Overview of different kinds of leadership styles: encouraging, nurturing, empowering and directing. An intellectual foment has been under way for the last few decades, with the limitations of modernist scientism and similarly mechanistic philosophies being revealed as fraudulent insofar as they make claims to any magisterial authority—in particular, over life and social sciences. Central to the emerging paradigm is the co-evolutionary emergence of complexity epistemology (the study of emergent levels of knowing) and complexity axiology (the study of emergent levels of valuing), and pivotal to these are the concepts of self and identity creation (which is the literal meaning of ‘autopoiesis’, and the understanding we are using in this paper). In this paper we explore aspects of our emergent philosophy for the Centre while using as our lens a project that explores the landscape of real property rights. Whilst engagement with transdisciplinary thinking is not new within the University of Technology, Sydney where it has been practised with some significant success at the Institute for Sustainable Futures (the focus of a recent article in this journal by Volckmann and McGregor), the approach taken at the APCCRPR is the first example of its application to real property rights and land policy issues. As Caulfield ( 235) identifies in her analysis of World Bank projects, career consultants have to ‘close their eyes to certain aspects of the real world’.
Our aspirations for an integrated research approach with applied policy outcomes is motivated by the realisation that ‘ any single way of knowing is insufficient for understanding the complexity of the world’ (Miller et al.
Applying this insight to land policy, as well as more general policy formulation, we realise that transdisciplinarity will enable us to unfold consideration of how much attention disciplines pay to processes instead of simply things.
As a first step toward a complexity epistemology, Stewart and Cohen divide cognition levels into simplex, complex, and multiplex.
As far as we are aware, there has been little empirical research as yet that investigates real property rights through similar schemata. Interestingly, when we presented this model in a multidisciplinary seminar, certain members of the audience reacted to the hierarchy structure by contesting that it suggested level one could be better perhaps than level seven or eight (or vice-versa).
In editing Graves work, Cowan also points out that there are possibly higher (or alternative) levels yet to be identified; the framework remains a work in progress. In developing this research further we are pursuing a research design that engages both autoethnography and the Delphi technique. This approach will allow the ongoing iterative analysis, refinement, and subsequent evolution of our hybrid hierarchy of transdisciplinarity and complexity to understand the landscape of real property rights. Michael McDermott has travelled to over 70 countries and gained both a broad and deep understanding of the problems facing the developing world in a second career as a land-related policy, legal and institutional facilitator. Spike Boydell is Professor of the Built Environment at the University of Technology Sydney and Adjunct Professor of Land Management and Development at the University of the South Pacific. Yes, Yellow does resonate with Beige, and it is an "I" system to some degree, but the characteristics change significantly between first and second tier. As for Teal being Turquoise, I expect that there is a degree of aspiration in some people towards a holistic perspective and of course it is on the horizon, but some caution is needed.
My limited understanding of SD und RO leads me to the idea, there there might be a fairly widespread confusion of states.
Yellow is the second tier beige, and in beige it is about survival, and there isn't really any organisation. Found this through a friend and client at Zappos and very energized to read how you weave together (or reveal the earlier connections between) all these elements. A particular pleasure to see and feel the voices of George Por and John Watters in here - good friends and colleagues. The ground is shifting beneath our conceptual feet, and with it notions of our rights over the ground itself. We are referring to autopoiesis at all relevant scales, and in particular at both individual and social scales. With the aim of better formulating land policy advice, this paper is an attempt towards the construction of an axiological (valuational) framework whereby the effects of changes in real property rights can be qualitatively as well as quantitatively assessed. The transdisciplinary approach of the UTS: APCCRPR recognises that the challenges of contemporary real property rights can not be resolved by a single, or even multi-, disciplinary approach.
These range from government, citizenry and landholders in a country seeking aid support to the taxpayers, policy advisers and ministers in the donor country.
She suggests that the most successful consultants have learned to narrow their vision to only their small piece of the puzzle, so that they can complete their tasks quickly and efficiently before moving on to their next mission. We know that to achieve a holistic model that engages with the complexity of real property rights will require strong transdisciplinarity, meaning that it goes much deeper into the realms of reality (Max-Neef 10). This grounding suggests that property and land professionals are well placed to see the limitations of single discipline approaches and also gives the breadth, and potentially the depth, of understanding of transdisciplinarity to be able to lead complex land policy and real property rights projects.


