path of motion due to gravity. Gravitational waves or radiation have been indirectly studied and confirmed from binary star systems, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, etc.EquationsEinstein developed a set of simultaneous, non-linear, and differential field equations that explain the relationship between objects and the spacetime fabric curvature.

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