Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA) measures whether entry-level education leaders have the standards-relevant knowledge believed necessary for competent professional practice. Karamu High School continues to gather momentum in the Hastings community by providing a full range of educational opportunities complimented by strong student leadership. Decentralisation of decision-making from central offices to school sites has been a world-wide trend in education in recent years. As Western Australian state education has undergone reforms that have seen a devolution of power from the Central Office to schools, the quality of the leadership in schools has become increasingly important.
The study was of a school undergoing major voluntary restructuring in response to the reform of Western Australian state education. The research focused specifically upon the nature of the leadership behaviour that became manifest in the case study situation.
The models imply the need for a principal to consider both structure and culture in the school environment. A definition of leadership has proven difficult but there have been various degrees of agreement between different writers.
The ability to influence is the objective of a leader, and a wide range of "political, symbolic, participatory and bureaucratic approaches can be used to fit the situation" (Kiernan, 1989, p.2). Implicit in this statement is that all individuals have the potential to lead an organisation. The research on effective schools indicates that the principals of effective schools include staff members in decision-making and problem-solving.
The reported study considered these concepts as they applied to a school undergoing a voluntary restructuring in response to the system-wide restructuring in Western Australia. A primary need was to find a single frame of reference upon which to reduce the data in a way consistent with the phenomenon and the research questions. The Leadership Setting was described from the perspective of the nominal head of the system, the principal. The third layer, the Leadership Scenario, dealt with the interventions as they occurred over time. As the first step, the observed leadership behaviour was analysed using the theory of Situational Leadership (Hersey and Blanchard, 1982) and the power bases used by the leaders were defined by using the work of Hersey, Blanchard and Natemeyer (1979).
In this study the actual observable, determinable leadership - termed tactical interventions - were recorded.
When these strategies used by the leaders were analysed as part of the second step of the analysis, it was found that the leadership did change over time, as Handy (1985) suggested it would. The categorisation of these strategies comprised the third step of the analysis and was completed by considering them to be the application of the leadership forces proposed by Sergiovanni (1984). The strategies used by the various leaders were each categorised according to Sergiovanni's (1984) Hierarchy of Leadership Forces, and a leadership profile for each was drawn. This leadership profile, shown in Figure 4, indicates the use of the three lower- level forces in Sergiovanni's (1984) profile - those described by that author as being required for a school to be 'competent'.
In describing the types of behaviours that would fall into the human frame, Sergiovanni (1984) considered actions such as supporting, building morale and embarking on collaborative decision-making. The case study was conducted in a situation of great change, both external to and internal to the school. The acceptance of the proposition that a principal does not have to use all of Sergiovanni's (1984) forces in the triangular proportions has major implications for principals. If the skills and talents of these individuals are used by the delegation or sharing of power, principals can magnify their own power and improve the effectiveness of their schools. By using the multiplicity of skills and talents that exist in a school, excellence can really be aspired to. The way that the leadership at the research site was shared is reflected in some of the current literature. This paper has reported research conducted in Western Australian district high schools during 1989. There are implications for practising principals arising from the study that are supported by literature produced since the study's conclusion. Author: Chris Elliott has worked in the WA Ministry of Education as teacher and deputy principal. Williamsburg-James City County Schools will not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or any other basis prohibited by law in its educational programs, activities or employment.
This is a review session that I hold that documents what an education leader may encounter. This trend has been followed in the reform of education in Western Australia in the late 1980s. The research reported here was conducted during 1989 as part of a Master of Education degree completed by the author. A second school, which had already implemented changes similar to those in the case study school, was used as a reference point for the first school. A major finding from the study was that multiple leaders were found to emerge in the schools.