This is well articulated by Max-Neef in his exposition of transdisciplinarity being the coordination between all hierarchical levels (see Figure 2). Nicolescu highlights the importance of recognising that there is a theoretical transdisciplinarity (implying a well-defined methodology), phenomenological transdisciplinarity (implying building models to connect theory to observed reality to predict further), and experimental transdisciplinarity (allowing experimentation using a procedure that will enable research design to be replicated). It will involve qualitative assessments of the transdisciplinary contributions on the basis of their intrinsic value in relationship to their extrinsic value. Whilst we may all be simplex in different domains, we are not implying that an individual would have ‘nothing but’ a simplex mind. A useful conceptual framework has been posited by Beck and Cowan, which has yet to be fully hybridised with the above approaches (see Figure 4). Levels five and six are complex, wherein parties can perceive the many intertwining strands of cause and effect that combine, within some consistent worldview, to control the unfolding of a particular selection of events.
We have previously successfully applied the auto-ethnographic approach to providing meaning and sense within project structures (see, for example, Nugapitiya, Boydell and Healy; Nugapitiya, Healy and Boydell). Once a robust model (or models) has been evolved and tested within the UTS: APCCRPR, we propose to test and refine it through a number of iterations within the development community using the Delphi technique (Linstone and Turroff). His most recent consultancies include addressing land tenure, institutional frameworks, legal and gender-related issues for a smallholder irrigated farming development in Swaziland (as team leader), conducting a World-Bank funded Property Valuation, Fees and Finance Study in Palestine, and a land-related revenue study in Indonesia. As Foundation Director of the UTS: Asia-Pacific Centre for Complex Real Property Rights he leads transdisciplinary teams tackling key issues surrounding land management and conflict minimisation. And I would love to hear how do you sees the role of Sri Aurobino in early nation building og India? I look forward to sharing my voice and perspectives as I transform my personal leadership skills. It helps to classify different training cultures and understand directions for further development. Same is my perception with yellow - we must not forget that yellow is in reaction to green - the level that took the 'we' too far. Ecological niches are both found and created by that autopoietic process, and are grounded in the forms of rights over real property that a particular society evolves to satisfy its needs at a given moment in time. These changes are registered not only as economic values, as endemic in mechanistic philosophies, but also in terms of social and environmental values.
Real property rights are complex, and in combining this reality from a transdisciplinary perspective, ‘complexity is a modern form of the very ancient principle of universal interdependence’ (Nicolescu 153). At the interface between donor and recipient there is often a raft of consultants who are contracted to deliver parts of the project.
The implication here is that those who attempt to look at the big picture are not popular teammates, particularly as they run the risk of exposing the futility (at the operationalised or concretised level) of some otherwise ideologically well-intentioned land policy interventions. Disciplinarity is specialisation in isolation, which is the level of most academic knowledge production at present (Miller et al.). Epistemic sovereignty runs counter to such pluralist understandings that require an emphasis on equity, difference, diversity, practices and choice. We have drawn on a similar analysis that engaged a hierarchy that spanned from the abstract (where Max-Neef places values, ethics and philosophy) down to the concretised (where Max-Neef refers to what exists in the physical laws of nature and the principles that drive the life and societies) in our ongoing work on carbon property rights (Boydell et al.), which has been influenced by the concept of constellation articulated by Franz von Benda-Beckmann et al. Accepting simultaneous and rigorous consideration of these three aspects simultaneously will allow the huge potential of transdisciplinarity to be realised.
Whilst simplex minds can be of great extrinsic value, they have a less intrinsic value in themselves than those with insights into the complexities of real life with an appreciation of and ability to manage transdisciplinarity. However, this leads us towards something of a conundrum when pursuing transdisciplinarity within the UTS: APCCRPR if we were to naively (and, in our view, inappropriately) apply labels such as simplex, complex, and multiplex thinking to team members. The last two (levels seven and eight) are multiplex, using not just one interpretation of reality, but many, as a seamless whole in a mutable, adaptive, and loosely coherent flux.
For the current research, we propose to reflect on the lived experience of the researcher(s) in a range of land policy and real property rights engagements as a way of both narrating the research and interrogating the existing literature. This includes property rights in land and buildings (including specialised valuation issues), politics and economy of emerging property rights (e.g.
