To store meaningful information as data and to retrieve the information, computers use encoding schemes: series of electrical patterns that represent each of the discrete pieces of information to be stored and retrieved. To encode information into data and later decode that data back into information, we use electronic devices, such as the computer, that generate electronic signals.
To guarantee reliable transmission of this data across a network, there must be an agreed-on method that governs how data is sent, received, and decoded. In response to these questions, a communication model known as the OSI model was developed. The OSI model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as a guideline for developing standards to enable the interconnection of dissimilar computing devices. When a vendor's products adhere to the standards the OSI model has generated, connecting those products to other vendors' products is relatively simple. In addition, if a vendor were to depart from the communication standards the model has engendered, software development efforts would be very difficult because the vendor would have to build every part of all necessary software, rather than being able to build on the existing work of other vendors. The first two problems give rise to a third significant problem for vendors: a vendor's products become less marketable as they become more difficult to connect with other vendors' products. Because the task of controlling communications across a computer network is too complex to be defined by one standard, the ISO divided the task into seven subtasks. Each layer of the OSI model contains a logically grouped subset of the functions required for controlling network communications. Using the seven layers of the OSI model, we can explore more fully how data can be transferred between two networked computers. When the message with its seven headers arrives at Charlie's computer, the hardware in his computer is the first to handle the message.
National and international standards organizations have developed standards for each of the seven OSI layers. A standard for any layer of the OSI model specifies the communication services to be provided and a protocol that will be used as a means to provide those services. To understand the capabilities of computer networking products, it will help to know the OSI layer at which particular protocols operate and why the standard for each layer is important. The application layer performs high-level services such as making sure necessary resources are present (such as a modem on the receiving computer) and authenticating users when appropriate (to authenticate is to grant access after verifying that the you are who you say you are).
X.400 is an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard that encompasses both the presentation and application layers. File Transfer, Access, and Management (FTAM) and Virtual Terminal Protocol (VTP) are ISO standards that encompass the application layer.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a suite developed by the WAP Forum, whose members include many wireless device manufacturers and computer software and hardware companies, including us.
Compact HTML is defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and is a subset of HTML protocols. As its name implies, the session layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between applications.
Wireless Session Protocol (WSP), part of the WAP suite, provides WAE with two session services: a connection-oriented session over Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) and a connectionless session over Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP).
Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP), also part of the WAP suite, runs on top of UDP and performs many of the same tasks as TCP but in a way optimized for wireless devices. The function of the network layer is to manage communications: principally, the routing and relaying of data between nodes. The ITU X.25 standard has been a common fixture in the network layer, but newer, faster standards are quickly replacing it, especially in the United States. ATM is another important technology at Layer 2, as are 100Base-T (IEEE 802.2u), and frame relay. Layer 2 standards encompass two sublayers: media access control (MAC) and logical link control. The media access control protocol specifies how workstations cooperatively share the transmission medium. The function of the logical link control sublayer is to ensure the reliability of the physical connection. Standards at the physical layer include protocols for transmitting a bitstream over media such as baseband coaxial cable, unshielded twisted-pair wiring, optical fiber cable, or through the air. You probably noticed from looking at Figure 4 that most accepted standards do not include all (and only) those services specified for any OSI layer. The OSI model was never intended to foster a rigid, unbreakable set of rules: it was expected that networking vendors would be free to use whichever standard for each layer they deemed most appropriate. However, it is clearly in a vendor's best interest to manufacture products that conform to the intentions behind the OSI model. The fact that over 200,000 people have downloaded one of the various “shake to charge” apps, now available from Google Play, indicates our willingness to suspend any form of practical reasoning in pursuit of the dream of wireless charging. Resonance in an electromagnetic system can be likened to pushing a child on swing only when the swing is at the high point. Until wireless points are built into houses and cars, there is nothing to gain by using it.
LOL I know wireless charging is supposed to mean without plugin in a device for direct connection charging.
If Apple could make wireless charging work for their gadgets, they could take over the market a second time. Wireless charging in the form of a charging mat is pretty pointless in my eyes, if you’ve gotta put it on a charging mat, why not save your money and take the extra 2 seconds to plug the usb in instead!! I knew about wireless charging when I bought my eSpring water treatment system from Amway and I have never really understood how wireless mobile phone charging will be overwhelmingly better than wired charging, since both methods require a CABLE.
This very useful technology and added advantage for smart phones but I have an idea instead of wireless charger it would be more useful if we introduce intra charge transfer from mobile to mobile.
However, as the phone sits on the charger and I get a call, in case my phone is on either vibration or ring + vibrate mode, the phone makes this irritating noise due to vibrations. I was wondering if there was an automated way to stop the vibrations as soon as I put my phone on the charging mode.
SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) is a system that is being used in different manufacturing processes. At the bottom of the picture you can see different types of sensors, controllers, modems etc.
Alarm pop-up window in which are written the events that came from the devices (activation of defenses, automation, crossing the limits of the monitored variables etc.) and a description of all major actions of the operator. In a conclusion we can say that SCADA systems are widely used in the modern power systems and they will continue to improve and integrate worldwide. They have many advantages such as real time fault alarms, real time monitoring of all parameters, gathering the data from given substation for further analysis, remote switching operations without risk for the operating personnel, reduce overall costs etc. Computer data is a series of electrical charges arranged in patterns to represent information.

