This article develops a parallel processing model of nonverbal communication that emphasizes the interdependence of behavioral and person perception processes from a functional perspective on social interaction. Portions of this paper were presented in an address at the annual convention of the American Psychological Society, San Diego, June 1992. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser.
As a message sender, AOC teaches you to be more aware of these signals, and therefore in more control of your message. Although these figures will definitely vary depending on context, one thing is certain, Actions Speak Louder Than Words!
Caroline Lewis Burton studied dance and dance therapy at Mills College, Oakland and at the University of California, Los Angeles.
References and BibliographyAncelin-Schutzenberger, Anne.L’Observation dans les Groupes de Formation et de Therapie. Men and women were videotaped while they silently viewed emotionally toned slides (view period) and then described their feelings (talk period).
The sending phase of this study was conducted while the first author was visiting the University of Connecticut, Storrs. An introduction to the use of NLP in advertising and communicationCommunication is such a generic term these days; used in many contexts and situations. Before we start you should be aware that this Psychology of Marketing series is built on two well-researched founding principles:1. It's not what we say but how we say it because content is only 7% of most communications.Mehrabian and Ferris, Inference of Attitudes from Nonverbal Communication in Two Channels' in The Journal of Counselling Psychology Vol.
Physiology, often referred to in face-to-face rapport as Body Language, describes any non-verbal communication through the use of postures, gestures, and expressions. The form and outcome of the behavioral (encoding) and person perception (decoding) processes are a product of three related elements, including: (1) determinants, (2) the social environment, and (3) cognitive-affective mediators.
I am grateful for the comments of Bill Swann, Mark Knapp, and several anonymous reviewers on earlier versions of this manuscript. You learn to use non-verbal communication to support your message, rather than interfere with it, and as a result, you become more convincing, confident and authentic in your communication. Quite simply, this AOC Training is for anyone who wishes to improve their communication skills. Subsequently, she worked as a dance therapist at Resthaven Hospital in Los Angeles, did research on nonverbal communication at L’Institute de Recherche Image et Son. They then rated their feelings on scales of pleasantness, strength, and 10 specific emotions. The receiving phase was conducted by the third author at the University of Manchester, England. It covers and describes just about any interaction with others: conversation, teaching, theatre, art, counselling and in this series marketing and advertising. Like all animals, humans have built-in fixed action patterns* - these patterns produce predictable responses and are triggered by specific stimuli. In this model, the determinants (biology, culture, gender, and personality), in combination with the partner and setting, influence interpersonal expectancies, dispositions, goals, affect, and cognitive resources. Videotapes of the two sending periods separately were shown to receivers who tried to identify the type of slide that the sender was viewing or describing (categorization measure) and rated the senders' expressions on the same scales (emotion correlation measure).
Think of these fixed action patterns as instinctive hard-wired shortcuts that help us make decisions, behave or act more efficiently. Marketing communications also have a 'body language' that will help to gain report and grab the attention of an audience - or not. The physiology element of Rapport could be described as a dance, where the participants respond and match the other's movements with similar movements of their own.Have you ever found yourself enjoying a conversation with somebody and noticing that you have adopted a similar posture?Sometimes the desire for rapport is so strong that one person can trigger a response from thousands. In turn, these mediators constrain the attention and cognitive effort applied to behavior management and person perception. Results indicated that communication accuracy, and gender differences in sending, varied with sending period, type of slide, communication measure, and specific emotion. This desire to match body posture is a highly developed skill that all highly social animals possess.

