This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. When considering how to use language effectively in your speech, consider the degree to which the language is appropriate, vivid, inclusive, and familiar. One of the first questions to ask yourself is whether the language you plan on using in a speech fits with your own speaking pattern.
The second aspect of appropriateness asks whether the language you are choosing is appropriate for your specific audience. The next question about appropriateness is whether the language you will use is suitable or fitting for the context itself. The fourth and final question about the appropriateness of language involves whether the language is appropriate for your specific topic. After appropriateness, the second main guideline for using language is to use vivid language.
When we use language that is concreteLanguage that helps an audience see specific realities or actual instances instead of abstract theories and ideas., we attempt to help our audiences see specific realities or actual instances instead of abstract theories and ideas. The second form of imagery is simileFigure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared using a€?likea€? or a€?as.a€?. To effectively use similes within your speech, first look for instances where you may already be finding yourself using the words a€?likea€? or a€?asa€?a€”for example, a€?his breath smelled like a fishing boat on a hot summer day.a€? Second, when you find situations where you are comparing two things using a€?likea€? or a€?as,a€? examine what it is that you are actually comparing. The other commonly used form of imagery is the metaphorFigure of speech where a term or phrase is applied to something in a nonliteral way to suggest a resemblance., or a figure of speech where a term or phrase is applied to something in a nonliteral way to suggest a resemblance.
While both of these examples evoke comparisons with the course catalog, the first example is clearly more negative and the second is more positive. One mistake people often make in using metaphors is to make two incompatible comparisons in the same sentence or line of thought.
This is known as a mixed metaphor, and it often has an incongruous or even hilarious effect.
When listing items in a sequence, audiences will respond more strongly when those ideas are presented in a grammatically parallel fashion, which is referred to as parallelismPresenting ideas in a grammatically parallel fashion.. Technically, youa€™re saying the same thing in both, but the second one has better rhythm, and this rhythm comes from the parallel construction of a€?give me.a€? The lack of parallelism in the first example makes the sentence sound disjointed and ineffective. As we mentioned earlier in this chapter, one of the major differences between oral and written language is the use of repetitionThe oral linguistic device where key words or phrases are repeated in an attempt to help audience members recall the words or phrases after the speech..
Another type of rhythmic language is alliterationThe repeating of two or more words in a series with the same consonant., or repeating two or more words in a series that begin with the same consonant.
AssonanceForm of rhyming pattern where the same vowel sounds are used with different consonants in the stressed syllables.
The first common form of noninclusive language is language that privileges one of the sexes over the other. The generic a€?hea€? happens when a speaker labels all people within a group as a€?hea€? when in reality there is a mixed sex group involved.
Traditionally, speakers of English have used terms like a€?man,a€? a€?mankind,a€? and (in casual contexts) a€?guysa€? when referring to both females and males. The last common area where speakers get into trouble with gender and language has to do with job titles. Another type of inclusive language relates to the categories used to highlight an individuala€™s ethnic identity. The last category of exclusive versus inclusive language that causes problems for some speakers relates to individuals with physical or mental disabilities. The last category related to using language appropriately simply asks you to use language that is familiar both to yourself and to your audience. Inclusive language avoids placing any one group of people above or below other groups while speaking. Using familiar language is important for a speaker because familiar language will make a speaker more comfortable, which will improve audience perceptions of the speech.
Speech is one form of communication that is generally seen as the main form of communication. In this wiki entry we will be explaining how Communication in the form of vocal speech can produce errors and be perceived by people based about lexical and phonological arrangement of words and sentences.
The speech recognition component converts the user's speech into a sentence of distinct words, by matching acoustic signals against a library of phonemes—irreducible units of sound that make up a word.
The language understanding-component breaks down recognized sequences of words grammatically, and it systematically represents their meaning. Lite speech systems, with user-defined vocabularies and actions, can be tailored quickly to specific applications and integrated with other parts of the Oxygen system in a modular fashion.
The language generation component builds sentences that present application-generated data in the user's preferred language.
Accouring to the nidcd, or National institute on deafness and other communication disorders, The brain is developing and maturing the most in the first 3 years of life. The stages of development shown in this chart and video are a general base for how children grow into speech, although acquisition of speech is fairly subjective to the child this has been seen to be a good correlation among majority of kids. Effective speech or charasmatic speaker how a certain vocal structure other then there body language that makes them better understood by the people around them. 3) Kind Facial Expressions - often it is simpler for us to control our words than what we (unconsciously) express facially. Speech language pathology is described as the techniques, strategies, and interventions designed to improve or correct communication disorders. The outline is very organized and the amount of information provided is factual and efficient.
