Over the years many theories have been developed to examine the processes involved in learning.  Most learning theories concentrate on the significance for the way that learning is delivered. Furthermore people learn differently at different times in their lives and in different circumstances. This approach to learning is based on the idea that learners respond to stimuli in their environment.  The role of the learning facilitator, therefore, is to provide relevant and useful stimuli so that the learner responds to and gains the required knowledge or experience.
The behaviourist approach to learning centres around the belief that appropriate behaviour can be taught through constant repetition of a task combined with feedback from the facilitator.  Positive feedback encourages and reinforces success while negative feedback and immediate correction discourages the repetition of a mistake or undesirable behaviour. This kind of conditioning can be used to develop repetitive actions within training, for example looking in the mirror and putting your seatbelt on before driving off in a car.
One of the main ways to use the behavioural approach to learning in training and teaching is to specify clear behavioural objectives at the start and then supply learning opportunities that ensure that the objectives are met. Behaviourist theories of learning essentially stress the importance of the assertiveness of the tutor, and the passive participant who is not given a great deal of choice other than to respond in a predetermined way.
The tutor (if present) and the participant both engage with knowledge; the role of the tutor is choosing the best method to convey understanding. Teachers or trainers employing Dewey's approach to learning play a key role in learner's development, but in a more indirect way than that implied in the behaviourist model.  For example, planning sessions that encourage interaction with the material presented and reflective thinking, as well as creating a climate whereby students or trainees can structure their own learning. An emphasis on active learning is at the core of these humanistic approaches to learning.  The terms 'andragogy' and 'pedagogy' highlight the difference between earlier models of training and the more usual approach nowadays. Pedagogy and andragogy are terms derived from the Greek words meaning 'child' and 'man' respectively. The existing experiences of the learner are fundamental for understanding and new learning to take place effectively. The orientation to learning is paramount: in other words, it is not subject-orientated but learner centred.
The experiential model of learning that David Kolb proposes, underpins much of the work of modern adult training providers.
Essentially, Kolb believes that learning is a dynamic process, in which we are constantly able to construct our own learning and development by moving through the following cycle. In training terms, therefore, learning is facilitated if the course content and process key into participants' existing experience and are so designed to encourage reflection and the formation of new concepts.
The Actions or Tasks People Choose:  Individuals will be more inclined to undertake tasks in which they have strong expectations and less inclined to do those linked to weak expectations. The implications for training design are various and include setting realistic, but not too easy goals, in order that people can feel they have achieved something, and ensuring that people have support and reward for their learning in either in workplace or in other training and learning environments.
In principle, there is also a clear distinction between competencybased pay and individual performance-related pay. There are many different types of competencies and these can be classified along a number of dimensions.3 The first dimension is that of generality, meaning how general or specific the competency is. This entry was posted in HR Compensation and tagged Compensation and Benefits, Compensation and Benefits Manager, Compensation and Benefits Manager certification, Competency-based pay on by .
A product roadmap is a high-level, strategic plan, which provides a longer-term outlook on the product. Unfortunately, I find that many product managers and product owners struggle with their roadmaps, as they are dominated by features: There are too many features, and the features are often too detailed.
Faced with this situation, I have developed a new goal-oriented agile roadmap a€” the GO product roadmap, or a€?GOa€? for short.A GO is based on my experience of teaching and coaching product managers and product owners, as well as using product roadmaps in my own business.
The first row of the GO roadmap depicted above contains the date or timeframe for the upcoming releases.
The second row states the name or version of the releases, for instance, iOS 7 or Windows 8.1. The third row provides the goal of each release, the reason why it is worthwhile to develop and launch it.
The last row states the metrics, the measurements or key performance indicators (KPIs) that help determine if the goal has been met, and if the release was successful.
To illustrate how the GO template can be applied, imagine we are about to develop a new dance game for girls aged eight to 12 years.
While the roadmap above will have to be updated and refined at a later stage (particularly the metrics), I find it good enough to show how the product may evolve and make an investment decision. When creating your GO roadmap make sure you determine the goal of each release before you identify the features. For me, it’s important to have a set of tools like GO, Product Canvas, Backlog or Vision Board, which do not compete with each other. In the example in my post, the sequence of creating the different artefacts would be: Vision Board -> GO Product Roadmap -> Product Canvas -> Version 1. We are totally committed to helping organizations and individuals in all fields of contemporary business and commerce become more effective in everything they do.
We recognize that different kinds of leaders need different kinds of coaching to reach their personal and organization’s goals. Our valued clients tell us that they enjoy greater benefit by dealing with us – a single organization providing teams of motivated professional coaches, trainers and facilitators that provide services customized to their requirements. PanStadia & Arena Management Magazine is the undisputed world leader for the business of stadia, arenas, sporting events and venues on a global scale.
