Micro-mass Communication: In this type of communication, we communicate with smaller number of people such as professor to his students. Macro-mass communication: In this type of mass communication, we communicate with a large group of people. Mass communication is a very effective and powerful tool of government and plays an important role in the stability of government and the unity of nation. Awareness about Society: Through mass communication, man becomes aware of reality and facts.
Cultural Promotion: Pakistan is a federal state consists of four provinces where each province has its own cultural heritage which is different from other province’s culture.
Mutual Understanding: Mass communication provides the platform to people to present their views and express their feelings and thoughts. Public Opinion Building: Public opinion is the power which can make and destroy the government without any difficulty.
Accountability: Mass media is a reflection of society and people are the judge to exclude conclusion from different news items.
Watchdog of National Interests: Journalism provides protection to national interests of the country by keeping check on different elements of society which can be harmful for the country. We are guiding in Assignments and Handwritten AIOU Assignments of Classes Matric to Master Degree. In your view how does the new technology of communication influence mass communication theory and practice?
The new technologies are introducing many changes to mass communication, and communication theories must be developed or revised to keep up with the changes.
One of the ways the new technology is affecting mass communication in general is by giving the user more control over the communication process.
The trend toward greater control and activity on the part of the user means communication theorists are going to have to shift to models and theories that recognize the interactivity of the new media (Rogers & Chaffee, 1983).
The coming of cable television and, to a lesser extent, VCRs also means mass communication theorists should change the way they think about the audience, particularly the audience of television. Tehranian (1990) argues that the new technologies, like the old, should be viewed neither as technologies of freedom nor of tyranny, but basically as technologies of power that lock into existing or emerging technostructures of power. In a related sense, Stevenson, Burkett and Myint (1993) argue that the new communication and information technologies can strengthen the centralised industrial, command economy or decentralise empowerment for finding creative solutions to local and global problems through new social technologies. The link between technological growth and socioeconomic development is hinged on various arguments.
Some researchers have also indicated the need for the new ICTs to address problems of human needs.
Although many governments may be giving top priority to acquisition of the new technologies because they are perceived as pivotal to overall development, there is however a growing anxiety or unease among these governments to curtail the use of the technologies by groups engaging in unauthorized conduct or groups which challenge the authority of various regimes. Because of the power of social influence, groups can sometimes be used as agents or instru­ments of change. The writings of Alcoholics Anonymous (1967), which describe the 12 steps and the 12 traditions of AA, bring out the importance of the group as part of the process.
The moment Twelfth-Step work forms a group, a discovery is made—that most individu­als cannot recover unless there is a group. A kind of social influence within the primary group of the family appears to have been taking place lately in the revival of the ecology movement. The importance of group influence has been well understood by many people involved in mass communication. Another promising idea is to use mass communication channels to attempt to stimulate interpersonal discussion. Researchers working in the field of health communication have found an approach based on group influence to be an effective one .
The results showed some effect of the media-only campaign in changing attitudes and behavior related to heart disease risk, but much greater effect with the people receiving the media campaign plus the intensive group instruction. The Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program also found that using mass mailings to send nutrition tip sheets and refrigerator magnets to hold them was effective in stimulating some discussion of nutrition issues (Solomon, 1989, p.
Flay (1987), in a summary of research on mass media programs designed to help people stop smoking, found that television self-help clinics that included social support in the form of group discussion were particularly effective.
Rogers and Storey identify interpersonal communication as one of the important factors that contribute to the success of a communication campaign. Reardon and Rogers (1988) have suggested that the common division in academic circles between mass communication and interpersonal communication is a false dichotomy, and that the strongest possible communication theory wili be developed only when researchers integrate the two. Sometimes ways can be found to obtain some of the advantages of interpersonal com­munication through mass communication. Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, the German political scientist contributes the famous model called “Spiral of Silence”.
The one view dominated the public scene and others disappeared from the public awareness as it adherents became silent.
In this sense, the theory is extremely scientific.  Spiral of Silence believes that there is fate- opinions are dependent on the  majority opinion of the group. The Spiral of Silence is useful to apply in situations when trying to explain why people cover up or change their opinions when in a group setting especially when they think they are alone in their opinions. In a company, the managing director decides to increase their working hour from 8 to 10 and send e-mail to all employees. 3.   “Fear of Rejection” By rejecting their personal opinion from the public will help to avoid fight.