That method must address questions such as: How does a sending computer indicate to which computer it is sending data? Virtually all networking vendors and users understand how important it is that network computing products adhere to and fully support the networking standards this model has generated. Conversely, the further a vendor departs from those standards, the more difficult it becomes to connect that vendor's products to those of other vendors. Thus, the OSI model contains seven layers, each named to correspond to one of the seven defined subtasks. They are running identical operating systems and applications and are using identical protocols (or rules) at all OSI layers. The final header, the physical-layer header (OSI Layer 1) tells the hardware in Sam's computer the electrical specifics of how the message will be sent (which medium, at which voltage, at which speed, etc.). It reads the instructions in the Layer 1 header, executes them, and strips off the header before passing the message to the Layer 2 components. These standards define methods for controlling the communication functions of one or more layers of the OSI model and, if necessary, for interfacing those functions with the layers above and below. A protocol is a set of rules network devices must follow (at any OSI layer) to communicate. By converting protocols or using multiple protocols at different layers of the OSI model, it becomes possible for different computer systems to share data, even if they use different software applications, operating systems, and data-encoding techniques. The presentation layer, usually part of an operating system, converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another. WAP is for handheld devices such as cellular phones, pagers, and other wireless terminals that have limited bandwidth, screen size, memory, battery life, CPU, and user-interface controls. Like WAP, it addresses small-client limitations by excluding functions such as JPEG images, tables, image maps, multiple character fonts and styles, background colors and images, and frame style sheets.
Sessions consist of dialogue between the presentation layer (OSI Layer 6) of the sending computer and the presentation layer of the receiving computer. For example, WTP does not include a provision for rearranging out-of-order packets; because there is only one route between the WAP proxy and the handset, packets will not arrive out of order as they might on a wired network.
However, designed specifically for a single network, this protocol does not support a routing mechanism to allow messages to travel from one network to another. It specifies the interface for connecting computers on different networks by means of an intermediate connection made through a packet-switched network (for example, a common carrier network such as Tymnet).
Within the MAC sublayer there are several standards governing how data accesses the transmission medium. The token-ring technology of ARCnet (Attached Resource Computer network), however, has become the preferred method for embedded and real-time systems such as automobiles, factory control systems, casino games, and heating, ventilation, and cooling systems.
They would also be free to implement each standard in the manner best suited to the purposes of their products. To do this, a vendor must provide the services required at each OSI model layer in a manner that will enable the vendor's system to be connected to the systems of other vendors easily.
A quick investigation of the source code would likely reveal these apps do little more than to link the interrupt signal from the accelerometer to a progress bar indicating an alleged battery charge. Cheaper designs may not use a full wave 4-diode bridge for rectification, having either a center-tapped transformer and 2 diodes, or else just a single diode in which case it rectifies only the pos or neg half of the AC waveform. The cradle stays plugged in the car and you just plop the phone in and begin navigating with Nokia Drive.
But you got to admit its funny that it actually takes more wires to transfer energy wireless-ly than the wire content in the standard charger unit.
It would be a helpful feature for phones in case users can’t find any nearby outlets. Now in the market, there are many mobile phones or tablets utilized the wireless charging technology.
If you’re looking for a good wireless charger for your phone this year, Amazon is the place to go.
The first thing that is does is to ensure that I do not damage the USB port of my phone due to multiple plug-in plug-outs. Once it even fell of the table and the center of gravity of the entire unit (phone + charger) is not that high and is not stable. However, I looked for App in the Android store and could not find a single App that could do so.
During this state, if you receive a phone call, the phone keeps on vibrating of the surface and over time small scratches appear on your phone.
In energetics, SCADA systems are used in substations, hydropower plants, thermal power plants, photovoltaic power plants, wind power plants etc. The exact definition of the concepts is quite difficult because many companies from different countries were developing these systems. For example, a system with three levels contain at its first level, devices for connection to the sensors and the executing mechanisms. As you can see it is very easy from here to monitor the whole substation and with just one click to make switching operations. Upon opening the desired mnemonic diagram, the operator has access to the following commands: remote control, issuing commands to the selected logic controllers, changing the parameters of the logic controllers, setting the time etc.
For example, the data in an electronic file can be decoded and displayed on a computer screen or printed onto paper as a business letter. One common data-encoding scheme is American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII).
Various components in a computer enable it to generate signals to perform encoding and decoding tasks. If the data will be passed through intervening devices, how are these devices to understand how to handle the data so that it will get to the intended destination? Understanding the OSI model will allow you to understand how data can be transferred between two networked computers. In other words, it is not an agreed-on method that governs how data is sent and received; it is only a guideline for developing such standards. Working in conjunction, the applications, the OS, and the hardware implement the seven functions described in the OSI model.