From an organizational standpoint, I would add some more introduction—this might help to tie your other information together.
Organization: I think everything is nicely organized and you have listed all of your main topics you would like to discuss.
Clarity: I think each topic is headed in the right direction and it is made clear which topics you would like to discuss along the lines of speaking.
Content: I think the topics could go into more detail and you should start elaborating using the sources you have provided. Organization: your main topic are well organize and defined, however, it it would be very helpful if you start with an introduction. Clarity: I think the informations so far are very well written and your topics have a clear and concise definition. Clarity: It is also very clear in what you want to present in your topic and the information that is presented.
Content: I really like the flow chart and the table, because it helps the reader to better understand the information.
Clarity: I really like how you guys condensed all of this information much narrower for easier comprehension. Content: The content of your page seems to be well-thought out, and I really like the pictures and charts provided within this page.
Organization: The wiki page is well put together, only thing in the intro a little slow to start but I enjoyed reading your page. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.


The next sections define each of these aspects of language and discuss why each is important in public speaking.
One of the first concepts a speaker needs to think about when looking at language use is appropriateness.
The language you may employ if youa€™re addressing a student assembly in a high school auditorium will differ from the language you would use at a business meeting in a hotel ballroom. If you are speaking about the early years of The Walt Disney Company, would you want to refer to Walt Disney as a a€?thaumaturgica€? individual (i.e., one who works wonders or miracles)?
Vivid languageLanguage that helps a listener create strong, distinct, or clearly perceptible mental images. The goal of concreteness is to help you, as a speaker, show your audience something instead of just telling them. As you probably learned in English courses, a simile is a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared. Speakers use similes to help an audience understand a specific characteristic being described within the speech.
In the case of a metaphor, one of the comparison items is said to be the other (even though this is realistically not possible).
For example, maybe you are talking about a college catalog that offers a wide variety of courses. Unless you are aiming to entertain your audience with fractured use of language, be careful to avoid mixed metaphors. Because speeches are communicated orally, audience members need to hear the core of the message repeated consistently. In the Harry Potter novel series, the author uses alliteration to name the four wizards who founded Hogwarts School for Witchcraft and Wizardry: Godric Gryffindor, Helga Hufflepuff, Rowena Ravenclaw, and Salazar Slytherin.
One of the fastest ways to alienate an audience is through the use of noninclusive language.
There are three common problem areas that speakers run into while speaking: using a€?hea€? as generic, using a€?mana€? to mean all humans, and gender typing jobs. Consider the statement, a€?Every morning when an officer of the law puts on his badge, he risks his life to serve and protect his fellow citizens.a€? In this case, we have a police officer that is labeled as male four different times in one sentence.
In the second half of the twentieth century, as society became more aware of gender bias in language, organizations like the National Council of Teachers of English developed guidelines for nonsexist language.National Council of Teachers of English (2002). It is not unusual for people to assume, for example, that doctors are male and nurses are female. Ethnic identityA group an individual identifies with based on a common culture that is real or assumed. HeterosexismThe presumption that everyone in an audience is heterosexual or that opposite-sex relationships are the only norm.
Table 13.2 "Inclusive Language for Disabilities" provides some other examples of exclusive versus inclusive language.
If you are not comfortable with the language you are using, then you are going to be more nervous speaking, which will definitely have an impact on how your audience receives your speech.
Write down the various groups you belong to in life; how would you want these groups to be referred to by a speaker? The component delivers a ranked list of candidate sentences, either to the language-understanding component or directly to an application.
From babbling to forming words it is all a matter of being exposed to language in order to develop properly. Andrew Newberg of Thomas Jefferson University, only few of the words we read register in our brains and few of the words we speak register in the brain of someone listening to us speak. Language disorders are based upon understand where as speech disorders are based around producing speech sounds correctly. Also knowing what kind of speech error some have can lead to knowing what other disorders may be a cause of this error.