1.    Spiral of silence theory describe as a dynamic process, the predication about public opinion in mass media which gives more coverage for the majorities in the society and gives very less coverage for minorities. 2.    In this social environment, People have fear of rejection to express their opinion or views and they known well what behaviors will make a better likelihood. 4.    Sometimes the minorities withdraw their expressed opinion from public debates to secure themselves from the majority. 5.    Maximum numbers get more vocal space in the society and lesser number become less vocal space or become silent. 3.    Spiral of silence theory – which helps to raise question about considering the role and responsibility of media in the society.
Usually this type of mass communication does not require any channel for conveying message to the audience.
We communicate for conveying our messages to the large group of people through radio, TV, magazines and posters. The need of human beings is fulfilled through mass communication like newspaper, TV and other material about different aspects of this world. But as we are all Muslims and believe in on God, one Prophet (PBUH) and one Quran, so this the the duty of both print and electronic journalism to promote Islamic culture besides our national culture in the country.
It creates sense of responsibility in the citizens of country, promotes ethical values and presents solutions to the general problems of people. So by expressing personal views, sharing knowledge and inter-exchange of ideas, people do agree on certain points which create mutual understanding among the people and this mutual understanding is necessary for development of the society. In this respect, print media and especially newspaper are the most effective source of forming public opinion, because through newspapers, editorials, columns, features, articles, pictorial displays, news summaries, the public opinion is formed about different national and international issues.
Media keep a check on the different departments of government like municipality, Wasa, police and all other life relating departments and also show the abilities and functions of government officials. Cable television channels and videotapes give the audience member access to specialized programs and material, far beyond what is available on the three commercial television networks and public television. Once a program has been videotaped from a commercial network broadcast, it becomes possible to skip the commercials by pushing the fast-forward button on the remote control of the VCR. One consequence is that we probably should have theories that give less emphasis to the effects of mass communication and more emphasis to the ways audience members are using mass communication.
It is no longer possible to think of television as a uniform or monolithic system, transmitting essentially the same message to everyone. Increasing globalisation, facilitated by the new technologies, has brought about changes which flow through to local communities. Group structure and group dynamics are very much a part of the process at work in organizations such as Alcoholics Anonymous, Weight Watchers, and some groups that help people to stop smoking. Realization dawns on each member that he is but a small part of a great whole; that no personal sacrifice is too great for preservation of the Fellowship. Youngsters have been learning about threats to the environment from school, television, and rock stars, and have been exerting pressure on their parents to act in more ecologically sound ways. Cholesterol level was down 1 per­cent in the media-only town, down 5 percent in the media-plus-group-instruction town, and up 2 percent in the town receiving no campaign. The studies examined by Flay sug­gested that making written materials available to accompany a television program will dou­ble its effectiveness, and that adding group discussions can triple it.
This is particularly true in the area of political preferences, where knowledge of five or six broad group categorizations about a person will often give a high degree of accuracy in predicting an election vote.
This is true of many of the well-organized charity fund drives and many election campaigns.
Television programs in which a candidate an­swers questions telephoned in by viewers would be an example.
In 1947 Neumann and her husband found “Public Opinion Organization” in German and also she was a President of “World Association for Public Opinion Research” in 1978 to 1980. In other words, the people fear of separation or isolation those around them, they tend to keep their attitudes to themselves when they think they are in the minority.  This process is called “Spiral of Silence”. Majority of them accept this time changes and few employees are not satisfied with his decision. People loss their confidence and silent or mute to express their views because of the fear of isolation or they feel alone or unsupported.
In some cases the person may feel the majority’s ideas or opinion is much better than his own view.
Mass media is a source of communication with masses and communication through mass media is mass communication. In this way sender always uses channel for communication because communication with large group of people is not possible without any channel. Because Islamic culture develops brotherhood and unity among the Muslims without any discrimination of colour, creed and castle. If journalism does not play its role effectively, then it can be proved harmful for the state and society by publishing news based on propaganda and falsehood. Videotext and Teletext offer the user a wide selection of news stories or other information. In a sense, this heightened selectivity due to the new technology could create a kind of balance that has been lacking in mass communication, with the audience and the message producers being more equal in power.
