This planning and professional development material is designed to be used at whole-school, syndicate, or individual teacher level, to help implement Te Aho Arataki. Successful second-language learners think about the learning strategies that work best for them. Demonstrating a school-wide commitment to learning te reo Māori helps to ensure continuity and sustainability. Our education system has a crucial role to play in nurturing and promoting the development of the indigenous language of our country. Encourage your students to initiate exchanges in te reo Māori, for example, when they make requests, ask for help, express confusion or a lack of understanding, and offer praise and encouragement to their classmates. Provide your students with good models (input) of te reo Māori in meaningful contexts.
Acknowledge and build on your students' prior knowledge of, and experience with, te reo Māori. Have high, yet realistic, expectations of achievement in te reo Māori to accommodate the needs of diverse learners. Ensure that the atmosphere in your classroom is one of encouragement to build the students' confidence. Facilitate meaningful tasks and activities that encourage the use of te reo Māori for authentic purposes.
Align your reo Māori programme with the curriculum guidelines, Te Aho Arataki, and with The New Zealand Curriculum (for example, with the key competencies). Utilise the other second-language teaching and learning resources that the Ministry of Education provides on Te Whakaipurangi Rauemi. Plan a balanced programme that includes both receptive and productive skills (listening, reading, viewing; and speaking, writing, presenting).
By understanding and using te reo Māori, New Zealanders become more aware of the role played by the indigenous language and culture in defining and asserting our point of difference in the wider world. The New Zealand Curriculum expresses the vision that students will be confident and actively involved lifelong learners. He Reo Tupu, He Reo Ora is designed to support you and your students to become better communicators of te reo Māori, improving your fluency and accuracy in, what is for many, a different cultural milieu. The time you take to explore a learning context will depend on your students' entry points and their progress.
Use the tasks and activities in the eight units to help your students use te reo Māori in authentic contexts. As you facilitate the tasks and activities, monitor your students' learning, look for ways to help them progress, and reflect on how your teaching is impacting on their learning.
Effective tasks and activities include dictionary searching, vocabulary exercises, writing, negotiating meaning (as in a two-way task like a dycomm), and interacting with others (where there are elements of both input and output). In the eight He Reo Tupu, He Reo Ora units, the tasks and activities are differentiated so that the teaching and learning is appropriate to years 1-6. Your role is to be a facilitator of the communicative process through the careful use (and design) of tasks and activities.
The tasks and activities included in He Reo Tupu, He Reo Ora use strategies that have been found to be particularly useful for teaching and learning second languages. For a multi-choice task, you need to design different descriptors to accompany a picture so that your students have to discriminate which descriptor best applies to the picture.
A cloze task can be aural–oral, where you read a piece of text and stop where a word needs to be added, so that the students can suggest the correct word to fill the gap. Once your students are experienced with the cloze technique, they can make up their own clozes for their peers to complete.
Another type of task is a dycomm (also known as an information gap task), where students have different, but essential, bits of information needed to complete a whole task. An information transfer task requires students to put written text into pictorial form – or the converse (for example, a chart, grid, diagram, picture, or diary).
To make a strip story, simply cut a piece of text into strips and give each student one strip to read and memorise. Another (more difficult) variation is to cut each strip of the text in half – getting the students to first join the two halves and then reorder the text sequentially. Similar to a strip story, but easier, is picture dictation – a listening activity where you read out some text and the students must sequence the associated pictures. A difficult variation of the strip-story task is the strip-picture task, where a whole picture is cut into strips, such that students have to describe their strips of the picture. The task could be made more complex by having pictures of the same item in Set A and Set E but with different characteristics. Another useful task is the dictocomp, where you read out (twice), at normal speed, a simple piece of text in Māori.
In a listen-and-draw task, each student (in a pair) could have a numbered grid comprising nine squares, with pictures in different squares.
In a true-false-make it right task, the students have to listen carefully and state whether each of the statements they hear (or read) is true (“Kei te tika”) or false (“Kei te hē”).
The aim of a 4–3–2 task is to build the students’ fluency in te reo Māori by getting them to repeat a short talk, to different partners, using language that is familiar to them.