Shipman (1990) described this necessity and the need for principals to provide direction and empowerment. Leadership was defined as the guiding or showing of the way, or the showing of the method of attaining an object. However, leadership is not something that is attributed to individuals due to their formal position in an organisation.
Broadly speaking, the research was established within the naturalistic research paradigm as a "bounded case study" (Adelmen, Jenkins and Kemmis, 1976) in which the case was selected as an instance drawn from a class.
The selected approach was the single concept intervention and mapping categorisation technique developed by Hyde (1985), and Hyde's conceptual framework was adapted for the study reported here.
The layers related to the initial and emergent leaders and were related to the leadership theory. These individuals were considered with regard to their personal traits, the contingencies that occurred, and their preferred leadership styles. The adaptation of Hyde's (1985) framework occurred at this layer, to fit with the investigation of the leadership that was being studied. The placement of the influences on the continuum could only be approximate, but their relative positions were important. The study proposed that the change in leadership behaviour occurred because the unease in situations was perceived, consciously or unconsciously, by leaders experiencing a poor degree of fit. Sergiovanni (1984) asserted that a principal, in order to aspire to excellence, must use each of the forces in the proportions suggested by a triangular-shaped model.
When the data from the research were categorised, it was found that one of the leaders identified in the study displayed a leadership profile similar to that described by Sergiovanni (1984) as being required for excellence. The leader exhibiting this type of leadership showed relatively large proportions of cultural, symbolic and human levels of leadership. These leadership forces were delegated to others, predominantly to those who exhibited the leadership profile named 'The Technocrat'.
Smaller proportions of educational leadership and technical leadership were observed, but no cultural or symbolic leadership. The school appeared to be operating quite effectively, but with one exception the leadership profiles were quite different from those proposed by Sergiovanni (1984).
In such a situation, power relations, power positions and power relativities were in a state of flux. The research by Vandenberghe (1988) and Hall (1988) found that multiple leaders existed in change situations and could actually enhance the change process. One of the principals in the study stated, "If I ran everything in the school I'd have a 20 horse-power school.
These authors went on to state, "Change is more likely to be positive and to be successful where it occurs amongst a body of colleagues who as far as possible share a perception of the need for change and agree, broadly, on directions for change" (p.15).
The leadership profiles, as were drawn in this study, may vary from site to site according to situations and personnel, but there will be a number of leaders at any given site, and it is the aggregate of the leadership that is most significant. The study was of a school undergoing a major voluntary restructuring and involved a high degree of participative decision making. These implications revolve around what Schuler (1989) described as relating to empowerment, "the deliberate attempt to provide teachers with the right, the resources and the responsibility to make sensible decisions and informed professional judgments that reflect their circumstances" (p.1). Each of the questions in this powerpoint focus on a specific content area related to the standards addressed in ISLLC 2008. This study reports on a school undergoing major voluntary restructuring in response to the Western Australian reforms.
The changes that occurred in these schools were possible due to the devolution of power from the Central Office to schools and were of a similar nature to those that have occurred in countries all around the world. Four models, which described the leadership behaviour observed in the study, were developed.
A principal seeking to renew or change an organisation must "lead, but encourage others to take initiatives" (p.147). Such leadership is often the collective task of the principal along with other members of the organisation. Data collection procedures, including observation, interview, audio tape recording, field note-taking and document collection, were used so that a "tolerably full" understanding of the case could be achieved. The layers could be progressively peeled to reveal the detail existing and occurring in the layers below. These two top layers established the framework in which the observed activities of the case study could be explained.
The strategies used related to the goals, images and functioning of the school, to the power and functioning of sub- groups within the school, and to individuals' power positions.
Such a leader spent large amounts of time espousing a vision for the school and stating and supporting the school mission statement. However, it was found that when the leadership in the school was aggregated, that is, the leadership profile drawn by including leadership acts regardless of the identity of the leader, the result was a leadership profile, shown in Figure 6, that approximated the one suggested by Sergiovanni (1984) and that of 'The Model' shown in Figure 2.
Efforts to suppress such leadership are not only likely to be counterproductive and divisive, but will involve the application of effort in other directions rather than being directed at school goals. The principal aspiring to be the principal of an excellent school will need to share power, encourage the involvement of others, and show cultural leadership in the process.


As indicated in most of the current literature on leadership, the task of the principal is to provide the direction and vision for the organisation, and to ensure that all who wish to participate in decision making have the opportunity to do so. Four models of leadership, which together characterised the leadership in the school, were developed.
His MEd thesis focused on school leadership in change situations and involved the testing of Sergiovanni's models on leadership. In answering the questions, candidates are required to analyze situations and data, propose appropriate courses of action and provide rationales for their proposals.
A key finding of this study was that the principal of the school does not need to display leadership in all of the frames suggested by Sergiovanni (1984), as long as that leadership exists among the multiple leaders of the school.
The reforms can be considered as part of the world-wide trend towards the devolution of decision making from central offices to school sites. These models describe how the shared leadership was manifested in one particular situation and offer insights into the possible sharing of leadership and application of participative decision-making. This was found to occur in the reported study and is clearly reflected in the models developed.
The profile similar to that proposed by Sergiovanni (1985) was called 'The Model', and is shown in Figure 2. Such a leader may be considered as a negative influence on a school, but this may not be the case. In some cases, particularly with leaders having 'The Politician' leadership profile, leadership interventions involving power constituted more than half of their leadership acts.
The difference between Figure 2 and Figure 6 is that the former represents the leadership of one participant, while the latter represents the aggregation of the leadership shown by all of the participants. The emergence of leaders such as 'The Politician' is a perfectly natural occurrence in a situation of great change.
The principal who accepts the existence of emergent leaders (who are permitted by their peers to exert power) can use this knowledge to advantage.
Educational leadership, human leadership, technical leadership and even symbolic leadership were shown by a number of individuals. By combining the theory from a number of sources, the study provides a new perspective on the practice of participative decision making and of leadership as a shared phenomenon.
The development of a structural model for the analysis of school-based curriculum development. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council of State Inservice Education, San Antonio, TX, November 1989. Chris is currently working on his PhD at the University of Alberta under the supervision of Professor Irwin Miklos.
There are implications for practising principals in these findings, particularly in the light of current trends in education, world wide. Thus, only the observed behaviour that consisted of interventions that were aimed at the guiding or showing of the way of achieving an end were recorded as tactical interventions. Like the framework as a whole, this layer was designed so that each of the levels could be understood in terms of the other levels.
According to Handy (1985), effective leaders in situations of poor fit will modify their behaviour or the task to accommodate the situation and improve the fit. In the uncertainty of change situations, we can expect conflict and organisational politics to occur. Instead of ignoring or trying to suppress emergent leaders, the principal can encourage them and promote their personal and professional development. However, Sergiovanni (1984) described the leader who showed leadership at the highest level of his hierarchy as the 'high priest'.
Paper presented at the Second Annual Showcase of Excellence in Staff Development by the National Council of States for Inservice Education, San Antonio, TX. The effect of such behaviour was also recorded, as the results of leadership actions were essential to the study.
The data collection involved the observation of incidents at the school, and data reduction was assisted through the use of this conceptual framework. Such a leader was described by Harrison and Maclntosh (1989) as a 'prophet' and a 'visionary' who is the embodiment of what the organisation aspires to. Implementing shared leadership in school-based management: Barriers to changing traditional behaviour. Of the two individuals in the study who exhibited this kind of leadership, the principal who had 'The Guru' leadership profile exhibited a greater degree of cultural leadership.
Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA, April 1990.



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