Britain's oldest twins, Alice and Nellie Clarke, are celebrating their 100th birthday, beating odds of 700 million to one.
The identical twins, who travelled the world together in their youth, marked the occasion with a garden party at a retirement home in Eccles, Greater Manchester.
They joked with staff and fellow residents as they tucked into strawberries and cream to the sound of a New Orleans big band.
The sisters, who never married, say the secret of a long life is happiness and togetherness. On receiving birthday congratulations from the Queen, they said they were honoured but neither could believe they had reached 100. They were two of three daughters of successful Manchester wholesaler William Clarke and his wife Adelaide. They had no need to work but chose to run a dress shop and volunteered to be ambulance drivers in World War II. They cruised the Mediterranean at the height of the Depression but promised never to fly until hooks were invented to hold up the aeroplanes. The retirement home's nurse manager Geraldine Lythgoe said the pair were great fun to be with.
Alice and Nellie cared for their parents until they died and outlived their younger sister Queenie.
Their birthday has earned them a place in the Book of Guinness World Records as the UK's oldest living twins. A spokeswoman for the publication said the chances of identical twins reaching 100 were one in 700 million. Elias Ashmole was an antiquarian, collector, politician, and student of astrology and alchemy. Samuel Johnson (1709a€“1784) often referred to as "Dr Johnson", was a British author who has been described as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history". Richard Cordray (born 1959) is an American lawyer and Democratic Party politician who has served since 2012 as the first Director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.
Herbert Armitage James (1844a€“1931) was a Welsh cleric and headmaster of three leading public schools, who ended his career by becoming President of St John's College, Oxford. Margaret Thatcher (1925a€“2013) served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. Richard Dawkins (born 1941) is a British biological theorist with a background in ethology.
Cosmo Gordon Lang (1864a€“1945) was an Anglican clergyman who served as Archbishop of York and Archbishop of Canterbury.
Lieutenant General Sir Edmund Francis Herring (1892a€“1982) was an Australian Army officer during the Second World War, lieutenant governor of Victoria, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Victoria.
Sir Bernard Williams (1929a€“2003) was an English moral philosopher, described by The Times as the "most brilliant and most important British moral philosopher of his time".
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield (1705a€“1793) was a British barrister, politician and judge noted for his reform of English law. John Marshall Harlan (1899a€“1971) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Sir Matthew Hale (1609a€“1676) was an influential English barrister, judge and jurist most noted for his treatise Historia Placitorum CoronA¦. Susanna Clarke (born 1959) is a British author best known for her debut novel Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell (2004), an alternate history which won the Hugo Award for Best Novel. Sir Wilfrid Kent Hughes (1895a€“1970) was an Australian soldier, Olympian and Olympic Games organiser, and politician. Edward VIII (1894a€“1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V, on 20 January 1936, until his abdication on 11 December 1936. John Brooke-Little (1927a€“2006) was an influential and popular writer on heraldic subjects and a long-serving officer of arms at the College of Arms in London, England.
Edward VII (1841a€“1910) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910.
Philip Larkin (1922a€“1985) is widely regarded as one of the greatest English poets of the latter half of the 20th century. Claud Schuster, 1st Baron Schuster (1869a€“1956) was a British barrister and civil servant noted for his long tenure as Permanent Secretary to the Lord Chancellor's Office. David Lewis (1909a€“1981) was a Russian-born Canadian labour lawyer and social democratic politician. Alice got a speeding ticket at the age of 91 with Nellie beside her as "co-pilot" and they only moved out of their own home eight weeks ago.
They are very dignified and both have their own personalities - they are marvellous," she said. For example, if 41 articles are in rotation, you would make the number of the article you are creating 42. He supported the royalist side during the English Civil War, and at the restoration of Charles II he was rewarded with several lucrative offices. He is also the subject of "the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature": James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson. He was a Marshall Scholar at Brasenose College from 1981 to 1983, and won his "Blue" in basketball. After education at Jesus College and Lincoln College, Oxford, he taught at Marlborough College, then became headmaster of Rossall School, where it was said that he raised the school "to a pitch of all-round excellence which it had not known before".
He studied at Balliol College, Oxford from 1882 to 1886, was President of the Oxford Union and co-founder of the Oxford University Dramatic Society. A Rhodes Scholar, Herring was at New College, Oxford when the First World War broke out and served with the Royal Field Artillery on the Macedonian front, for which he was awarded the Military Cross and Distinguished Service Order. He was the author of 11 books of philosophy, including Problems of the Self (1973), Moral Luck (1981), Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy (1985), and Truth And Truthfulness: An Essay In Genealogy (2002).