For more information about some of these key second-language teaching and learning tasks that feature in HeReo Tupu, He Reo Ora, see the section Te Whakaipurangi Rauemi on Te Kete Ipurangi. In addition, there are resource sheets on the website to support many of the tasks in He Reo Tupu, He Reo Ora. Students need to understand the significance of the assessment feedback they receive, and what to do next.


Share the learning intentions and success criteria with your students so that they understand what is expected of them and are able to monitor their progress against these expectations. Give your students targeted and specific assessment feedback on their learning, using clear learning intentions and success criteria.
Create opportunities for self-assessment and peer assessment to increase the students' assessment capabilities and their awareness of progress. Use the suggestions for assessment in He Reo Tupu, He Reo Ora and Te Aho Arataki (see pages 56-70) to monitor student progress. Use pair and group assessment opportunities where each student's contribution is valued and every student participates to his or her full potential. You could also make audio and video recordings of progress over time and use these to monitor improvements in fluency and accuracy. Possible learning intentions and success criteria are included in the assessment rubrics, presented in each unit.
Some success criteria may develop into separate learning intentions in their own right as you and your students discover aspects of the criteria that need further exploration. Learning intentions and success criteria will ensure that the students clearly know what is expected of them and what success will look like.
The learning intentions have been formulated to provide you with opportunities to explore all the modes of language identified in the achievement objectives in Te Aho Arataki (listening and speaking, reading and writing, and viewing and presenting). It is not intended that the learning intentions reflect a learning progression across the curriculum. Few of us can remember acquiring our first language, yet almost all of us learn our first language without being at school.
In our first language, there is a correlation between the number of words we know and our ability to communicate (including our ability to read and write).
It also reflects a belief about the well-being of te reo Māori – that it will survive if we expand the variety of domains where it is used.
He Reo Tupu, He Reo Ora mainly supports teaching and learning at curriculum levels 1-2, the entry point being level 1 for students with no prior knowledge, regardless of their school year (see page 24 in The New Zealand Curriculum).
He Reo Tupu, He Reo Ora is also designed to support you as a teacher of te reo Māori , even if you do not know much more than your students. Welcome to He Reo Tupu, He Reo Ora, a multi-media resource to support the teaching and learning of te reo Māori. Base your programme on the needs of your students as determined by their whānau in consultation with you. Working with whānau and other staff members, sharing knowledge and ideas, and supporting one another will make this a lot easier for you. Most of your students will be learning at curriculum levels 1-2, but some may be capable of learning at curriculum levels 3-4.
For example, demonstrate manaakitanga, include tuakana-teina roles and responsibilities in your classroom, sing waiata together, and take turns to speak. Provide meaningful contexts and real-life situations in which your students have a genuine need to communicate in te reo Māori. The teaching and learning of te reo Māori has a significant role to play in achieving this vision.
The design of these tasks and activities is guided by the achievement objectives of Te Aho Arataki, using an inquiry approach. Focus on what to teach next, how best to teach it, and what the evidence base is for your decisions (see Absolum, M. Less effective tasks are those where the meaning is simply given to the students - with no expectation on them to explore the words or use them. We recognise that many of your students will be achieving at curriculum level 1 (the entry point for a student with no prior learning) or level 2.
The emphasis is on the message they are conveying, rather than the form in which the message is said or written.
These include cloze tasks, dycomm (or information gap) tasks, information transfer tasks, multi-choice tasks, strip stories, same-different tasks, dictocomps, listen-and-draw tasks, true-false-make it right tasks, and 4–3–2 tasks. The advantages of a cloze task are that it is good for attending to grammar as well as improving the students’ prediction skills and encouraging them to make intelligent guesses from context cues.
Dycomms allow for meaningful communication because each person has unique information so there is a genuine reason to communicate. Such tasks encourage deep processing of information because students have to show they have understood information well enough to adapt it. By communicating with each other in te reo Māori, they work out how the strips fit together to make the whole picture. This requires two sets of numbered grids (Set A and Set E) depicting pictures – some of which are the same across both sets and some different. Each partner has to tell the other student what pictures to draw in the empty boxes so that, by the end, both grids are identical. Then they have to go one step further and correct any erroneous statements by giving the right form. They have four, then three, and then two minutes (or whatever amount of time is realistic for your particular students) to do so.
