An indisciplinary major, communication deals with the history, function, processes, and analysis of human communication from the earliest times to today's mass communication. With Alessandro Olper* Mass media plays a crucial role in distribution of information and in shaping public policy.
Recent events made me think about a particular chicken and egg problem: What comes first, political polarization or media polarization?
It is a commonplace by now that the fragmented media landscape in many countries, much amplified by online media, allows members of the audience to get exposed only to political content that they actually agree with. Just in case you were tempted to think that the revolution in public scrutiny that more and more governments have to face these days can only be a good thing, Peter Aucoin pops up to say maybe this is problematic in ways we have not been focusing on. What is striking is that in all these developments that people like me celebrate he sees danger. Ideally, governments and other decision makers should consider public opinion and let it guide them in designing policies that benefit the general public. Communication is something of an ugly duckling in the social sciences – not many people take it seriously and not many people see the immediate relevance of the research.
In his latest post, Tony Lambino makes an interesting argument about pundits and social norms. Pundits discuss current affairs from their own point of view, often together with or in contrast to other pundits. We are guiding in Assignments and Handwritten AIOU Assignments of Classes Matric to Master Degree. Public relations is usually confused with advertising, press agentry, propaganda, publicity, public affair if etc., but these are some of the tools used by the all absorbing discipline of public relations for achieving its objectives. This group of publics is usually outside the premises of the organisation but is always of great importance for an organisation.
Public relations is the collective responsibility of each and every individual working for i an organisation.
The practice of getting favourable material published, broadcast or telecast by the news media is press agentry. It is one of the oldest and most vital tools of public relations, which was widely practised by the ancient Greeks. Propaganda is communication — verbal or non-verbal — that attempts to influence the motives, beliefs or attitudes of people. Too often public relations are confused with publicity, in fact it has been identified with it. Publicity is not the whole activity of public relations, According to Shirley Biagi, publicity is strictly a communication function whereas public relations involves a management function as well. Rapid strides in communication technologies have changed the world, as described by Marshall Mcluhan into a global village in the real terms. Both teletext and videotex are electronically generated letters, numbers, symbols and graphics that are read from the TV screen or the home computer monitor. In the form of electronic or E-mail computer is again providing a tremendous service to the mankind.
Satellite is a space vehicle designed to follow a predetermined route, usually orbiting the earth, for the purpose of collecting and transmitting information. The satellites revolve around the earth at the same speed it rotates on its axis, so they are constantly in the same position in relation to the earth stations.
There are various satellites but the one which has brought tremendous revolution in the world of communication is communication satellite. Satellite is a useful public relations tool for big multinational firms, and organisations having scattered publics and interests. Fax or facsimile has rendered and established itself in a variety of communication services both commercial and noncommercial. Not necessarily every group of publics of an organisation has the facility of modern communications. Global Financial CrisisThe global financial crisis, brewing for a while, really started to show its effects in the middle of 2007 and into 2008. Syria Unrest Syria is one of the oldest places where civilization has thought to have started. In 1948, the Council of the British Institute of Public Relations defined Public relations as “the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics. Public relations is the attempt by information, persuasion and adjustment to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution (Edward L.
Public relations is a combination of philosophy, sociology, economics, communication and other knowledges into a system of human understanding. The World assembly Of Public Relations maintains that public relations practice is the an and social science of analysing trends, predicting their consequences, counselling organisation leaders, and implementing planned programmes of action that will serve the interests of organisation and the public. The above definitions highlight the importahce and significance of this all embracing discipline. The importance of public relations is increasing day-by-day and as a matter of fact it is more important for organisations, institutions and individuals today than it was yesterday and surely its significance would multiply manifold in the days to come. The second question is what sort of image an organisation would enjoy if it does not engage itself in public relations activities. An organisation or firm may have good quality products or it may be excelling others in providing services but if people are unaware about it the image of the organisation would be a bad one.
In short, in this age of competition and democracy public relations has acquired a very vital position and indeed no organisation – public orprivate -can do without it, similarly good image is also indispensable for having aplace in the market and in the publics.
The major program prepares students for professional careers in the print and electronic media, advertising, public relations, etc. However, the study of public opinion is a good example to outline the immediate relevance of the field – and its future relevance. He says that pundits' comments, for example on statements of public figures, are a manifestation of the social norms of a society.
Pundits can be experts, such as academics, but often journalists stylize themselves to be experts on political and other issues. A public relations campaign may include all or some of them but it is not confirmed to any one of the same. In other words it is a group or groups of people who are tied together by some common bond or interest or concern.

A close co-ordination among all the categories of internal publics is the primary duty of the public relations arm of the organisation. As the media of mass communication happen to be the carriers of public relations messages (advertising, publicity, propaganda, etc.) they constitute an important group of the external publics.
It is wrong to consider the public relationing to be solely “the responsibility of the public relations wing.
It is done for attracting people’s attention and for educating and informing them as well. Its function is not essentially to convert, rather it» function is to attract followers and to keep them in line.
