DESCRIPTION: With the develop-ment of Portuguese seafaring in the 15th century and the subsequent widening if the southern horizon, the problem of a€?harmonizinga€™ or reconciling the traditional world views laid down by Pliny, Ptolemy, Aristotle and Ambrose with that of the new discoveries became increasingly acute.
Beyond the equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius [Mela] and many others as well raise a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India; [nevertheless] they say that many have passed through these parts from India to Spain . This rather refreshing disposition towards agnosticism is exemplified again in the configuration of South Africa. Also typical of maps of the period, the anonymously compiled Genoese map is covered with legends in Latin, castellated towns representing major population centers, princes on their thrones, and loxodromes from the portolan tradition. This map is now the property of the Italian Government, and is to be found in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, being catalogued Sezione Palatina No. The Genoese map became the center of controversy in the 1940s when the Italian scholar Sebastiano Crino, suggested that this was a copy of the map that Paolo Toscanelli sent to the Portuguese court in 1474 and later but less certainly to Columbus, was a copy of it, touting the possibility of a sea route to India via the Atlantic. A Genoese flag in the upper northwest corner of the map establishes this mapa€™s origin, along with the coat of arms of the Spinolas, a prominent Genoese mercantile family. The map is elliptical in shape, having a major axis measuring 81 cm and a minor axis measuring 42 cm. Ptolemy is cited by name in several inscriptions, and there is evidence of his influence in the representation of Africa (Ethiopia, the source of the Nile), an enclosed Caspian Sea (Mar de Sara), the southern coast of Asia, and the Golden Chersonese, not named but identified by a legend noting that it is particularly rich in gold and precious stones. Paradise does not appear on the map, and an inscription in southeastern Africa tells us why: a€?In this region some depict the earthly paradise.
Of course, the cosmographers had no objection to monsters - even Ptolemy mentions a few, although he did not put them on his maps.
Although its cartographer explicitly disapproved of fantastic narratives in a legend in the Atlantic (frivolis narracionibus rejectis), Chet Van Duzer points out that the richly decorated map contains a number of fantastic illustrations, and the legends, many of which come from the travel narrative of Niccole dea€™ Conti (c.1395-1469), do not shy away from fantastic subjects. In the eastern Indian Ocean there is an imposing creature with a humanoid head and upper body, but with large horns and ears and wing-like red membranes joining its outstretched arms to its torso, and a fish-like tail. Turning first to Europe for a consideration of the details of the map, it will be noted that the contour of this continent is drawn with a nearer approach to accuracy than is true of the other continents, our cartographera€™s greatest errors appearing in the regions which were beyond those recorded by Ptolemy and the portolan chartmakers. The only mountains indicated in Europe are the Alps, which are made to sweep in a somewhat irregular curve around the north of Italy and the head of the Adriatic. In the northern part of Europe we find sketched a polar bear Forma ursorum alborum, and an ermine or sable, animals whose valuable pelts were obtained by the Hansa of Novgorod and sold by them in Bruges to the Italians. Many regional names appear and many cities are made prominent in each of the continents through the sketch of a building, which building sometimes is a castle, sometimes is a church or cathedral, sometimes is a monastery. England, Scotland, and Ireland are represented as on the portolan charts of the period, over each of which flies a pennant.
In France appear the names Gascona, Lengadoc, Normania, Baiona, Bordeaux, Tolosa, Nar-bona, Montpellier, Arguesmortes, Avenio, Massillia, Lion, Dijon, Bourges, Renes, and a few undecipherable names. In Italy we find Italia, Masca, Calabria, Si-cilia, Sardinia, Corsica, Niza, and Venezia, which last our author has made especially prominent, while Genoa itself has been omitted altogether. In central and eastern Europe we find Bavaria, Boemia, Prutenia, Bruges, Dancic, Famosura [Frankenburg?], Poana, Praja, Ratisbon, Inbrunch, Vienna, Pruna, Potavia, Ungaria with Juanin (Raab), Burgaria, Polonia, Carcovia, Rossia, and near this last the classic names Sormatia prima and S.
We also find the region Zichia designated on the north and northwest slope of the Caucasus, and, on the Black Sea, Savastopoli, Kaffa, Pidea, Flordelis, Turlo and Moncastro. On the Hellenic-Slavic peninsula we find the names Sclavonia and Albania, which had but recently withstood an attack of the Turks; here also are Macedonia, Grecia and Morea. But it is perhaps in respect to the islands of the southeast that the map is of greatest interest. It is not easy to determine the significance of a gulf that extends far into the east coast of Asia north of Borneo and Java. The name Sine, or Sina, which was never used in the middle ages, and which in all probability the Genoese map-maker took from Ptolemy, suggests that the gulf is likewise from Ptolemy, and in order to find space for the new discovery it has been placed farther north. The northeast coast of Asia is in part determined by the form of the map, and in part is arbitrarily drawn, as are also the numerous islands, not one of which we are able to identify.