The unofficial race to host NBA basketball between Sacramento and Seattle continues an interesting arena development tit for tat.
Sacramento has rejected funds for a new arena once but the council later approved a non-binding term sheet calling for a $258m subsidy of a $448m arena.
The NBA has said that the fate of the Kings franchise will be decided in the first week of May. A full vote of league owners will happen after a relocation committee issues its report and recommendations.
PanStadia & Arena Management has quickly become the leading publication for the business of stadia, arenas, sport & live entertainment events and venues on a global scale, with some 20,000+ named high-level industry professionals receiving the magazine on a quarterly basis. Featuring high-quality, in-depth editorials, all carefully researched and professionally written, along with client case studies and a comprehensive Facility Watch detailing the latest projects, all presented in a bold, modern and intuitive design, PanStadia & Arena Management is the professionals' choice. Knowledge or Skills - The employee does not know how to perform the process correctly - lack of skills, knowledge, or abilities. Process - The problem is not employee related, but is caused by working conditions, improper procedures, etc. Quadrant A (Motivation): If the employee has sufficient job knowledge but has an improper attitude, this may be classed as motivational problem. Quadrant C (Selection): If the employee lacks both job knowledge and a favorable attitude, that person may be improperly placed in the position.
Quadrant D (Training and or Coaching): If the employee desires to perform, but lacks the requisite job knowledge or skills, then additional training or coaching may be the answer.
Note: The four quadrants are based on Jones' (1993) description of the four factors that affects job performance. Often the employee knows how to perform the desired behavior correctly, the process is good, and all resources are available, but for one reason or another, chooses not to do so. Although most jobs have problems that are inherent to the position, it is the problems that are inherent to the person that cause us to loose focus from our main task of getting results. When something breaks the psychological contract between the employee and the organization, the leader must find out what the exact problem is by looking beyond the symptoms, find a solution, focus on the problem, and implement a plan of action. Start by collecting and documenting what the employee is not doing or should be doing - tasks, special projects, reports, etc.
Once you know the problem, then work with the employee by using coaching techniques to solve it. Many performance problems are due to bad process, that is, the process does not support the desired behavior.
However, coaching can be used to get people to think about ways to solve the process or environmental problem. This problem generally arises when then is a new hire, new or revised process, change in standards, new equipment, new policies, promotion or transfer, or a new product. Training is about teaching or instructing a particular skill or knowledge and is normally given in a formal environment.
Coaching, on the other hand, is about increasing an individual's knowledge and thought processes with a particular task or process.
The main difference between a coaching and a training is that the former is normally done in real time.
Mentoring is more career developing in nature, while training and coaching are more task or process orientated. Words verses tune or tone (many questions are not really questions but a need for self-assurance).


Just because the problem is caused by a lack of resources or technology, does not mean expenditures are needed. In addition, coaching can be used to get people to try new methods that require less resources. A lack of motivation could be caused by a number of problems, to include personal, family, financial, etc.
Today, it's a lucky employee (or unlucky if that employee thrives on change) that does not have her job restructured. By keeping them informed, you help to eliminate some of the fear and keep them focused on what must be performed. In general, there are two different forms of information about performance -- feedback and criticism. When dealing with human performance, feedback refers to observable behaviors and effects that are objective and specific.
Delivering effective performance feedback takes time, effort, and skill; thus people often fall back to criticism. Being able to give good feedback should not be the only goal; we also must be aware of the need to receive and act upon feedback, even if it is delivered in a critical manner. Allowing attitudes of the criticizer to determine your response to information only weakens your chances for opportunity. Do unto others, as you want them to do unto you - Before giving the feedback, frame the feedback within your mind. Coaching all too often focuses too narrowly on problem solving by identifying and correcting errors. Single loop learning has often been compared to a thermostat in that it makes a decision to either turn on or off.
In Borat's cheesy video shown above, we notice that Borat is learning that all the packages are cheese in one form or another.
Yet Borat still faces the daunting task of actually using his new skills and knowledge in the workplace. For coaching to be the most effective, then we need to allow the learners to look at their own reasoning patterns so that they can detect any inconsistencies between their espoused and actual theories of action. Borat seems quite confused that the same product could be offered in so many different packages; he has not yet realized that the product within differs. In commitment environments, employees are involved in determining the strategies, directions, and tasks needed to achieve the organization's objective's.
Involve all essential people in developing action plans in areas that are critical to success. Identify critical success factors and formulate the plans necessary to achieve those objectives. Drive the methodology deeper into the organization by cultivating an environment in which almost everything is linked to employee involvement.
By using various coaching techniques to bring them into the process, they understand the problems and have a say in the commitment.