But publicity is One of the important tools of public relations, Publicity consists of obtaining free space or time for promotional material in the press or on the air, and although this material masquerades as news, its purpose is often hidden.
Essentially publicity means placing information in a news medium, either in a mass medium such as television or newspapers or in a specialised medium such as corporate, association, trade or industry magazines, newsletters or even brochures.
The most wonderful of these inventions is, perhaps, the computer which coupled with the satellites and cable has proved itself to be a magic device. Both systems are computer-based: Copy is entered into a computer at a central location for transmission to the home. It’s delivered to the home via a cable TV system or the telephone lines, which allow more items to be transmitted than a TV signal does.
Through this rapid mode of communications distances of months, weeks and days have been reduced into seconds.
The primary uses of communications satellites have been for long distance, point-to-point, two-way telecommunication links carrying telephone and other traditional telecommunications messages; for providing live transoceanic television transmissions and increasingly for data trafficking between large and costly earth stations linked to telecommunications networks. Some religious organisations also use satellite transmission to influence audiences’ beliefs and attitudes, actions and motives. Public relations departments today make full use of the modern technologies and shape and adapt their communication tools on modern lines. For a public relations department it has become an inevitable tool due to its varied applications The fax machine provides-a dependable connection with media organisations and other segments like the management, suppliers, distributors, stockholders who greatly matter for the organisation.
The earth is warming up, and there is now overwhelming scientific consensus that it is happening, and human-induced. The importance of this vital and all embracing discipline can be gauged from the fact that the present information age is also called as the public relations age. Hill public relations is the management function whiCh gives the same organised and careful attention to the asset of goodwill as is given to any other major asset of business.
But, it would be quite unjust to assume that a few lines can bring out and explain the usefulness of this social art and science. Public relations has, in fact become one of the most important tools needed today not only for the growth and development but also for the very existence and survival of an organisation. Similarly, if a political organisation does not take into account the issues and problems facing the people and or the country at large and is oblivious to finding a just and fair solution to them, would it be a popular organisation among the publics, and will it survive?
Good public relations builds up the image of organisations while bad public relation or no public relation at all destroys the images. It does not mean to cover up the misdoings of the management and deficiencies in its products. Research which involves probing the opinions, attitudes and reactions of various publics towards the organisation, alongwith learning as much as possible about the organisation’s problems and its potential for growth is the first tier of a four-stage model of public relations process offered by Cutlip, Centre and Broom and, perhaps, a fundamental element to win over the publics. Summing up the above discussion we can say that public relations is not only a deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics but also to earn and build up a good image for the organisation by using different arts and skills.
The program offers opportunities for internships in the field of communication, including radio, television, and newspapers. The answer to the first question is probably: they’re mutually reinforcing, but the media wouldn’t be polarized if there wasn’t a polarized audience to begin with.
In the recent Presidential elections in the United States, this led to a curious phenomenon. Sometimes this happens when a very loud minority drowns out the voices of the silent majority. Punditry is a fascinating phenomenon and a recent development in the mass media - and might have changed the media landscape quite significantly.
It seems debatable to me whether punditry it is indeed part of the media's role in democracy. For successful and good public relations mutual confidence between the employees and employer is a must. It always tries to get their favourable opinion by highlighting the services of the organisation for the community and the state. Public relations arm of every industrial concern remains busy in winning the confidence of this group (suppliers) by maintaining mutual understanding between the organisation in question and its suppliers. Public relations wing of an organisation will focus on moulding their favourable opinion towards the organisation. As the satisfaction of the consumers is one of the main objectives of the business, hence enlightened managements devise policies so that PR is understood by all employees, in particular those holding senior positions.
According to Cutlip and Centre, press agentry is the creation J of publicity worthy events and the use of brass bands and barkers, if necessary, to attract; attention to some person or something.
Edward Jay Whatmore, author of the book Mediamerica observed that Until the 20th century the term press agentry was being used for public relations as well, The press agents were masters at planting stories in newspapers.
The task of propaganda is to blanket every area of human activity so that the environment of the individual is changed to absorb the campaign (PR) view.
These innovations in communications have, on the one hand, made public relations activities easier while, on the other, more challenging, making it inevitable for the public relations departments, specially those working for large organisations, to harness the gadgets for sending their messages to various corners of the globe instantly. In Europe, where this technology originated, delivery of the electronic messages is called view data. A person who wishes to sent a message types the text into a computer and then feeds the information to a satellite uplink On the other end, a downlink decodes the message and the letters appear on the computer screen of the addressee.
For instance, in the old days the public relations departments used to send their news releases to the media organisations in the printed form only, but today this trend is changing fast.
Courier services personalise the messages and create a sense of association and kinship which is what the public relations department tries to achieve.
As the very name suggests, public relations is a relationship, a liaison or a bridge between an organisation and its publics.

Centre (authors of the book Effective Public Relations), PR is the “communication and interpretation and the communications and ideas from an institution to its publics and the communication of information, ideas and opinions from those publics to the institution is a sincere effort to establish a mutuality of interest and this achie ves the harmonious adjustment of an institution to its community . A few words, howsoever, articulately worded cannot embody the countless good that public relations delivers to the society. Further, the public likes to be associated with only those organisations that are familiar to them.