Born to Scottish nobility, he was educated in Perth, Scotland and at Westminster School, London.
After graduating from Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, Lawson worked as a book reviewer and restaurant critic, later becoming the deputy literary editor of The Sunday Times. He studied at Magdalen College, Oxford, although his studies were disrupted by his service in the First World War. He studied at Magdalen Hall, Oxford and became a barrister, representing various Royalist figures during the English Civil War. After studying at St Hilda's College, Oxford, Clarke worked in publishing and then taught English in Italy and in Spain. He graduated from St Mary Hall, Oxford, in 1578 before making observations of the variations of the compass off the coast of Newfoundland.
As a young man he studied briefly at Magdalen College, Oxford, served in World War I, undertook several foreign tours on behalf of his father, and was associated with a succession of older married women.
In 1947, while still a student, Brooke-Little founded the "Society of Heraldic Antiquaries", now known as The Heraldry Society and recognized as one of the leading learned societies in its field. He was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, later renamed the House of Windsor. After graduating from St John's College, Oxford in 1943, Larkin became a librarian, and it was during the 30 years he spent running the library at the University of Hull that he produced the greater part of his published work.
From the early 20th century until his death, Beecham was a major influence on the musical life of Britain and, according to Neville Cardus, was the first British conductor to have a regular international career. Schuster studied history at New College, Oxford before joining the Inner Temple to become a barrister. He was national secretary of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) from 1936 to 1950, and was one of the key architects of the New Democratic Party (NDP) in 1961. Johnson attended Pembroke College, Oxford for just over a year, before his lack of funds forced him to leave. He later became Editor-in-Chief of the University of Chicago Law Review, and a law clerk for the U.
He spent 34 years in the Army and the Department of Defense, receiving many military decorations, several honorary knighthoods, and a Presidential Medal of Freedom. Born in Grantham in Lincolnshire, England, she read chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford and later trained as a barrister. He came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which popularised the gene-centred view of evolution.
Auden (1907a€“1973) was an Anglo-American poet regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. As Archbishop of Canterbury during the abdication crisis of 1936 he took a strong moral stance, and comments he made in a subsequent broadcast were widely condemned as uncharitable towards the departed king.
He is principally remembered for his efforts in promoting and supporting the settlement of North America by the English through his works, notably Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America (1582) and The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques and Discoueries of the English Nation (1598a€“1600).
He studied Literae Humaniores at Balliol College, Oxford before becoming a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford.


After working as a freelance journalist, Lawson brought out her first cookery book, How to Eat, which sold 300,000 copies and became a bestseller.
Harlan was a student at Upper Canada College, Appleby College, Princeton University, and Balliol College, Oxford. He then began his legal career, distinguishing himself as a barrister and becoming a King's Counsel in 1938.
His reputation for integrity saved him from repercussions under the Commonwealth of England and Oliver Cromwell made him a Justice of the Common Pleas. His studies at Christ Church, Oxford as a Rhodes scholar were delayed by service in the army in World War I. He later travelled with Thomas Cavendish on a circumnavigation of the globe, taking the opportunity to measure latitudes.
He served as the society's chairman for 50 years and then as its President from 1997 until his death in 2006. He came to prominence in 1955 with his second collection of poems, The Less Deceived, followed by The Whitsun Weddings (1964) and High Windows (1974). He came from a wealthy industrial family: his grandfather had founded Beecham's Pills, and Beecham was born in the house adjoining the factory. Practising in Liverpool, Schuster was not particularly successful, and he joined Her Majesty's Civil Service in 1899 as secretary to the Chief Commissioner of the Local Government Act Commission. Many of these he acquired from the traveller, botanist, and collector John Tradescant the elder and his son. Tolkien was a British writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. After working as a teacher he moved to London, where he began to write miscellaneous pieces for The Gentleman's Magazine. Clark, who was valedictorian of his class at West Point, was a Rhodes Scholar at Magdalen College, Oxford where he earned a master's degree in Economics, and later graduated from the Command and General Staff College with a master's degree in military science.
He then returned to teaching, becoming headmaster of Cheltenham College and then of Rugby School, where he served to great acclaim. In 1982, he developed this view in The Extended Phenotype: The Gene as the Unit of Selection, emphasizing that the phenotypic effects of genes are not necessarily limited to an organism's body but can stretch via biochemistry and behaviour into other organisms and the environment.
He grew up in Birmingham in a professional middle class family and read English literature at Christ Church, Oxford. In his early ministry Lang served in slum parishes in Leeds and Portsmouth before his appointment in 1901 as Bishop of Stepney in London.
Educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, between 1583 and 1588 Hakluyt was chaplain and secretary to Sir Edward Stafford, English ambassador at the French court. As Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge and Deutsch Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, Williams became known internationally for his attempt to reorient the study of moral philosophy to history and culture, politics and psychology, and, in particular, to the Greeks. Returning to London from Oxford, he was called to the Bar by Lincoln's Inn in 1730, and quickly gained a reputation as an excellent barrister. For her second book, How to be a Domestic Goddess, she won the British Book Award for Author of The Year. He became a judge in 1944 with an appointment to the Family Division of the High Court of Justice and was made a Lord Justice of Appeal in 1948 after fewer than five years in the High Court. He was noted for his resistance to bribery and his willingness to make politically unpopular decisions which upheld the law. For the next decade, she published short stories from the Strange universe, but it was not until 2003 that Bloomsbury bought her manuscript and began work on its publication.
In 1589, Hues went on the Earl of Cumberland's raiding expedition to the Azores to capture Spanish galleons. He also refounded the Oxford University Heraldry Society during his time at New College, Oxford. Before his accession to the throne, Edward held the title of Prince of Wales and was heir apparent to the throne for longer than anyone else in history. He declined the position of poet laureate in 1984, following the death of John Betjeman; he died in the following year and is buried at Cottingham near Hull (gravestone pictured). After serving as secretary to several more commissions, he was made Permanent Secretary to the Lord Chancellor's Office in 1915.
Lewis's politics were heavily influenced by the Jewish Labour Bund, which contributed to his support of parliamentary democracy.
He was Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford from 1925 to 1945, and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, also at Oxford, from 1945 to 1959. Clark commanded Operation Allied Force in the Kosovo War during his term as the Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO from 1997 to 2000.
He left Rugby School in 1909 to become President of St John's College, Oxford, a position he held until his death 22 years later. When Edward Heath formed a government in 1970, he appointed Thatcher Secretary of State for Education and Science.
His early poems, written in the late 1920s and early 1930s, alternated between telegraphic modern styles and fluent traditional ones, were written in an intense and dramatic tone, and established his reputation as a left-wing political poet and prophet.
In 1908 Lang was nominated Archbishop of York, despite his relatively junior status as a suffragan bishop.
During the Second World War, he commanded the 6th Division Artillery in the Western Desert Campaign and the Battle of Greece. Oxford philosopher Gilbert Ryle once said of him that he "understands what you're going to say better than you understand it yourself, and sees all the possible objections to it, all the possible answers to all the possible objections, before you've got to the end of your sentence". He became involved in politics in 1742, beginning with his election as MP for Boroughbridge, and appointment as Solicitor General. In 2000, she began to host her own cookery series on Channel 4, Nigella Bites, which was accompanied with another bestselling cookery book.
Attorney for the Southern District of New York and as Special Assistant Attorney General of New York. He became a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary in 1957 and after five years in the House of Lords returned to the Court of Appeal as Master of the Rolls in 1962, a position he held for twenty years. When Charles II was reinstated, Hale was made Chief Baron of the Exchequer and then Chief Justice of the King's Bench. Elected to the Victorian state parliament in 1927, Kent Hughes rose to the position of Deputy Premier of Victoria. On a further circumnavigation, Hues made astronomical observations while in the South Atlantic, and also observed the variation of the compass there and at the Equator.
Simpson and remained king, his various prime ministers opposed the marriage, arguing that the people would never accept her as queen. Brooke-Little was involved in other heraldic groups and societies and worked for many years as an officer of arms, writing at least ten books on heraldry and related topics. During the long widowhood of his mother, Queen Victoria, he was largely excluded from political power and came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite.
His poems are marked by what Andrew Motion calls a very English, glum accuracy about emotions, places, and relationships, and what Donald Davie described as lowered sights and diminished expectations.
He used the money at his disposal to transform the operatic scene in England from the 1910s until the start of World War II, staging seasons at Covent Garden, Drury Lane and His Majesty's Theatre with international stars, his own hand-picked orchestra and a wide range of repertoire.
Schuster served in this position for twenty-nine years under ten different Lord Chancellors, and was called "one of the most influential Permanent Secretaries of the 20th century". He was an avowed anti-communist, and while a Rhodes Scholar at Lincoln College, Oxford, prevented communist domination of the university's Labour Club. Boswell's Life, along with other biographies, documented Johnson's behaviour and mannerisms in such detail that they have informed the posthumous diagnosis of Tourette syndrome, a condition not defined in the 18th century.
He was a member of the Ohio House of Representatives (1991a€“93) before he was appointed by the office of the Ohio Attorney General as the first Ohio State Solicitor.