This shift might give increased importance to the uses and gratifications approach to the study of mass communication.
This realization has consequences for a number of theories of mass communication that assume to some extent a uniform television message, or a uniform media message (Webster, 1989).


On one hand, they open up opportunities for centralisation of authority, control and communication typical of the modern industrial state, and on the other hand, they supply alternative channels of cultural resistance and ideological mobilization for opposition forces.
Paradoxically, however, these local communities are forced to make international connections in order to solve local problems.
Thr principles of group norms and group pres­sure can often be seen at work in these kinds of efforts.
He learns that the clamor of desires and ambitions within him must be si­lenced whenever these could damage the group. He also began his broad­casts with music and told audience members to take that time to call a friend and ask the person to listen to the program. The purposes of the program were to apply communication theory to the development of a health communica­tion campaign and to use evaluation research to measure change due to the campaign. Flay estimates that television self-help clinics are able to help 5-15 percent of participating smokers to quit permanently.
Biggott cartoons and also documented in the area of politics by the election studies of Lazarsfeld and his associates. Programs aimed at reducing the risk of heart disease or helping people stop smoking suggest that a combination of mass media and interpersonal communication is also an effective approach in the health area. Through this Spiral of Silence theory Neumann indirectly explains the Jews status during World War II under Nazi’s control.
In mass communication, society communicates with itself as an individual or a group of people convey a message to the large group of people and they use transmitter of information such as magazines, newspaper, radio, television, books and posters or combination of these. So we can say that print journalism and especially newspaper are much effective and powerful source of communication and play very important role in forming and building opinion of masses.
CompuServe, a computer information service that can be accessed through home computers, has 550,000 subscribers (Couzens, 1989). The decentralization of communication due to the new technology can be seen taking place in the U.S. Alcoholics Anonymous, for in­stance, has a group norm that permits and encourages people to talk about their problems with alcohol. The campaign was intended to change people’s habits relating to the three leading risk factors in heart disease—diet, smoking, and lack of exercise.
Here, Adolf Hitler dominated the whole society and the minority Jews became silent due to the fear of isolation or separation. Government Printing Office, which plans over the next 10 years to shift to much heavier dissemination of information by individual agencies and through electronic mail, on-line data bases, floppy disks, magnetic tapes, and CD-ROMs (U.S. Essentially, it appears that the fragmented or segmented audience that is characteristic of the new media probably leads to a lessening of the impact of the mass media suggested by cultivation theory, the spiral of silence, and the agenda-setting function.
On this basis, one can argue that the new communication technologies serve the interests of both the privileged and the underprivileged classes in society. At issue here is the challenge posed to individual freedom to communicate as against the desire of various governments to control the moral content or `political correctness’ of what is communicated.
This is a reversal of the norm in the culture at large, which discourages talk­ing about an individual’s alcohol problem and almost makes such discussion a taboo. This quota is sometimes displayed in the middle of town on a big thermometer so that everyone can see it. The researchers picked three Califor­nia towns that were as alike as possible to test their approaches.
It has been suggested that the same kind of television self-help clinic might be useful in getting people to modify other health-related behaviors such as alcohol and drug abuse, or sexual practices increasing the risk of AIDS and other sexually trans­mitted diseases (McAlister.
AA members also share other norms, such as the willingness to be available to talk to another member any time of night or day.
This quota is in fact somewhat arbitrary, being set by the fund drive organizers, but it begins to take on the appearance of a community norm. The first was given an eight-month media campaign involving local TV and radio spots, a newspaper tabloid, billboards, and direct mail.
These special interest groups allow people who are interested in the same topic—science fiction, poetry writing, an arcane computer programming language such as FORTH—to communicate with one another. The second town was given the same media campaign but selected groups of high-risk people were also given intensive group instruction in reducing risks. This is a big change from the way communication through media has largely taken place in the past.
This then generates group pressure for the individual actually to quit on that day and then stick by the decision.
This is a tactic of group pressure, in that the individual is made to feel that he or she will be letting others down if a donation is not made. In a SIG on CompuServe, messages are not being chosen for the audience by someone else and imposed on them, but are being shared by people who are more or less equal but have a common interest in a topic.
Some of these fund drives also use door-to-door collections, in which the person doing the collect­ing is a neighbor or a person living on the same block—an effective use of social influence.



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