The most general competencies would be those that are common among all organizations and individuals in those organizations. Role based competencies relate to the tasks and accomplishments desired in what the individual does within the organization. The goal of a competency-based human resource approach is to create a workforce that is unique and provides the organization with a strategic advantage in the marketplace.
All the discussion in this section suggests a sophisticated and integrated Human Resource program within the organization.
This turns a roadmap into a tactical planning tool that competes with the Product Canvas or product backlog.A Whata€™s more, the features are sometimes regarded as a commitment by senior management rather than part of a high-level plan that is likely to change. You can work with a specific date such asA  1st of March, or a period such as the first or second quarter. Sample goals are to acquire or to activate users, to retain users by enhancing the user experience, or to accelerate development by removing technical debt. The features are means to an end, but not an end in themselves: They serve to create value and to reach the goal.
Make sure that the metrics you select allow you to measure if and to which extent you have met the goal. The app should be fun and educational allowing the players to modify the characters, change the music, dance with remote players, and choreograph new dances. I use a product roadmap to show how the vision could be attained, and what the next two to four major releases may look like. That’s why our clients have an opportunity to meet with several of our veteran coaches before they decide on the best fit. Chris Hansen’s arena in Seattle is well ahead in terms of development, with two phases identified and negotiations with the downtown site neighbours some way down the line. It is now showing designs – courtesy of architect AECOM – of the possible new venue, with land donated by the city.
The first way is taking a proactive stance by unearthing or preventing counter-productive methods.
This is accomplished by first, identifying the root cause and secondly, implementing a plan of action to correct the problem.
This may imply a problem with employee selection or promotion, and suggest that a transfer or discharge be considered. For example, you can often fix a process problem with training or perhaps fix a motivation problem with attitude or (affective domain) coaching. Large groups are generally dealt with training as it is more efficient, while coaching is used for small groups; however, coaching is normally required during training due to individual needs.
These motivational problems could arrive from family pressures, personality conflicts, a lack of understanding how the behavior affects other people or process. Most employees want to do a good job, thus they will normally be happy to accept coaching to improve themselves. It has often been said that people account for 20% of all problems while bad processes account for the rest. Athena, disguised as Mentor, guides Odysseus's son Telemachus in his search for his father. It creates a supportive environment that develops critical thinking skills, ideas, and behaviors about a subject.
Also, mentoring relies on the mentor's specific knowledge and wisdom, while coaching and training relies on facilitation and developmental skills.
Also, people tend to abhor silence, thus if you wait long enough, the person will usually speak up. By providing feedback through coaching and ensuring the feedback is consistent, you provide the means for employees to motivate themselves to the desired behavior.
If you only provide it during an employee's performance rating period, then you are NOT doing your job.
Employees with several tasks and projects on their plates must be clearly communicated as to what comes first when pressed for time.
Use coaching to help employees recognize and understand the negative consequences of their behavior. Feedback was originally an engineering term that refers to information (outcome) that is fed back into a process to indicate whether that process is operating within designated parameters. This feedback needs to be emotionally neutral information that describes a perceived outcome in relation to an intended target. Since we receive far more criticism than feedback, our egos have become accustomed to fighting it off.
That is, we need to develop skills that help us extract useful information, even if it is delivered in a critical tone.
If you cannot determine an exact cause, then it is probably a personal judgment that needs to be ignored. Remember, you want the recipient to seriously consider your message, not shrug it off or storm away. Yet if the coaching is to transfer to the work environment, it must also look inwardly by allowing the learners to reflect critically on their own behavior. He might even go on to an advanced cheese class and actually taste some cheeses and learn how to prepare a few dishes. Rather than shifting to double-loop learning by asking deep reflective questions on why he cannot do it and then taking action to actually do it, he shifts to a defensive reasoning pattern that ensures any criticisms are shifted to others or to the environment.


For example, Feta and Colby are both cheeses but if a recipe calls for one, they are not normally interchangeable.
A good coach allows the learner to go deeper into the process, rather than just gloss over the surface so that when he or she returns to work, they can use their new knowledge and skills in a variety of contexts. Although you may turn them loose to perform their jobs, the goals and objectives come from upper-management. Everyone in the department, from the front-line workers to managers are used in this process. The heart of this strategy is by sharing information and involving people at all levels of the organization.
In today’s work world a majority of work requires at least basic knowledge in operating a computer.
Role competencies define individuals and what they can be expected to do for the organization. If the answer is outside the organization then the question is when; before or after being hired? This suggests that the organization?s needs and desires should create an atmosphere that rewards behaviors and attitudes as well as skills that are clearly related to the organization?s mission. This is a program that requires professionals in a number of areas, not only compensation, but also working together with managers and top management to create and operate an advanced Human Resource program.