The individuals who are involved with the screening, assessment, and treatment of people with speech disorders are known as Speech-language pathologists. I know that your group probably has to provide more information, but you are definitely off to a good start. Although there are not many topics it seems that you have picked the main ones associated with speaking. It's eye catching, and the information seems to be well organized, and clearly explained.
I would continue to add a little bit more information, as well as, some more charts (for us visual learners) :). I see that your page is well organized, clear, and straight to the point, but still making sure you touch on all your topics.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (61 MB) or just this chapter (3 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). If youa€™re giving a presentation in an engineering class, you can use language that other engineering students will know. If youa€™re giving a speech at an outdoor rally, you cannot use the same language you would use in a classroom. While the word a€?thaumaturgica€? may be accurate, is it the most appropriate for the topic at hand?
The goal of imagery is to help an audience member create a mental picture of what a speaker is saying. Both aspects being compared within a simile are able to remain separate within the comparison. In the first example, we are connecting the type of applause being heard to something supernatural, so we can imagine that the applause was huge and enormous.
Lastly, once you see what two ideas you are comparing, check the mental picture for yourself. In the first one, the comparison is the same as one of our simile examples except that the word a€?likea€? is omitteda€”instead of being like a battlefield, the metaphor states that love is a battlefield, and it is understood that the speaker does not mean the comparison literally. Second, identify what it is that you want to say about the object you are trying to describe.
Repetition as a linguistic device is designed to help audiences become familiar with a short piece of the speech as they hear it over and over again. There are two basic types of alliteration: immediate juxtaposition and nonimmediate juxtaposition. The phrase a€?how now brown cow,a€? which elocution students traditionally used to learn to pronounce rounded vowel sounds, is an example of assonance. Inclusive languageLanguage that avoids placing any one group of people above or below other groups while speaking.
Obviously, both male and female police officers risk their lives when they put on their badges. As a result, they may say a€?she is a woman doctora€? or a€?he is a male nursea€? when mentioning someonea€™s occupation, perhaps not realizing that the statements a€?she is a doctora€? and a€?he is a nursea€? already inform the listener as to the sex of the person holding that job. You may have a hard time speaking genuinely and sincerely if you use unfamiliar language, and this can impair your credibility.
Share your list with a friend or classmate and see if that person reaches the same conclusions you do.
It generates limited-domain vocabularies and grammars from application-supplied examples, and it uses these vocabularies and grammars to transform spoken input into a stream of commands for delivery to the application. It is also important to not that babbling is a way of infants who are not physically able to speak words yet to test out there speech ability from what they hear from others around them.
Disorders like Apraxia is a speech disorder that can cause difficulty putting sounds and syllables together in the correct order to form words. The specific speech disorders that are treated by speech-language pathologists are voice disorders, articulation disorders, and fluency disorders.


You should be going beyond the outline format now, and really expanding on the information. It was well organized, but I think that this page would benefit from a little more information. However, I think there needs to be a little more information on some of the topics, and that the chart is helpful, so maybe add another in a different heading. If youa€™re a first-year college student, therea€™s no need to force yourself to sound like an astrophysicist even if you are giving a speech on new planets. On the other hand, if you use that engineering vocabulary in a public speaking class, many audience members will not understand you. Recall that the speaking context includes the occasion, the time of day, the mood of the audience, and other factors in addition to the physical location.
As another example, if your speech topic is the dual residence model of string theory, it makes sense to expect that you will use more sophisticated language than if your topic was a basic introduction to the physics of, say, sound or light waves.
Good vivid language usage helps an audience member truly understand and imagine what a speaker is saying.
A speaker who uses imagery successfully will tap into one or more of the audiencea€™s five basic senses (hearing, taste, touch, smell, and sight). You could easily stand up and talk about the philosophical work of Rudolf Steiner, who divided the ideas of freedom into freedom of thought and freedom of action.
Now think how you would envision the event if the simile likened the applause to a mime conventiona€”your mental picture changes dramatically, doesna€™t it? In the second example, the accused a€?clams up,a€? which means that the accused refused to talk in the same way a clama€™s shell is closed.
Depending on whether you want your audience to think of the catalog as good or bad, youa€™ll use different words to describe it.
Immediate juxtaposition occurs when the consonants clearly follow one after the othera€”as we see in the Harry Potter example.