In second-language learning, students need sufficient opportunities to encounter new learning in different contexts and on multiple occasions. In this way, they will have a stake in their own learning and assessment and will be involved in working out the next learning steps. This helps the learners to monitor their own progress, enabling them to make the most of feedback from you about how they are progressing and what could be the next appropriate learning steps.


At curriculum levels 1 and 2, put more emphasis on listening and speaking (and viewing and presenting, where appropriate).
Different levels of difficulty are inherent in the tasks that support the learning intentions - to give you flexibility to meet your students' needs.
Use these suggestions when you are working with students who are capable of achieving at curriculum levels 3 and 4. We succeed because this is a meaningful experience that is guided by our whānau and our friends. The same is true for second-language learners; hence the importance of vocabulary development. The learning progression in Te Aho Arataki, through eight achievement levels, provides this continuity and sets out incremental learning steps to achieve it. Support them to become self-monitoring and to think about how they can best approach their learning of te reo Māori. It is feasible that students in both year 1 and year 6 could be learning at curriculum level 1. Exploring them will help your students to meet the achievement objectives in Te Aho Arataki. We also recognise that there are varying degrees of cognitive ability, literacy skills, and maturational development across years 1 to 6. The students must combine their knowledge and use te reo Māori communicatively to fill in the information gaps to get the whole picture. The strip-story technique can be simplified so that the students are allowed to keep their allocated piece of written text while they work with their peers to put the whole text in order. In the second reading, you pause between the sentences so that the students can jot down rough notes (in English or te reo Māori) about the key content. There are spaces for student self-assessment and peer assessment, as well as the assessment you will be doing. When students construct with their teacher the success criteria for a particular piece of learning, they develop an understanding of the standard of work required, and the extent of the learning required. Ideally, you will share the learning intentions with your students and will work with them to develop appropriate success criteria.
The guiding principle of successful second-language teaching at school is that students learn best when they can see a real point in what they are doing and saying. Use this material to support students whose prior learning of te reo Māori provides a foundation for learning at these levels.
As your students work towards the achievement objectives set out in Te Aho Arataki, they will also be developing the key competencies set out on pages 12-13 in The New Zealand Curriculum. It could be that every nth word is deleted – or a particular part of speech is missing (for example, nouns, verbs, prepositions, pronouns, or adjectives).
The task is for them to communicate with each other, box by box (starting from box number 1), to determine which boxes are identical (“he rite”) and which are different (“he rerekē”). The job thereafter is for the students to work in small groups and, using their own and other students’ notes, recapture the key points in the text.
This task is challenging because, at each repetition, the students have to deliver their talk in a reduced time. Your students will use these to monitor their progress, identify areas that need further practice, and work out their next learning steps - in consultation with you. This assessment format can be used (or adapted) by students and teachers to assess and monitor progress over time. Work with your students to determine the actual learning intentions that will extend their learning. Alternatively, you could indicate the number of letters in the missing word, supply the first letter, or provide a list for the students to choose the words from (though not in order). In a dictocomp, you could choose to deliberately focus on a particular sentence pattern to reinforce that construction. As a variation, you can ask the listeners to take brief notes or jot down questions to ask later. They need this information to determine, with you, where they are with their learning and where they need to go to next. Adapt and modify the rubrics in the units to the age and achievement levels of the students in your class. You could also make a progressive version, where more words are missing each time the students do the cloze.
Use these suggestions to ensure that you meet the learning needs, interests, and aspirations of your students so that each of them can reach his or her potential when learning te reo Māori. This last technique is a useful way to give your students repetitive exposure to a new language structure. You could give students the text to read and then remove it before asking them to reconstruct what they had read. They could then listen to their recording, make notes of any improvements they can make, and then record themselves again until they have their best recording.



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