If a concern or company uses public relations for covering up its ills and deficiencies then it would not be public relations but a criminal offense. If a firm knows about what the people really want, what are their needs and what The market offers, it can adapt itself to the situation and can offer better services and r„oods In turn, it will enable it to beat its competitors.
The answer to the second question is less obvious, but relevant to all political systems where the media can tip the scales toward one side or the other, or possibly one extreme or the other. The media on the right, and also voters on the right that mainly focused on those media, were convinced that their candidate would win and were genuinely surprised when he didn’t. In such cases, the opinion climate in a society may seem to be more radical than it actually is.
Noelle Neumann's Spiral of Silence, which we have introduced here on this blog, posits that most people would follow the majority because they don't want to be isolated in society.
The main point that refers to Susan's post and to development is: old media's function is mainly the dissemination of information.
They should be kept informed about the achievements, problems, issues, new projects, etc., which would be greatly helpful in sustaining, rather bolstering up the confidence of the employees.
We see the TV and the print media flooded with advertisements describing the qualities and properties of the products, sometimes even offering incentives to the consumers.
Peter Biddecome considers a press agent a person engaged to get press coverage and press clippings. Originally, it meant simply spreading a belief, as the term propaganda was first used for a religious mission preaching Christianity, but its misuse, particularly during the last 80 years, brought it into disrepute. In the following lines we will discuss some of the computer-based communications innovations which have taken off the ground, at least, in the developed world. In a situation where delays of a day or more, as imposed by the postal system, are prohibitive, fax stands ready to get the message through in a matter of minutes or seconds thus enabling the public relations officer to transmit the news release or photo of an event, which may happened even late in the night, just minutes Before the deadline of the last edition. International Encyclopaedia of Communication has defined the term public relations as the information activities and policies by which corporations and other organisations seek not only to create attitudes favourable to themselves and their work but also to counter adverse attitudes. Indeed, it is Public Relation which has turned the man from a wild animal into a social being. It provides a channel through which the publics can make their concerns and needs known to the management.
If more’than one organisation is producing a produi zt or providing similar services, people tend to deal with the organisation which enjoys a soun d image amongst the publics.
Sound public relations as discussed earlier, means deleberate, planned and sustained efforts aimed at creating mutual understanding, based on honesty, integrity and ethics, between an organisation and its publics. If one opinion is heard more and more often, it may be perceived as majority opinion, even though it isn't.
Similarly, it is also the duty of the public relations wing to inform the management about the problems facing the employees.
They should be kept aware about your position to enable them to decide matters, including supply of raw material, on merit. It pays, indeed, if correct information abput the product or service is provided to the consumers as it can prove very crucial for the image building and getting the confidence of the consumers. Amongst the innumerable campaigns launched during the late 19th century the most notable, according to historian Marshall Fishwick, was thejone which resulted in the rise of folk hero Buffalo Bill. But even today propaganda is an important tool of public relations, Public relations arm of an organisation may use propaganda for: (1) to gain audience, (2) to hold the audience and (3) to influence the audience. This decoder allows teletext subscribers to read the text on the TV screen whenever they wish. A videotex subscriber can demand the videotex central computer for specific information while a teletext subscriber can’t place an order for personalised information.
In addition to uses listed above computer is also very useful in grafting, composing and editing press releases, features, articles, brochures, booklets, etc.
According to New Webster’s Encyclopaedic Dictionary of the English Language, public relations is the art and techniques used to promote favourable public opinion.
That explains why today all organisations, tend to have a public relation programme for their concerns and in majority of the cases get it executed in particular those manned by competent hands, their own PR set-ups.
The media in the middle covered the election as if it was a close race, which it wasn’t, in order not to scare part of their audience away.
In other words, while advertising one should not exaggerate the quality of a product or seek recourse in half-truths.
Some half a dozen writers helped shape Buffalo Bill into one of the greatest American folk heroes, outdistancing more spectacular men by making mountains out of molehills. I It uses paid time and space in the media usually to deal directly with the consumers, primarily to promote and sell goods and services, secondarily to promote and sell ideas. On one side, the public relations department is engaged in propaganda activities and on the other it is countering the false claims of the competitors or enemy propaganda. We are reproducing below definitions by some scholars and renowned experts with a view to clearing the concepts of the students about this versatile and multidimensional discipline of the present age. Likewise, if the share-holders are satisfied, the management will not find any difficulty in raising its equity base (share capital) whenever it wishes to do so.
Image is the idea or conception, good or bad, public have i n their mind about an organisation.
The basic objective of a public relations arm of an organisation is to develop .a good image for the organisation that it is working for. It sponsors sports activities, carries on relief work by providing grants in calamities, takes part in welfare projects, arranges exhibitions and shows, offers scholarships to talented students, provides utility services at subsidised rates, undertakes press agentry and so on with the avowed objective of earning a good name and a soft corner in the public mind.
These activities have a great bearing on the overall reputation and goodwill of the organisation.

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