SO, WE REMEMBER ONLY 10% FROM WHAT WE READ, 20% FROM WHAT WE HEAR, 30% FROM WHAT WE SEE, AND 70% FROM WHAT WE SAY AND DO. It is important to remember that first impressions are largely based on non-verbal factors such as vocal attributes, pronunciation and speech patterns. Projection problems are usually caused by a person’s inability to produce and sustain the proper breathing or failure to monitor his own voice.
DICTION: A competent speaker should articulate speech sounds clearly and pronounce words correctly. ARTICULATION: forming individual speech sounds correctly with your mouth, so they combine to produce an understandable word. In many cases, however, diction, articulation, enunciation and pronunciation are used interchangeably to mean saying words correctly and accurately, with crispness and precision.
Public Speaking Tools Public speaking tools are necessary in order to effectively deliver a well-written speech. One definition of oral communication is ?to communicate by talking?, since this implies a two way interaction that emphasises the communication aspect rather than the simple act of articulation. Speech refers to the processes associated with the production and perception of sounds used in spoken language.
Ensure that there is good light and good acoustics, and that participants are seated in a circle or horseshoe formation so that all learners can see each other clearly.
Some of the best discussions can take place in less formal surroundings, such as the cafeteria or even the corridor.
An oral presentation is a talk given to a group in which learners present their views on an issue or topic based on their readings or research.
When learners are expected to give a presentation as part of their assignment, make sure that you give provide them with guidelines on giving effective presentations. Remind learners to prepare their presentations early and make them available via the institution?s intranet or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) as this can be a very effective way to improve accessibility to courses for disabled learners. Remember that people with the same impairments may need different adjustments to practice to enable them to engage with the assessment process and demonstrate their learning. Consider why you are assessing in a particular way and whether or not another method may be more inclusive.
There may be occasions where you have provided the disabled learner with an alternative assessment (for example, a blind learner may need to give their answers orally rather than in writing). EmpTech: Emptec - information resources on assistive technologies that are designed to help those with specific difficulties or disabilities work and study more effectively.

Skills for Access: recommends approaches to using multimedia to enhance accessibility of the learning experience and gives detailed information about a range of assistive technologies. It is the conduit that serves as the channel that connects the speaker and listener – the teacher and the student. A serious subject deserves a slower and more deliberate rate; less serious subject matter can be delivered a bit faster.
If the speaker uses a narrow, unchanging pitch range, it may result in a droning sound that may become boring.
Variety and contrast will introduce dynamism, an essential aspect of credibility plus enthusiasm, energy and life to sustain interest. WORD STRESS – in words of more than one syllable (polysyllabic words), one syllable will receive more stress that the others to give it more importance. PHRASING AND PAUSING: Normally, all but the shortest sentences are divided into two or more parts or thoughts groups.
BLENDING- another characteristic of the English language that the Filipino learner should know is blending. In most jobs, people spend much more time speaking, listening and discussing than reading or writing. Many skills are required for speech and language to develop effectively and there are many ways in which speech development can go wrong.
Speech involves articulation (how sounds are made), voice (the use of the vocal folds and breathing to produce sound) and fluency (the rhythm of speech). For this reason it is really important that you never make assumptions about what a person can or cannot do.
Encourage participation, but respect an individual's right to stay silent or to opt out of the discussion. Make sure that everyone has the opportunity to participate, that each change of speaker is clearly indicated, and that people have enough time to absorb what has been said. There may be specific requirements learners may need to meet and these should be detailed in their course outline or study guide. For example, in asking learners to write an essay in an exam, are you testing the learners? knowledge and understanding of the topic, or the ability to write clearly and precisely? In some cases, the exact format of the assessment is critical to the demonstration of the intended learning outcome (for example, a course in hairdressing would require a practical demonstration of competence), but aim to allow your learners to have a choice about how they demonstrate their knowledge and skills whenever possible; in other words allow them to demonstrate their knowledge and skills using a variety of formats.
In such cases, you should ensure the integrity of the alternative assessment and make sure that the disabled learner is judged on their ability to meet the criteria ? providing neither a disadvantage nor an advantage over other learners.

It is important to remember that, aside from the words we choose to utter, meaning is also conveyed by the voice: the loudness level, the rate of speech, or how rapidly or slowly one speaks, the way silence is used, the range of vocal pitches and the vocal quality of the speaker. Some speakers don’t talk loud enough to be heard by everyone in the room or let their voice fade out at the end of a thought.
By varying one’s pitch, the speaker can keep the listener’s attention and emphasize important points.
Generally, pauses are made after a group of words which has an idea, such as phrase or a clause. Talk is an important medium for getting things done, but equally important is the ability to listen carefully and to both act and reflect on what is heard.
Some people may have difficulty in moving the muscles that control speech, while others can't understand how a conversation works or the meaning of a sentence. Language is the set of rules shared by the individuals who are communicating with each other that allows them to exchange thoughts, ideas, or emotions. Though someone may have significant difficulties, they may also have devised sophisticated means of compensating for these, so talk to the person concerned and make judgements only on an individual basis. Some people may have fluctuating conditions which might mean that they feel able to partake sometimes but not at others. Decide what you are assessing, how many marks are apportioned for each element (knowledge or good writing, memory or understanding), and ensure that students are clear about these criteria. Variety and flexibility of volume, rate and pitch will help avoid monotony and will aid in underscoring ideas.
Each language (spoken, written or signed) includes its own set of rules for phonology (phonemes or speech sounds or, in the case of signed language, hand shapes), morphology (word formation), syntax (sentence formation), semantics (word and sentence meaning), prosody (intonation and rhythm of speech) and pragmatics (effective use of language). Those who do not project their voices to reach the last person in the last row in the room lose their audience. Function words, like articles, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and linking or helping verbs are not stressed. Oral communication is effective when it is clear, relevant, appropriate to the intended audience in phraseology and tone, concise, and informative. Much of what that person says is irretrievably lost on the audience, who cannot always continually ask the speaker to speak up.

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