Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.
A project is a temporary endeavor, having a defined beginning and end (usually constrained by date, but can be by funding or deliverables[1]), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives[2], usually to bring about beneficial change or added value.
At the same time, as project-scheduling models were being developed, technology for project cost estimating, cost management, and engineering economics was evolving, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others. The International Project Management Association (IPMA) was founded in Europe in 1967,[13] as a federation of several national project management associations. The AAPM American Academy of Project Management International Board of Standards 1996 was the first to institute post-graduate certifications such as the MPM Master Project Manager, PME Project Management E-Business, CEC Certified-Ecommerce Consultant, and CIPM Certified International project Manager. There are a number of approaches to managing project activities including agile, interactive, incremental, and phased approaches. Regardless of the methodology employed, careful consideration must be given to the overall project objectives, timeline, and cost, as well as the roles and responsibilities of all participants and stakeholders. Not all the projects will visit every stage as projects can be terminated before they reach completion. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) is a method of planning and managing projects that puts more emphasis on the resources (physical and human) needed in order to execute project tasks.
Regardless of project type, the project plan should undergo Resource Leveling, and the longest sequence of resource-constrained tasks should be identified as the critical chain.
Planning and feedback loops in Extreme Programming (XP) with the time frames of the multiple loops. The generalization of Extreme Programming to other kinds of projects is extreme project management, which may be used in combination with the process modeling and management principles of human interaction management. Event chain methodology is another method that complements critical path method and critical chain project management methodologies. Event chain methodology is an uncertainty modeling and schedule network analysis technique that is focused on identifying and managing events and event chains that affect project schedules. Probabilistic moment of risk: An activity (task) in most real life processes is not a continuous uniform process. Project tracking with events: Even if a project is partially completed and data about the project duration, cost, and events occurred is available, it is still possible to refine information about future potential events and helps to forecast future project performance.
Event chain visualization: Events and event chains can be visualized using event chain diagrams on a Gantt chart.
PRINCE2 is a structured approach to project management, released in 1996 as a generic project management method.[18] It combined the original PROMPT methodology (which evolved into the PRINCE methodology) with IBM's MITP (managing the implementation of the total project) methodology. In the method, each process is specified with its key inputs and outputs and with specific goals and activities to be carried out.
Also furthering the concept of project control is the incorporation of process-based management. Agile Project Management approaches based on the principles of human interaction management are founded on a process view of human collaboration. Traditionally, project management includes a number of elements: four to five process groups, and a control system.
Additional processes, such as planning for communications and for scope management, identifying roles and responsibilities, determining what to purchase for the project and holding a kick-off meeting are also generally advisable.
For new product development projects, conceptual design of the operation of the final product may be performed concurrent with the project planning activities, and may help to inform the planning team when identifying deliverables and planning activities.
Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project's requirements. Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. In multi-phase projects, the monitoring and controlling process also provides feedback between project phases, in order to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the project management plan. In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are resolved. When changes are introduced to the project, the viability of the project has to be re-assessed. Project control is that element of a project that keeps it on-track, on-time and within budget. Control systems are needed for cost, risk, quality, communication, time, change, procurement, and human resources. A project manager is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives.
A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certain constraints. The discipline of Project Management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet these constraints. At DG Professional Interiors our project management team is the key to our successful completion of any job.
Our Project Managers will meet with you to understand your specific requirements, produce a detailed project programme and once everything is agreed, make sure everything is kept on course throughout the duration.