Roadmaps are too often focused on features, and product managers spend too much time getting the stakeholders to agree on when which features will be developed. Working with goals shifts the conversation from debating individual features to agreeing on desired benefits making strategic product decisions. Try to limit the number of features for each release to three, but do not state more than five. Filling in the roadmap template from top to bottom and from left to right works well for me.
This makes it easier to communicate the roadmap, create alignment, and use it as a strategic planning tool that provides an umbrella for the Product Canvas and the product backlog. Clients are inspired to assess their own effectiveness, apply this intelligence to their current environment, and advance their skill set. Regardless of style, helping their clients define and achieve their desired outcomes motivates all of our coaches, trainers, and consultants. For example, you might implement diversity and sexual harassment training programs before they become a problem within the organization.
Although people are our most important asset, it sometimes seems as if they are our biggest headache. This is not always bad as the employee just might not realize the consequence of his or her actions. Motivation is the combination of a person's desire and energy directed at achieving a goal.
Also, do not make it a witch hunt, observe and record what the employee is not doing to standards. It is in your best interest to work with the employee as long as the business needs are met and it is within the bonds of the organization to do so. The coach uses real tasks and problems to help the learner increase his or her performance. Although there are these differences, you could say that the three are synergistic and complementary, rather than mutually exclusive as most people would agree that a good coach trains and mentors, a good trainer coaches and mentors, and a good mentor trains and coaches. In this case you might be able to get your team to brainstorm new processes or procedures that will eliminate the need for new resources. For example, inconsistent feedback would be for management to say it wants good safety practices, and then frowns on workers who slow down by complying with regulations.
With the ever increasing notion to do more with less, we must understand that not everything can get done at once.
For example, the sensor in a car's radiator provides feedback about the engine temperature. Also, the angry tone of the criticism triggers the ego's defensive layer and causes it to be confrontational or to take flight (fight or flee), thus strengthening the resistance to change; which is exactly the opposite of what needs to be done. We have all seen people receive vital information, yet shrug it off through argument or denial, and then continue on the same blundering course.
Just because someone does not have the skills to give proper feedback does not mean you cannot use your skills to extract useful information for growth.
And this is where a lot of coaching ends — at the single-loop learning stage in which we learn about something and how it can solve some of our problems.
Also, hold regular team meetings in which everyone is encouraged to speak what is on their mind.
On the other extreme would be a competency that is specific to not only one organization but to a particular task within that organization. But there are many stages from this basic skill level all the way up to being capable of designing computer systems.
This seems most likely to happen where the organization has carefully defined the needed competencies, established methods whereby individuals can obtain or sharpen the competency and the individual is rewarded for obtaining and using the competency. This post introduces a new roadmap: the GO product roadmap, a goal-oriented agile roadmap that combines goals and features in a novel way. The development team, the stakeholders, and the management sponsor should all buy into the goals. Refrain from detailing the features, and focus on the product capabilities that are necessary to meet the goal. The metrics provided by the tool ensure that the goals are measurable rather than lofty and fuzzy ideas.A Download the template now, and try it out! Check past performance appraisals, previous managers, or other leaders the employee might have worked with.
He or she helps to guide a persona€™s career, normally in the upper reaches of the organization.
Mentor is an appropriate name for such a person because it probably meant adviser in Greek. Or expressing that careful workmanship is needed, but reinforces only volume of production. Employees often choose the task that they enjoy the most, rather than the task they dislike the most. Report exactly what is wrong with the performance and how it is detrimental to good performance. Motivation can be intrinsic - satisfaction, feelings of achievement; or extrinsic - rewards, punishment, or goal obtainment. However, this perception is starting to change as organizations are now implementing mentoring at all levels of the company's structure. General competencies, particularly those related to many persons in a specific organization can be used for a compensation plan covering many employees but may not identify those factors that make for individual or organizational success. Often organizations will hire people who have some level of skill sets and then train them or reward them for obtaining further skills needed by the organization.
The details should be covered in the Product Canvas or product backlog, and commitments should be limited to individual sprints. People who receive feedback in this manner can use the data to compare the end results with their intentions. This will help you to provide others with feedback, rather than the same emotional criticism. Very general competencies make recruiting easier, but organizations assume that others will have provided the training in these competencies to their own standards, which is not necessarily true. Many organizations hire new college graduates assuming they have mastered basic level skills in their education and place them into training programs to teach them the skills required by the organization. For instance, if the training is done outside by an educational institution, then the pay system focuses on being competitive in the labor market for graduates and paying for courses taken that improve the individual’s skills.
Defining the basic skill level and the further level of competency required is a difficult, task but forms the basis for a competency-based pay plan. On the other side, if the answer is in house training, then a definition of skills to be taught is required with certification that increases the individual’s pay.




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