The message with its Layer 7 header is then transferred to the part of the operating system that deals with presentation issues (OSI Layer 6) where a Layer 6 header is appended to the message. Although it is the final header to be added, the Layer 1 header is the first in line when the message travels through the medium to the receiving computer. These Layer 2 components execute those instructions, strip off the header, and pass the message to Layer 3, and so on. A protocol consists of the control functions, control codes, and procedures necessary for the successful transfer of data. Thus, they allowed for the use of different standards to satisfy different networking needs.

It is the basis for a number of e-mail applications (primarily in Europe and Canada) as well as for other messaging products. The session layer synchronizes dialogue between these presentation layer entities and manages their data exchange. Use of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) FDDI standard has declined as Ethernet has replaced token-ring technologies. Systems that conform to these standards and offer a high degree of interoperability with heterogeneous environments are called open systems. A piezoelectric accelerometer could generate a small voltage secondary to deformations induced by rapid motions applied to it, however trying to use that millivolt signal to charge a battery would not be practical. Half wave would be half as efficient, generating only half the voltage after the ripple is smoothed.
I was primarily making it for wireless charging user when I realized that even users with normal chargers need such an App. In case you left the phone at the corner of the table, your phone may also fall while vibrating! However, the challenge with trigger is that when you plug in your phone, it takes an action based on only three basic profile settings of Android, namely, silent, ring+vibrate or vibrate. Thus the dispatchers can monitor the different parameters in real time (load, voltage, if a failure become etc.). But like in any other industry there are commonalities and a strong drive to unification, standardization and globalization which led to much in common both in hardware and software levels. At the second level are the communication computers which may have some processing and control functions. The serial interfaces that are supported include RS 232 and RS 485 using wire or fiber connections. From there, the operator can adjust the different defenses and controllers, can make different switching operations etc. Every company that is building SCADA systems has different visualization but the concept is the same. On the mnemonic diagram is visualized the online status of all technological equipment and processes, the values of voltage, active and reactive power, current, the status of the controller in LAN etc. What if the sending and receiving computers use different data formats and data exchange conventions—how will data be translated to allow its exchange? Each layer's header is successively stripped off after its instructions have been read so that by the time the message arrives at Charlie's e-mail application, the message has been properly received, authenticated, decoded, and presented. Another ITU standard in the presentation layer is the X.500 protocol, which provides directory access and management.
In addition to basic regulation of conversations (sessions), the session layer offers provisions for data expedition, class of service, and exception reporting of problems in the session, presentation, and application layers. Another Layer 2 standard is Cells In Frames (CIF), which provides a way to send Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cells over legacy LAN frames.
This protocol is typically used to connect two computers through a serial interface, such as when connecting a personal computer to a server through a phone line or a T1 or T3 line.
Much of the FDDI market has largely been replaced by Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).
Systems that provide interoperability with components from only one vendor are called proprietary systems. Other wireless charging technologies relying on ultrasound or solar power are being developed, for example by Ubeam. My basic issue was that I wanted the phone on Ring Only mode (which is not a standard profile). Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of Ziff Davis, LLC. The headers function as an escort for the message so that it can successfully negotiate the software and hardware in the network and arrive intact at its destination. Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML) and Handheld Device Transfer Protocol (HDTP) are also part of the WAP suite. These systems use standards created or modified by the vendor and are designed to operate in a homogeneous or single-vendor environment.
The magnitude of those losses is what dictates the practicality of any type of wireless charging. Older wall-transformer designs which don’t utilize small high-frequency transformers are much worse and they can draw significant power even when not in use or not plugged into the device to be charged.
And Osssia have introduced greater ideas about wireless charging, the cota, which can deliver power wirelessly to devices over distances of around 10 feet. Your phone automatically switches to normal mode with vibration on as soon as you plug it out. Magnetic or inductive charging, in particular has been effectively used for some time to power various kinds of biomedical implants. Advanced switching chargers first convert mains power to DC which is then chopped, delivered to a flyback transformer, converted back to AC, then rectified again to DC and filtered. The App continuously works in the background so that you do not have to remember to disable vibration all the time. It can also be used over twisted-pair wiring, fiber optic cable, and satellite transmissions. Presently it is the safest and most enduring method to accomplish the job of transferring power to the inside of the body.
In these systems, oscillating current in an external coil of wire generates a changing magnetic field which induces a voltage inside an implanted coil. Wireless chargers, we should remember, still need some front end electronics and loose efficiency there as well. The current resultant from this voltage can charge a battery or power the device directly.While a moving magnet might just as well be used to externally generate the field, an external coil is simply more practical. Apple has just filed a patent for hardware which could make the shake to charge concept a reality, at least in theory.
They claim a unique design incorporating internal moveable magnets, and a flat printed circuit board coil.
Current chip efficiencies will however preclude practical implementation of this scheme for some time.Many smartphone users will be wondering wonder whether their near field communication (NFC) chip can be used to harvest power from a dedicated external source, or perhaps an ambient electromagnetic source like WiFi. In theory it is possible and such systems are on the market already, however not every NFC chip would be up to the task. To achieve maximum efficiency the system should be optimized for a use at a particular separation distance, angle of incidence, phase, and frequency such that it is in a resonant condition.

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