Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. As you can see from the definition above, organizational behavior encompasses a wide range of topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership, teams, etc.
Autocratic — The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority.
Custodial — The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. Supportive — The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support.
Collegial — The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one. Culture is the conventional behavior of a society that encompasses beliefs, customs, knowledge, and practices.
Individualization is when employees successfully exert influence on the social system by challenging the culture. Quadrant A — Too little socialization and too little individualization creates isolation.
Quadrant B — Too little socialization and too high individualization creates rebellion. Quadrant C — Too high socialization and too little individualization creates conformity.
Quadrant D — The match that organizations want to create is high socialization and high individualization for a creative environment. Organization Development (OD) is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc., to bring about planned change (Newstrom, Davis, 1993).
Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees (McGregor's Theory Y). Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology, and people, must work together.
Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions. Quality of Work Life (QWL) is the favorableness or unfavorableness of the job environment (Newstrom, Davis, 1993).
When redesigning jobs there are two spectrums to follow—job enlargement and job enrichment.
Task Significant: This is the amount of impact that the work has on other people as the employee perceives.

Action learning has been widely used in Europe for combining formal management training with learning from experience. Revans bases his learning method on a theory called System Beta, in that the learning process should closely approximate the scientific method. Note that you do not always have to enter this process at the first step, but you do have to complete all the steps in the process.
Revans suggest that all human learning at the individual level occurs through this process. Our prefrontal cortex is a fast and agile computational device that is able to hold multiple threads of logic at once so that we can perform fast calculations.
When we do something familiar and predictable, our brain is mainly using the basal ganglia, which is quite comforting to us. And the way to help people come to insight is to allow them to come to their own resolution. Doing all the thinking for learners takes their brains out of action, which means they will not invest the energy into making new connections. Since many of these topics are covered elsewhere in the leadership guide, this paper will focus on a few parts of OB: elements, models, social systems, OD, work life, action learning, and change. This in turn, drives the organizational culture that is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment.
The employees in turn, are oriented towards security, benefits, and dependence on the organization. There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping with the other models. Within an organization, the social system includes all the people in it and their relationships to each other and to the outside world.
Individualism favors individual rights, loosely knit social networks, self-respect, and personal rewards and careers—it may become look out for Number One! Its objectives are a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability, and effectiveness. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture, but rather provide experiences that create learning opportunities.
Its purpose is to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for both the employees and the organization. Job enlargement adds a more variety of tasks and duties to the job so that it is not as monotonous. It adds depth to the job—more control, responsibility, and discretion to how the job is performed. This differs from job enlargement that might require the employee to perform more tasks, but require the same set of skills.
However, it has its limits with working memory in that it can only hold a handful of concepts at once, similar to the RAM in a PC.
However, for normal everyday use, our brain prefers to run off its hard-drive—the basal ganglia, which has a much larger storage area and stores memories and our habits.

These moments of insight or resolutions are called epiphanies—sudden intuitive leap of understanding that are quite pleasurable to us and act as rewards. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system.
The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization.
The behavior of one member can have an impact, either directly or indirectly, on the behavior of others.
People depend on culture as it gives them stability, security, understanding, and the ability to respond to a given situation.
It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures, and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances, and the fast pace of change within the environment. This gives higher order needs to the employee, as opposed to job enlargement that simply gives more variety. Teams of learners with diverse backgrounds conduct field projects on complex organizational problems that require the use of skills learned in formal training sessions. In addition, it burns lots of high energy glucose (blood sugar), which is expensive for the body to produce.
Thus, you have to resist the urge to fill in the entire picture of change; rather you need to leave enough gaps so that the learners are allowed to make connections of their own. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The learning teams then meet periodically with a skilled instructor to discuss, analyze, and learn from their experiences. Thus, when given lots of information, such as when a change is required, it has a tendency to overload and being directly linked to the amygdala (the emotional center of the brain) that controls our fight-or-flight response, it can cause severe physical and psychological discomfort. As change agents, we want to produce insight into our learners so that they are able to apply their knowledge and skills not just in the classroom, but also on the job.
The final outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. In addition, the collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.
They fear the system will become unstable, their security will be lost, they will not understand the new process, and they will not know how to respond to the new situations. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from.

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