We've shown companies how to lower defects rates by 25% and have a 100% pass rate on the PMP exam. Cost Variance (CV): The amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time, expressed as the difference between the earned value and the actual cost. Schedule Variance (SV): A measure of schedule performance expressed as the difference between the earned value and the planned value. Cost Performance Index (CPI): A measure of cost efficiency of budgeted resources expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost. Schedule Performance Index (SPI): A measure of schedule efficiency expressed as the ratio of earned value to planned value.
Cost Variance (CV): The difference between project progress (earned value) and the actual cost (actual cost) at a given point in the schedule.
Schedule Variance (SV): The difference between project progress (earned value) and the planned progress (planned value) at a given point in the schedule. Building on the conceptual model of the first two articles in this series, let’s puts some equations to the diagrams.
Schedule Performance Index (SPI) – are we getting full value for the time spent working on the project? A typical stumbling block for those studying for the Project Management Professional (PMP®) exam is memorizing the equations. Since we write these equations in the same order, we know the second hint for writing them correctly. Cost variance provides the difference between what we budgeted versus what we’ve actually spent. In this article, we described the equations used to understand the current state of a project. In the next article, we describe the forecasting formulas and what we need to do in order to bring our project in line with the plan. Lag: A modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor activity. Lead: A modification of a logical relationship that allows an acceleration of the successor activity.
Lag: A pre-defined delay between the predecessor and successor activities, as in, the delay caused by paint drying before picture hanging. Lead: A pre-defined acceleration of the successor activity in relationship to the predecessor relationship, also known as, negative lag. Lead and lag time are used in project schedules to fine-tune relationships between predecessors and successors. Lead and Lag are defined during the planning stage and do not change over the course of the project, unless explicitly changed by the project team. Using the cooking example from the Four Logical Relationship article, let’s add a pie to the menu. Using our dinner boat cruise example from the same article, there is a 30 minute overlap between ticket window closing and the boat leaving the dock so we can pre-sell tickets for the next day.

Using the car washing example from our article mentioned above, let’s pretend we only have 45 minutes for a job taking normally 60 minutes. Of course, by overlapping the tasks, or fast-tracking them, we increase the risk of having to re-do some work. Using lead time in a start-to-start relationship causes the successor activity to start before the predecessor task.
We see, by adding in the lead time, we should put the meat and the potatoes into the oven at the same time. We use lags when a delay must occur before the successor activity can proceed, as in waiting for the paint to dry or concrete to cure. For the last four centuries, science has tried to account for everything in terms of atoms and molecules and the physical laws they adhere to. In the first article, we described Earned Value Management (EVM) using a conceptual model without delving into the mathematics. These equations give us great insight into the project’s health and show us where we are excelling or missing the mark. Formally trained and field hardened, our consultants provide the very best in training and consulting. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lag, the successor activity cannot start until ten days after the predecessor activity finishes. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lead, the successor activity can start ten days before the predecessor activity has finished.
We can use a finish-to-finish relationship so the pie finishes 15 minutes after the food is finished. We use lead time to shorten overall project schedules or a particular portion of the schedule.
Normally, we’d spend 15 minutes washing, 15 minutes drying and 30 minutes waxing the car. In the case where the tasks are ordered sequentially, we know the final result of the predecessor task before the successor starts. An example might be both the electrical work and plumbing can start at the same time in a house construction. The vegetables and pie would go in 45 minutes later, at the same time we pull the meat out to let it coast.
We use lead times to compress the project schedule as in fast-tracking a project or when we can overlap tasks. Cost variance and Cost Performance Index has to do with cost, therefore, the only logical variable used would be AC. The Schedule Performance Index (.8) is negative also, but not as bad as the Cost Performance Index. The variances provide the values by which we differ from our plan while the indexes show our project performance. Is There A Difference?” They are mathematical calculations and change over the course of the project.

Therefore, the builder pours the concrete, waits four days and then builds the walls on the concrete.
When fast-tracking a project, that is, accelerating various tasks to shorten the project, we use lead time to overlap activities. When fast-tracking, the predecessor may finish slightly differently than expected, or in the case of the car washing example, overspray from rinsing one portion of the car will require us to re-dry because of the overspray. Although this example might be a bit of a stretch, we show it here for illustrative purposes.
By following this timing, the main course of the meal is ready to eat at the same time and the pie is done when we finish eating the dinner. Using the start-to-finish relationship in case the boat’s departure is delayed, we inject the lead time designation. The Gantt chart below shows a lag between pouring the concrete and building the walls using a finish-to-start relationship.
He points to another approach to the study and exploration of consciousness that erupted into public awareness in the late 1800s. Represented in money, we would simply multiply the hourly rate and hours remaining giving us the schedule variance. In this secret history of consciousness, consciousness is seen not as a result of neurons and molecules, but as responsible for them; meaning is not imported from the outer world, but rather creates it.
If schedule variance is negative, we are behind schedule – we are not getting the full value of our time worked. In this view, consciousness is a living, evolving presence whose development can be traced through different historical periods, and which evolves along a path to a broader, more expansive state.
What that consciousness may be like and how it may be achieved is a major concern of this book .Lachman concentrates on the period since the late 1800s, when Madame Blavatsky first brought the secret history out into the open.
As this history unfolds, we encounter the ideas of many modern thinkers, from esotericists like P. Ouspensky, Rudolf Steiner, and Colin Wilson to more mainstream philosophers like Henri Bergson, William James, Owen Barfield and the psychologist Andreas Mavromatis.
Two little known but important thinkers play a major role in his synthesis Jurij Moskvitin, who showed how our consciousness relates to the mechanisms of perception and to the external world, and Jean Gebser, who presented perhaps the most impressive case for the evolution of consciousness. Colin Wilson, author of "The Outsider" and "Access to Inner Worlds" Opens up vast vistas of possibility, suggesting that what we experience as the earth may, in itself, be inseparable from our state of mind, and that the evolution of human consciousness may be as fundamental a process as our development through genetics. Daniel Pinchbeck, author of "Breaking Open the Head" Thinking outside the box, Lachman challenges many contemporary theories by reinserting a sense of the spiritual back into the discussion.

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