We unconsciously use these fixed action patterns for all forms of interaction with the outside world. The utility of this theory in integrating behavioral and person perception processes into a single system is discussed. On the emotion correlation measures, women were better senders of pleasantness, disgust, distress, fear, and anger while men were slightly better senders of guilt.
So from a psychology perspective we are likely to react to advertising messages in a very similar way to the way we react to one-to-one interactions with others because we are using the same hard-wired fixed action patterns to process the external stimuli.
In neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) when you adopt the posture of another, sit or stand in a similar fashion to their physiology, this is called pacing. Accuracy was generally better in the view period than in the talk period, and the view period produced more pronounced gender differences. It is argued that categorization and correlation measures are sensitive to different aspects of emotion communication. The expressive behavior of the deaf and the blind.Non-Verbal Behavior and Expressive Movement.
Used in conjunction with modifications of the slide viewing paradigm, the two types of measure provide versatile means of investigating social aspects of emotional expression. So, as an illustration, to mirror a person raising their left hand, you would raise your right hand. Remember I said this might feel a little strange, but that will soon pass.Now to match the same person who has raised their left hand, you would raise your left hand.
The Psychology of Marketing series will explore these fixed action patterns, specifically in the context of marketing and advertising so that we can use them with objectivity, structure and volition.
Wait a few seconds before moving, or until you are speaking if matching or mirroring a gesture.So having the basics, what exactly should we be matching and mirroring. Practice it and become comfortable with it before moving on to more specialised or distinctive gestures.
Let's begin.To start, a little background in Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) the science of using wordfs and imagery to prompt swift changes in behaviour. It is only by paying attention to the other person that you can decide what to say or do next. For example, if someone makes hand gestures to help illustrate an explanation, you would wait until you were making an explanation before making similar gestures. Making eye contact is an obvious rapport skill and often the only one that is consciously taught in English culture. The simple rule with eye contact is to match the other person’s preference, if they use little or no eye contact then so should you. One of the most natural and powerful ways to influence the effectiveness of your communications is to understand and utilise Rapport.RapportRapport works on the principal that when people are like each other, they tend to be more responsive. In effect, Rapport allows us to communicate and bond with our audience’s unconscious mind. Leading is the way that you direct the rapport in order to share your ideas and thoughts in a way that they are most likely to be well received. So for example, if you are both sitting with un-crossed legs, you cross your legs, you are subtly changing the rapport. Of course, our indirect interactions such as advertising, direct mail, online – all marketing in fact, also have a physiology, tonality and content, and the audience use the same neurology to unconsciously assess whether there is rapport between us.
The other person will instinctively wish to maintain rapport and will follow suit and change their physiology.
With that established, you can start to change your behaviour and they are likely to follow. The best teachers are those who establish rapport, and enter into the world of the learner, and so make it easier for the learner to enter into a greater understanding of their subject or skill. As you look around in restaurants, offices, any place where people meet and talk, can you identify which people have rapport and which do not? You cannot lead someone over a bridge without building it first.Core Pattern PhysiologyIdeally the meaning given to any posture or gesture should be based on observation of the person within the context of the situation. Just because someone has their arms folded across their body doesn’t mean that they are being defensive.

They are engaged in a dance of mutual responsiveness.Have you ever found yourself enjoying a conversation with somebody and then noticed that both your bodies have adopted the same posture?
Generalisations of this type can give false impressions and should not be relied upon.That said there are a number of core patterns that can provide a useful guide to anyone who is developing an understanding of the physiology of rapport. This skill would seem to be inborn, for newborn babies move in rhythm with the voices of the people around them. There are three basic patterns that can be useful for quickly assessing the state of mind and intention of another person.Closed PatternsThe closed pattern is a collection of body postures that are usually associated with defending, hiding, refusing and denying. When people are not in rapport their bodies reflect it - whatever they are saying, their bodies will not be matching.
Closing is a classic defensive move, making the body less vulnerable to attack, and is typically seen when a person feels threatened or anxious in some way.These moves can also indicate disagreement or dislike, withdrawing the body shows that they are not open or perhaps comfortable with rapport at that time. They are not engaged in the dance and you can see it immediately.Successful people create rapport, and rapport creates trust.
You can create rapport with whoever you wish by consciously refining the natural rapport skills that you use every day.
By matching and mirroring body language and tonality you can very quickly gain rapport with almost anyone.
Closes their mouth and eyes, lowering eyebrows refusing or hesitating to speak or make eye contact. Interestingly, it is the only one that is consciously referenced in Anglo-Saxon culture, which has a strong taboo against noticing body language consciously, and responding to it. However, in this culture, there is usually an assumption that the correct physiology is high levels of sustained eye contact. Assumes a defensive posture by crossing their arms or legs, pulling in shoulders, elbows or knees as if protecting their organs and vulnerable parts.4.
Clearly, if we are interacting with someone uncomfortable with eye contact, for whatever reason, that behaviour could cause considerable discomfort and lack of rapport.To create rapport, join the other person's dance by matching their body language sensitively and with respect. Open PatternsNot surprisingly, these are the opposite of closed patterns and indicate openness, removing barriers and receptiveness. Matching is not mimicry, which is a noticeable, exaggerated and indiscriminate copying of another person's movements, and is usually considered offensive.You can match distribution of the body weight, and basic posture.
You can match arm movements by small hand movements, body movements by your head movements. Conditional automaticity: Varieties of automatic influence in social perception and cognition.
Opening up the body by moving limbs to the sides, increasing height or making the body look largerBreathingA subtle way to match physiology, matching breathing will give a deep level of rapport very quickly.
The best way to watch how the other person is breathing is to stand slightly to one side (45 degree angle) focus on their face and be aware of how their chest is moving.With a little practice you will be able to detect their breathing style. If the shoulders and the top of the chest move when breathing then they will have fast, shallow breathing which typically is a sign of someone who is in a high tempo, active state.2. This is produces deep relaxed breathing, and is a sign of someone who may be very kinaesthetic (see Thinker Feeler personality styles). Notice what people do who are in rapport.Start to be conscious of what you do naturally so you can refine it and choose when to do it.
Be aware of any changes in the level of rapport.Step ThreeSteadily increase the range and number of elements, you match or mirror at any one time to a maximum of three. Choose the elements that you feel most comfortable with or that are appropriate for the situation and notice the effect they have.
Posed and spontaneous communication of emotion via facial and vocal cues.Journal of Personality, 47, 712–733. A continuum of impression formation, from categorybased to individuating processes: Influences of information and motivation on attention interpretation. Attitudinal effects of mere exposure.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 1–27.

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