Project Management Diagram - Project Management Chart - Quality, Time, Cost, Scope are the 4 fundamental parts of any project. Project Management - Project Management Approach - Project Management Steps - Project Management Phases - Phased Approach - Project Management Cycle: Iniatiation, Planning and Design, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, Closing. Get the latest news about IT Process Maps, and stay informed about important changes and updates to our ITIL Wiki. The ITIL Process Map uses a RASCI matrix to provide a summary of the ITIL roles and their levels of responsibility in the various ITIL processes. Best practice for IT service providers: The webinar on ITIL and the ITIL Process Map is now available in a new on-demand version. In a recent blog post, Jan van Bon muses about people using 'ITIL process templates' making a 'fundamental mistake'. The problem record template explains the structure of the data typically contained in a problem record, which describes the complete life cycle of a problem from identification to resolution. The new, streamlined YaSM service management framework provides guidance for organizations in the business of delivering services. Process owners use objective quality criteria or metrics to assess whether their processes are running according to expectations. New LinkedIn Showcase Page on ITIL and the 'ITIL® Process Map' - if you are on LinkedIn, please check it out - we hope you like it!
We are happy to introduce an enhanced and restructured ITIL glossary as part of our ITIL Wiki with the most commonly searched ITIL and IT service management (ITSM) terms. ITIL and the ITIL Process Map on YouTube: Our YouTube channel now presents itself in the recently introduced new lay-out. As you may have noticed, Microsoft has recently published the latest edition of Visio 2013.
The ITIL - ISO 20000 Bridge has been brought in line with the latest version of ISO 20000:2011. Lea-Cox & Associates (LCA), a partner of IT Process Maps GbR based in the UK, has just released an upgraded and special set of services and products which are designed to help organizations build and exploit their Service Management System (SMS) to maximum advantage. The 2011 edition of our ITIL process model for iGrafx® is now available in English and German. Following the publication of the 2011 edition of ITIL in July 2011, the ITIL Process Map has been adapted to the latest guidance. IT Process Maps teamed up with Ernst Fichtner, Austria, to create the ITIL V3 Process solution for the web based PRIMERO environment. New: The ITIL V3 Process Model for the Holocentric™ Modeler and Modelpedia environment is ready! New: A User-friendly RACI Matrix in the form of an Excel spreadsheet is now part of the ITIL Process Map. In our interactive webinars we demonstrate the ITIL® Process Map and answer your questions.
If you are a consultant, you can sign up as a consulting partner and advertise your services on this website. It is sometimes conflated with program management, however technically a program is actually a higher level construct: a group of related and somehow interdependent projects.
Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline.[11] In the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt Charts, and informal techniques and tools.
IPMA maintains its federal structure today and now includes member associations on every continent except Antarctica. For example, when working on a brick and mortar design and construction, projects will typically progress through stages like Pre-Planning, Conceptual Design, Schematic Design, Design Development, Construction Drawings (or Contract Documents), and Construction Administration. Instead, project management experts try to identify different "lightweight" models, such as Agile Project Management methods including Extreme Programming for software development and Scrum techniques. Event chain methodology helps to mitigate the negative impact of psychological heuristics and biases, as well as to allow for easy modeling of uncertainties in the project schedules.
Tasks are affected by external events, which can occur at some point in the middle of the task. The various management roles and responsibilities involved in a project are fully described and are adaptable to suit the complexity of the project and skills of the organization.
Regardless of the methodology or terminology used, the same basic project management processes will be used. If this stage is not performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the business’ needs.
The main purpose is to plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate the work needed and to effectively manage risk during project execution. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management plan. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan. Project control begins early in the project with planning and ends late in the project with post-implementation review, having a thorough involvement of each step in the process. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution, and closing of any project, typically relating to construction industry, engineering, architecture, computing, or telecommunications.


Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives, building the project requirements, and managing the triple constraint for projects, which is cost, time, and scope.
The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as "scope," "time," and "cost".[1] These are also referred to as the "Project Management Triangle", where each side represents a constraint. We work very closely with the customer to make certain the project is delivered on time, within budget, ensuring that the right specification and quality standards are achieved from the manufacturing stage, to on-site installation. Project Manager (PM) must balance time, cost and scope to provide quality required by stakeholders and project sponsors. The appearance of Visio 2016 provided an opportunity to update the repository add-in for Visio that comes with the ITIL® Process Map. In our ITIL Wiki we provide more insights on the main changes and differences between ITIL 2007 and ITIL 2011. AACE continued its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first integrated process for portfolio, program and project management (Total Cost Management Framework). IPMA offers a Four Level Certification program based on the IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB).[14] The ICB covers technical competences, contextual competences, and behavioral competences. The goal is to increase the rate of throughput (or completion rates) of projects in an organization.
However, it is often enough to identify (or simply select) a single "drum" resource—a resource that acts as a constraint across projects—and stagger projects based on the availability of that single resource. Quantitative analysis is used to determine a cumulative effect of these event chains on the project schedule. PRINCE2 describes procedures to coordinate people and activities in a project, how to design and supervise the project, and what to do if the project has to be adjusted if it does not develop as planned. The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environment and making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. As with the Initiation process group, a failure to adequately plan greatly reduces the project's chances of successfully accomplishing its goals. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as defined in the project management plan.
Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. When the changes accumulate, the forecasted result may not justify the original proposed investment in the project. Many other fields in the production, design and service industries also have project managers.
If you are an existing customer, you may receive the latest version of the ITIL Visio add-in, including an updated user manual, free of charge.
The ITIL Process Map is thus the first independently assessed process model for ITIL 2011 on the market! The "Critical Path Method" (CPM) was developed as a joint venture between DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects.
Applying the first three of the five focusing steps of TOC, the system constraint for all projects is identified as are the resources. On the basis of close monitoring, the project can be carried out in a controlled and organized way. Beyond executing the change in the field, the change normally needs to be documented to show what was actually constructed. To exploit the constraint, tasks on the critical chain are given priority over all other activities.
Finally, projects are planned and managed to ensure that the resources are ready when the critical chain tasks must start, subordinating all other resources to the critical chain. Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to show all changes or, more specifically, any change that modifies the tangible portions of the finished work. The Cone of Uncertainty explains some of this as the planning made on the initial phase of the project suffers from a high degree of uncertainty.
The record is made on the contract documents – usually, but not necessarily limited to, the design drawings.
This becomes especially true as software development is often the realization of a new or novel product.
The end product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built drawings, or more simply, “as built.” The requirement for providing them is a norm in construction contracts. In projects where requirements have not been finalized and can change, requirements management is used to develop an accurate and complete definition of the behavior of software that can serve as the basis for software development[17].



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