While rhymes like a€?free as a breeze,a€? a€?mad as a hatter,a€? and a€?no pain, no gaina€? are examples of assonance, speakers should be wary of relying on assonance because when it is overused it can quickly turn into bad poetry. Speakers sometimes also use a gender-specific pronoun to refer to an occupation that has both males and females.
For example, within the United States we have numerous ethnic groups, including Italian Americans, Irish Americans, Japanese Americans, Vietnamese Americans, Cuban Americans, and Mexican Americans. Furthermore, you want to make sure that the language you are using is familiar to your audience.
If there are differences in your perceptions, why do you think those differences are present?
It also improves language understanding by listening throughout a conversation—not just to explicit commands—and remembering what has been said. Newberg delves further into the dichotomy by stating that words themselves are among the least important things to consider when attempting to speak effectively with others.
Voice disorders are characterized by abnormalities in pitch, volume, vocal quality, or resonance or duration of sounds. One of the biggest mistakes novice speakers make is thinking that they have to use million-dollar words because it makes them sound smarter. As another example, if you are speaking about the Great Depression to an audience of young adults, you cana€™t assume they will know the meaning of terms like a€?New Deala€? and a€?WPA,a€? which would be familiar to an audience of senior citizens. Take the entire speaking context into consideration when you make the language choices for your speech.
Two common ways to make your speaking more vivid are through the use of imagery and rhythm. In the third example, we refer to activists as a€?cropsa€? that arise anew with each growing season, and we use a€?borna€? figuratively to indicate that they come into beinga€”even though it is understood that they are not newborn infants at the time when they become activists.
Lastly, identify the other object you want to compare the first one to, which should mirror the intentions in the second step. Probably the most famous and memorable use of repetition within a speech is Martin Luther King Jr.a€™s use of a€?I have a dreama€? in his speech at the Lincoln Memorial on August 1963 during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Leta€™s look at some common problem areas related to language about gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and disabilities. Table 13.1 "Gender Type Jobs" lists some common gender-specific jobs titles along with more inclusive versions of those job titles. If your audience cannot understand what you are saying, you will not have an effective speech.
Articulation disorders are related to individuals who have difficulty producing speech sounds.
Actually, million-dollar words dona€™t tend to function well in oral communication to begin with, so using them will probably make you uncomfortable as a speaker. In other chapters of this book, we have explained the importance of audience analysis; once again, audience analysis is a key factor in choosing the language to use in a speech. Instead of defining what those terms mean and discussing the philosophical merits of Steiner, you could use real examples where peoplea€™s freedom to think or freedom to behave has been stifled.
Whether someone is striking a drum with a stick or standing in front of a group speaking, rhythm is an important aspect of human communication.
If you want to be safe, the best thing you can do is ask a couple of people who belong to an ethnic group how they prefer to label themselves.
Fluency disorders are associated with impairment in the rate or rhyme of speech, such as stuttering.
Narrative processing in typically developing children and children with early unilateral brain injury: Seeing gesture matters. Also, it may be difficult for you or the audience to understand the nuances of meaning when you use such words, so using them can increase the risk of denotative or connotative misunderstandings. You can always alter the image to make it stronger or weaker depending on what your aim is.
People who are suffering from isolated speech disorders are often treated using articulation therapy, and practice the repetition of certain sounds, words, phrases, and sentences. If you analyze his or her speaking pattern, youa€™ll notice that there is a certain cadence to the speech. While much of this cadence is a result of the nonverbal components of speaking, some of the cadence comes from the language that is chosen as well.
The training consists of developing coordination between speech and breathing, then helps to slow down the rate of speech, which further develops the ability to prolong syllables. Leta€™s examine four types of rhythmic language: parallelism, repetition, alliteration, and assonance. The following example is from Bill Clintona€™s acceptance speech at the 1992 Democratic National Convention: a€?Somewhere at this very moment, a child is being born in America. They can first start to focus on just one single word fluently, and then gradually add more words.
You could further illustrate how Afghani women under the Taliban are forced to adhere to rigid interpretations of Islamic law that functionally limit their behavior.
Let it be our cause to give that child a happy home, a healthy family, and a hopeful future.a€?Clinton, W. This process slowly increases the amount and difficulty of the person's speech, without stuttering. As illustrations of the two freedoms discussed by Steiner, these examples make things more concrete for audience members and thus easier to remember. Ultimately, the goal of concreteness is to show an audience something instead of talking about it abstractly.



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