Clark joined the 2004 race for the Democratic Party presidential nomination as a drafted candidate on September 17, 2003, but withdrew from the primary race on February 11, 2004, and campaigned for the eventual Democratic nominee, John Kerry. He was a highly respected teacher and preacher, and was widely praised for his work in education.
In his 1986 book The Blind Watchmaker, he argued against the watchmaker analogy, an argument for the existence of a supernatural creator based upon the complexity of living organisms. He became uncomfortable in this role in the later 1930s, and abandoned it after he moved to the United States in 1939, where he became an American citizen in 1946.
At the start of World War I, Lang was heavily criticised for a speech in which he spoke sympathetically of Kaiser Wilhelm II. He was the chief promoter of a petition to James I for letters patent to colonize Virginia, which were granted to the London Company and Plymouth Company (referred to collectively as the Virginia Company) in 1606.
In the absence of a strong Attorney General, he became the main spokesman for the government in the House of Commons, and was described as "beyond comparison the best speaker" in the House of Commons. The series won her a Guild of Food Writers Award; her 2005 ITV daytime chat show was cancelled after attracting low ratings.
In 1954 Harlan was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, and a year later president Dwight Eisenhower nominated Harlan to the Supreme Court.


One of the most publicly known judges thanks to his report on the Profumo Affair, Lord Denning was held in high regard by much of the judiciary, the Bar and the public. In both positions, he was again noted for his integrity, although not as particularly innovative.
Two years later, she published a collection of her short stories, The Ladies of Grace Adieu and Other Stories (2006). Kent Hughes proved to be a controversial figure in politics, and was never afraid to publicly espouse his personal beliefs, such as an admiration for fascism, of which he had a poor understanding.
In 1594, Hues published his discoveries in Tractatus de globis et eorum usu (Treatise on Globes and their Use) which was written to encourage English sailors to use practical astronomical navigation.
Edward knew that the ministry of British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin would resign if the marriage went ahead; this could have dragged the King into a general election thus ruining irreparably his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch. After serving on the Earl Marshall's staff for the coronation of Elizabeth II in 1953, he started his heraldic career as Bluemantle Pursuivant, and worked his way up to the second-highest heraldic office in Englanda€“Clarenceux King of Arms. The Edwardian period of his reign, named after him, heralded significant changes in technology and society, including powered flight and the rise of socialism and the Labour movement. Larkin's public persona was that of the no-nonsense, solitary Englishman who disliked fame and had no patience for the trappings of the public literary life. In the concert hall, London still has two orchestras founded by Beecham: the London Philharmonic and the Royal Philharmonic. His influence led to criticism and suspicions that he was a "power behind the throne", which culminated in a verbal attack by the Lord Chief Justice Lord Hewart in 1934 during a session of the House of Lords.
He helped draft the Winnipeg Declaration, which modernized the CCF's economic policies to include an acceptance of capitalism, though under the eye of government regulators. Apart from his collecting activities, Ashmole illustrates the passing of the pre-scientific world view in the 17th century: while he immersed himself in alchemical, magical and astrological studies and was consulted on astrological questions by Charles II and his court, these studies were essentially backward-looking. In addition to The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien's published fiction includes The Silmarillion and other posthumously published books about what he called a legendarium, a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, and other literary essays about an imagined world called Arda, and Middle-earth. In 1994, Cordray left his appointed position to pursue private law practice before becoming Franklin County Treasurer in 2002, then Ohio State Treasurer in 2006.
At the 1979 general election she became Britain's first female Prime Minister, determined to reverse what she perceived as a precipitate national decline. Instead, he described a dysteleological perspective on the process of evolution by natural selection as "blind", without a design or a goal.
His poems in the 1940s explored religious and ethical themes in a less dramatic manner than his earlier works, but still combined traditional forms and styles with new forms devised by Auden himself. After the war he supported controversial proposals for the revision of the Book of Common Prayer, but after acceding to Canterbury he took no practical steps to resolve this issue.
With the promotion of Sir Dudley Ryder to Lord Chief Justice in 1754, he became Attorney General, and when Ryder unexpectedly died several months later, he took his place as Chief Justice. In the United States in 2006, Lawson hosted the Food Network's Nigella Feasts, followed by a three-part BBC Two series, Nigella's Christmas Kitchen, in the United Kingdom.
In retirement he wrote several books and continued to offer opinions on the state of the common law through his writing and his position in the House of Lords.
Hale is almost universally appreciated as an excellent judge and jurist, with his central legacy coming through his written work, published after his death. Both Clarke's novel and her short stories are set in a magical England and written in a pastiche of the styles of 19th-century writers such as Jane Austen and Charles Dickens.