The Genoese map abandons the northeastern quarter of Asia to the apocalyptic peoples: surrounded by impassible mountains and in the north and east by the ocean is a large territory in which are placed trees and fortresses.
In addition to the usual medieval depiction of the mythical Gog and Magog the Genoese map also contains a large number of drawings of zoological interest. The main African interest lies in the fact that, as a departure from Ptolemya€™s conception, the Indian Ocean, as is also shown on the Vesconte, Bianco, the Catalan-Estense, Leardo and Fra Mauroa€™s maps (#228, #241, #246, #242, and #249), is not landlocked, and, significantly, the southern extremity of Africa does not run away eastwards, as on the Catalan-Estense map. The southern coast of the continent, from Arabia and the Persian Gulf to Further India, exhibits the Ptolemaic influence in particular, though our Genoese gives evidence of possessing a good knowledge of some of the most recent reports of travelers. The peninsula Guzerat is better drawn than by Ptolemy, and the Bay of Cambay appears as a deep inlet of the ocean into which a broad rivera€”perhaps the Mahia€”empties.
In the interior of Ceylon a lake appears which may owe its origin to a statement made by Pliny or maybe an attempt to represent some one or more of the numerous artificial reservoirs or tanks for which the island is famous.
In their outlines there is a certain similarity between the islands Ceylon and Sumatra as represented by our Genoese mapmaker and the same islands as they appear on the maps of Ptolemy.
The name Sumatra, which our cosmographer, together with Conti, considers to be the native name, seems first to have become a more or less familiar one in Europe in the 14th century. The long southern coast which, according to Ptolemy, makes of the Indian Ocean an enclosed sea, and which in part appears in the Idrisi and the Sanudo maps (#219, Book II, #228), has been omitted here, and the great gulf of Ptolemy on the east of the peninsula becomes in the Genoese map an open sea, corresponding to the account of Conti and other travelers, which sea had been found difficult of navigation because of continually unfavorable wind. Concerning the two large islands lying off the east coast of Asia, a legend gives the following information: These islands are called Java, of which the greater in circumference is three, and the other two thousand miles.
Marvelous beings are represented in parts of the Indian Ocean, such as an animal with the body of a fish and the head of a woman, that is, a siren; also a fish with a humanlike head and large fins with sharp spikes thereon. Of particular importance are the other legends in the Indian Ocean apparently derived from Conti. We find on other world maps similar information concerning the construction of ships which sailed the Indian Ocean, as well as information concerning trade routes, such as the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235).
Ibn Batuta also describes them minutely, making mention of ships that could carry a thousand mena€”six hundred seamen and four hundred soldiers. A river taking its rise on the east side of this mountain quadrangle, and emptying through two mouths into the Indian Ocean, cannot be identified, as the chart here contains numerous errors. It is of special interest that in a region so significant by reason of its physical features, where the Pamir Highlands, the Hindu Kush, the Himalaya and the Quen Lun unite, our cosmographer represents a second Iron gate where Alexander imprisoned the Tartars, or a wall with a strong gateway. In the interior of Southeast Asia there is a large lake with the legend: The waters of this lake are very pleasant and sweet for drinking. Marco Polo relates a similar story, but adds, as does Conti, the simple facts that he himself observed, that is, that diamonds are obtained in India through mining and through the washing and the sifting of the sands. No rivers are represented by the Genoese cosmographer in Northeast Asia, but we find twice inscribed the legend Inaccessible mountains. On their appearance, the Mongols were thought to be the descendants of the Ten Tribes who had departed from the Mosaic law; and even in the Mohammedan world their coming was regarded as a sign of the approaching end of the world. As a characteristic representation of the animal world, we find sketched in Southeast Asia a snake with a human head. The geographical nomenclature in the interior of Asia is very numerous, including the names of cities, countries and topographical features. The cities represented on the frontier of Asia Minor are probably Angora, Burssa and Philadelphia.
In Arabia Arabia Deserta is distinguished from Arabia Felix, and the extreme southeast part of the peninsula, that is, Oman, is called Fenicea et Sabba, suggesting that the Phoenicians once occupied the basin of the Persian Gulf.
On the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkestan, there are only two cities represented, Testango and Organzin. Conti, as before stated, divided India into three parts, but the Genoese cartographer, following the ancients, refers to two only, representing therein numerous cities and legends, most of which apparently he has taken from Conti. Of the several regions only Maabar is especially designated in a legend reading: This province is called Mahabaria. Among the cities, Cambay is especially distinguished, which at that time was the most important commercial city of India, and which the Genoese cartographer calls combayta, making use of the Spanish term instead of the Italian Camcaia or the Latin Combahita. West of the Ganges delta, on a mountain, lies the large city Bizungalia, which Conti called Bizenegalia, and which seems to have remained a city of importance well into the 16th century.
The land north of the Ava River (Irawadi) as far as a great parallel mountain range, including apparently the entire Irawadi region, the Genoese cosmographer calls Macina, inscribing the legend: This province of Macina produces elephants.