And I welcome it as it reinforces what I have "suspected" or perhaps intuited - but somehow sensed simply - must be the case. Teal organisations utilize a mystic quality (organisations as manifestations of an independent higher consciousness) that comes from 2nd tier purple.


And, as you allude, what a shame that SD has missed such an opportunity to become more mainstream through being overly self protective. While an axiological approach is clearly impossible within mechanistic philosophical frameworks that ‘encourage assumptions that intelligence is objectively measureable and culture-transcendent’ (Cohen, Ambrose and Powell 331), the approach appears possible within the much larger hierarchical framework of complexity epistemology, complexity axiology, and transdisciplinarity.
These consultants are usually recruited for their disciplinary expertise and their track record in the timely delivery of similar projects elsewhere around the globe. Multidisciplinarity assumes a situation where there may be many consultants who, drawing on Caulfield’s example above, are looking at their individual pieces of the puzzle from their respective disciplinary perspectives without evident cooperation. Moreover, it is inaccessible to specialists per se as long as they are so confined, and only accessible to generalists through a great deal of personal development.
Meanwhile, a complex mind ‘can perceive the many intertwining strands of cause and effect that combine, within some consistent worldview, to control the unfolding of a particular selection of events’ (Stewart and Cohen 289).
He is currently pursuing doctoral studies at UTS with the Asia-Pacific Centre for Complex Real Property Rights, applying the complexity paradigm to develop a theory of institutions and institutional change in the context of property rights. It's time surely for collaboration through and beyond the inevitability of difference and conflict. Pluridisciplinarity is demonstrated where there is a level of cooperation between consultants without clear coordination or stimulus to promote this cooperation. It is more than just a new discipline or super-discipline; it requires ‘a different manner of seeing the world, more systemic and more holistic’ (Max-Neef 15). Combining this with complexity theory will “maximise robustness…in the face of an ill-defined future. Those who have achieved holistic multiplex awareness can work simultaneously with several competing paradigms, seeing ‘not just one interpretation of reality but many as a seamless whole in a mutable, adaptive, loosely coherent flux’ (ibid).
At this stage of our understanding we would contest that Beck and Cowan’s descriptions are provisional and require development. It is the yellow individual growing beyond it's singularity joining hands to serve a higher evolutionary purpose.
Interdisciplinarity can be achieved when there is coordination from a higher level concept, but can result in what Healy refers to as ‘epistemic sovereignty’. And that, in turn, puts a premium on becoming aware of non-linear relationships and causal pathways as best we can. Such processes are stimulated by environmental challenges of manageable proportions (Csikszentmihalyi). Cowan himself has criticised a tendency to ‘glibly oversimplify’ (Graves iii) in Spiral Dynamics, and emphasises that Spiral Dynamics was an attempt to make more accessible the much earlier work of Clare W.
So typical yellow organisations out there are awaaz and anonymous - not much of an organisation at all. The difficulty that has to be overcome in our approach is that such epistemic sovereignty is ‘central to the assumed pre-eminence of vision that underpins conventional notions of globalism, and of the capitalism underpinning it’ (Healy 700). You observe the world very, very carefully, and you don’t expect circumstances that last’ (Arthur, interviewed in Waldrop 333-4). Once again, the evolution of the individual’s ability to transcend a hierarchy from simplex, through complex, to multiplex requires a certain level of maturity, which can be usefully integrated with Torbert’s developmental management structure (see Figure 3). If all goes well, these processes result in progressive emergences into whole new levels of understanding. Graves, which Graves had described as an ‘emergent, cyclical, phenomenological, existential, double-helix levels of existence conception of adult human behavior’ (Graves viii). And on a daily breadwinning level the are freelancers, entering short term contracts at the max, or clustering in loose groups of all self employed professionals, often not even developing a common brand, avoiding to even hire a secretary.
Beck and Cowan submit that their v-memes are stations along that ascending path, which we submit is one of the co-evolution of complexity epistemology and complexity axiology as stimulated by the fitness landscape that the particular self or identity finds itself within. They are maxed out with taking responsibility for one's own survival, and strongly dislike the idea of 'being responsible for someone'. On a peer level this still allows for free cooperation networks, but in lack of alternative models of sharing work of quite different levels of skills they outsource rather than hire.



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