He re-enlisted in the army at the outbreak of World War II but spent four years as a Japanese prisoner of war. He became a servant of Thomas Grey, 15th Baron Grey de Wilton, staying with him when Grey was imprisoned in the Tower of London for participating in the Bye Plot. He ended his heraldic career without ever having attained the highest office, Garter King of Arms, or being honoured with a knighthood. He fostered good relations between Great Britain and other European countries, especially France, for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker", but his relationship with his nephew, Wilhelm II of Germany, was poor. The posthumous publication by Anthony Thwaite in 1992 of his letters triggered controversy about his personal life and reactionary political views. He had a central role in uniting the labour movement with the creation of the Canadian Labour Congress in 1956.
Although he was one of the founding members of the Royal Society, a key institution in the development of experimental science, he never participated actively.
In November 2008, he was elected to serve as Ohio Attorney General starting January 8, 2009, for the remainder of the unexpired term ending January 2011. He was described by Austen Chamberlain (the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs) as "one of the greatest and most forceful characters who had ever devoted himself to education".
Amid a recession and high unemployment, Thatcher's popularity decreased, though economic recovery and the 1982 Falklands War brought a resurgence of support and she was re-elected in 1983 and in 1987.
In his 2006 million-selling book The God Delusion, he contended that a supernatural creator almost certainly does not exist, writing that such beliefs, based on faith rather than on evidence, qualify as a delusion.
In the 1950s and 1960s many of his poems focused on the ways in which words revealed and concealed emotions, and he took a particular interest in writing opera librettos. As Archbishop of Canterbury he presided over the 1930 Lambeth Conference, which gave limited church approval to the use of contraception.
Herring left his corps to become the longest serving Chief Justice and Lieutenant Governor of Victoria, serving for three decades. He modernised both English law and the English courts system, and has been called the founder of English commercial law. He advocated a limited role for the judiciary, remarking that the Supreme Court should not be considered "a general haven for reform movements". During his 38-year career as a judge he made large changes to the common law, particularly while in the Court of Appeal.
His Analysis of the Common Law is the first published history of English law and a strong influence on William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, whilst his jurisprudence struck a middle-ground between Edward Coke's "appeal to reason" and John Selden's "appeal to contract", while refuting elements of Thomas Hobbes's theory of natural law. While Strange focuses on the relationship of two men, Jonathan Strange and Gilbert Norrell, the stories in Ladies focus on the power women gain through magic. Kent Hughes returned to Victorian state politics until switching to federal politics in 1949. Following Grey's death in 1614, Hues attended upon Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland, when he was confined in the Tower.
Edward presciently suspected that Wilhelm would precipitate a war, and four years after Edward's death, World War I brought an end to the Edwardian way of life.
Despite this, Larkin was chosen in a 2003 Poetry Book Society survey as Britain's best-loved poet of the previous 50 years, and in 2008 The Times named him as the country's greatest post-war writer. Despite being officially retired he continued to work in government circles, such as with the Allied Commission for Austria and by using his seat in the House of Lords as a way to criticise legislation directly. The enduring popularity and influence of Tolkien's works have established him as the "father of modern fantasy literature". After his death, some of his poems, notably "Funeral Blues" ("Stop all the clocks") and "September 1, 1939", became widely known through films, broadcasts and popular media.
He is perhaps best known for his judgment in Somersett's Case, where he held that slavery was unlawful in England. In general, Harlan adhered more closely to precedent, and was more reluctant to overturn legislation, than many of his colleagues on the Court. His thoughts on marital rape, expressed in the Historia, continued in English law until 1991, and he was cited in court as recently as 1993.
He was appointed a Minister in the federal government led by Robert Menzies but complained his responsibilities were trifling. His specialities included composers whose works were rarely played in Britain before Beecham became their advocate, such as Frederick Delius and Hector Berlioz. Tolkien's other published fiction includes stories not directly related to the legendarium, some of them originally told to his children.
She resigned as Prime Minister in November 1990 after Michael Heseltine's challenge to her leadership of the Conservative Party. Renowned for her flirtatious manner of presenting, Lawson has been called the "queen of food porn". Harlan is sometimes called the "great dissenter" of the Warren Court, and has been described as one of the most influential Supreme Court justices in the 20th century. More interesting to him was the chairmanship of the 1956 Summer Olympics Organising Committee; his role has led sporting historians to refer to him as "one of the most important figures in Olympic History". He was known for his wit, and many "Beecham stories" are still told fifty years after his death.



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