Network architecture diagrams using UML - overview of graphical notation - server, firewall, router, switch, load balancer, etc.
If two devices connected to the hub start transmitting at the same time, a collision occurs.
L3 LAN connectivity devices are moving data packets at OSI layer 3 between multiple network segments. The wires of the L2 and L3 LAN connectivity devices are typically owned by the organization. Global communications symbol and connections concept with a blue international globe of the world with two curved arrows around a large sphere with smaller spheres shaped as countries as a social exchange and trade icon for imports and exports. Figure 2 shows an IP telephony application using Cisco UCM Express and SRST in a business branch. The 2900 Series and 3900 Series Integrated Services Routers support Network Modules via an adapter (part number SM-NM-ADPTR). VICs include 2-port foreign exchange station (FXS), direct inward dial (DID), foreign exchange office (FXO), and E&M analog interface cards. FXO port is used to connect to PBX or key system, or to provide off-premises connections to PSTN or PTT.
Used to connect as network side or user side to PBX or key system as off-premises connections (ISDN voice BRI).
Used to support unstructured E1 (G.703) and all features of the other Cisco MFT VWIC2 modules, including drop-and-insert. Integrates all Cisco IP Communications solutions by providing flexible and reliable connectivity to public or private switched telephone networks around the world. Provides gateway for Cisco IP phones to PSTN or traditional PBXs and private automatic branch exchanges (PABXs). Provides gateway to PSTN for traditional PBXs, phones, fax machines, and key communication systems connected to a voice, data, and video infrastructure.
Reduce or eliminate toll charges assessed by long distance and local carriers by transporting voice and fax traffic across the enterprise intranet, LAN, metropolitan-area network (MAN), or WAN. Connection trunks creates a permanent tie-line replacement structure (digital-to-digital, digital-to-analog, or analog-to-analog capabilities).
Interoperates end-to-end with Cisco IP phones, analog phones, fax machine connections, and PBX or PABX connections to and from other Cisco voice enabled products.

Compressed Real-Time Protocol (cRTP) offers RTP header compression and packet fragmentation techniques that allow toll-quality voice and fax transmissions over any WAN connection.
Call Admission Control and PSTN Fallback uses Service Assurance Agent (SAA) to determine latency, delay and jitter and provide real-time Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF) calculations before establishing a call across an IP infrastructure. Advanced QoS Mechanisms-These configurable Cisco IOS Software features reserve appropriate bandwidth and prioritize voice and fax traffic to help ensure transparent delivery of toll-quality voice and fax. Silence Suppression, Voice Activity Detection (VAD)-Bandwidth is used only when someone is speaking.
Private Line Automatic Ring-Down (PLAR)-Provides a direct connection to another digital or analog voice port by lifting a telephone handset on one end. Integrated Add and Drop Multiplexer (Drop and Insert)-Performs add and drop multiplexing for voice within a dual-port voice network module. Hoot and Holler over IP-Delivers superior quality Hoot and Holler multicast voice services and multicast conferencing over the WAN using existing end-points. Analog CAMA Trunk Connection-The VIC2-2FXO and VIC2-4FXO provide the ability to connect to analog CAMA trunks which provide dedicated E-911 services.
Per Port Disable-Allows disabling of any single port without affecting any other port on the same VIC or network module.
Feature Upgrades-The DSP architecture allows for addition of new features through simple code updates. Protective sheaths covering one or several usually insulated wires; they transmit data between network components.
Cable that contains one or several pairs of twin wires twisted around one another; it transmits signals in the form of electric pulses. Cable that holds thin glass filaments or optical fibers that transmit signals in the form of light pulses at high speed. Cable that holds two insulated concentric conductors; it transmits signals in the form of electric pulses without loss of quality. Cisco Unified Communications solutions provide the means for integrating voice and data within a single network, allowing users to take advantage of services such as IP telephony, integrated services, and toll-bypass while providing an opportunity to improve productivity.
The Cisco VICs are daughter cards that install into the network modules and provide the interface to the PSTN and to telephony equipment (PBX, key systems, fax machines, phones). Also available are 4-port FXS and 4-port FXO cards and a 2-port ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) digital interface card providing -40V phantom power.

Users can deploy networks that take advantage of investments in existing telephony equipment while also deploying and integrating IP telephony immediately or in the future. Additional flexibility is provided on the two port module with the capability to configure one port for unstructured E1 (G.703) while configuring the other for standard framed E1. SAA packets emulate voice packets receiving the same priority as voice throughout the entire network. They include Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), queuing techniques (such as Low Latency Queuing), IP Precedence, and differentiated services code points (DSCPs).
Eliminates the requirement, maintenance, support, and expense of using an external add and drop multiplexer.
Each Cisco VIC port can be individually configured as an FXO or a CAMA port via Cisco IOS Software. An appropriate codec is dynamically selected when a call is established, while allocating DSP resources optimally.
By operating on Cisco IOS Software, these solutions incorporate advanced quality-of-service (QoS) features, intelligent network queuing, and standards-based encapsulation, providing efficient direct transport of both voice and fax over IP networks. These cards cover the entire range of analog connectivity options along with user-side and network-side digital BRI connections (Table 1). These network modules enable users to operate at any point on the integrated voice, video, and data infrastructure spectrum while incrementally adding connections to both traditional telephony and IP telephony. Cisco IOS Software solutions enable time-sensitive voice traffic to be moved across even low-bandwidth WAN connections with the priority and quality that voice and fax demand.
Cisco VWICs include 1- and 2-port T1 and E1 interface cards with optional drop-and-insert capability.
This means that while the module addresses a subset of the off-premise extension applications, it should be noted that the module is not in full compliance for off-premise usage. Transporting voice over IP networks continues to provide transport flexibility because IP can be routed across a multitude of WAN technologies (leased lines, Frame Relay, and ATM) along with providing direct connectivity to the desktop. These cards cover a full range of digital voice and WAN connectivity options and provide connectivity to the world's PBXs, PSTNs, and Post, Telephone, and Telegraph (PTT) organizations.

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