Turning to the continent of Africa, we find its Mediterranean coast, as on the portolan charts, well represented; likewise the Atlantic coast as far as Cape Bojador, which had recently been reached by the Portuguese. On the west coast, in about the position where one should look for the Gulf of Guinea, a gulf having one large and two small islands extends into the mainland, as is represented by Sanudo, Leardo and Fra Mauro. In about the latitude of this gulf on the west coast we also find one indicated on the east coast which appears to be the Bay of Zanzibar. In the representation of mountains of Africa we find the Atlas range, which stretches along the north coast eastward to the Great Syrtus, a second range west of Egypt, stretching in a southerly direction. The hydrography of Africa is likewise Ptolemaic, especially that which pertains to the Nile.
A monastery, or a city, with numerous towers over which a cross is drawn, is located in the lake and bears the name Maria of Nazareth.
That the Christian Abyssinians made use of the elephant in war during the middle ages, Marco Polo relates, who, in his travels, had gathered considerable information concerning that region of Africa. On the Catalan world map of 1375 (#235) a war elephant is also represented in Nubia, and the same picture appears again in India with the addition of a driver. Not only does there appear to be some confusion relative to the representation of the Nile River, but the hydrography of other parts of Africa is very confusing. The reference to the character of the land in Africa and its different products is very full, attention being drawn particularly to the animals. The extreme southeastern part of Africa has the following legend: In this region certain ones have depicted the paradise of delights. A sea monster illustrating a passage from Bracciolini's Facetiaea€”the ultimate source of the demon-like sea monster on the Genoese world map of 1457a€”in Sebastian Branta€™s 1501 edition of Aesopa€™s Fables. Does the Genoese World Map represent an intermediate step between a heterogeneous medieval conception of space and a more modern homogeneous one? He shows a critical approach in dealing with his sources, backing up his decisions or listing information, which is a very innovative feature. As shown above, social customs and spatial perceptions are connected, and the mapmakera€™s intent to provide a near-natural depiction of the world might be related to the Christian faith.62 It is problematic to presume a homogenous conception of space is operative in the later Middle Ages or the Early Modern period, just because a mapmaker painted a mappa mundi using coastlines drawn from portolan charts, since geography is but one dimension of a mapa€™s content.
These continuities could perhaps explain why, as Evelyn Edson and Emilie Savage-Smith write, [the medieval cosmological modela€™s] a€?overthrow in the 17th century caused a profound spiritual and psychological disorientation from which we have yet to recover.a€?63 Studying conceptions of space in mappae mundi reveals how these conceptions change over time.
Many years later, early in my career in Washington while I was still young and unencumbered, Peter Ashman proposed that we take the last great passenger train in America, Southern Railwaya€™s Southern Crescent, all the way to New Orleans for a long jazzy weekend of eating, drinking and wenching in the French Quarter. But on the 27th of last month Susan and I flew to London and took the Chunnel train (the Eurostar) to Paris, where we stayed overnight at a Left Bank hotel; and on Friday the 29th, at the Gare de la€™Est, we boarded the Orient Express for Constantinople a€” arriving there on September 3rd a€” over a period of six days with three nights on the train and two more in hotels in Buda-Pest and Bucharest. Soon after nine oa€™clock on the morning of the day on which the police received his note, he left his hotel for the Gare de la€™Est and the Orient Express. I must start with the Orient Expressa€™s reputation for intrigue, for my still-present if recently dormant counter-intelligence antennae were reactivated by something even before boarding the train. The great trains are going out all over Europe, one by one, but still the Orient Express thunders superbly over 1400 miles of glittering steel track between Paris and Istanbul. The Passengers: about one hundred, and while I may miss a nationality or two, I noticed American, British, Canadian, Australian, French, Spanish, German, Swedish, and even a Korean couple. Also aboard was the current president of the Orient Express Company, a French-man, and his wife. The Route: Paris a€” Strasbourg a€” Baden-Baden a€” Munich a€” Salzburg a€” Vienna a€” Buda-Pest a€” Sinaia a€” Bucharest a€” Varna a€” Constantinople, for a total of 3,469 kilometers (2,155 and a half miles, a good deal more than James Bonda€™s 1400) through seven countries. Marco had made up our sleeping berths while we were at dinner, the lamp on the folding table beneath the window shining upon the compartmenta€™s polished wood and brass. One is to say that Susan and I got quite used to be met and sent off at each station by a brass band, beginning with the traina€™s arrival in Buda-Pest a€” nor did it seem more than right for us to use, Orient Express passengers only sa€™il vouz plaA®t, the stationa€™s special entrance and sumptuous waiting-lounge built a hundred and fifty years ago for Emperor Franz Josef. The folkways grew still stranger as we moved eastward, perhaps never more so than when leaving Bucharest, where we were seen off by not only a band, but by folk dancers, including a dancing bear, a dancing troll, and what I can only think must have been a dancing werewolf.
This was my fourth visit to Buda-Pest, whose uprising against the Soviet puppet regime in 1956, crushed by the Red Army and secret police, was the event that launched me at age ten on my education in international relations and my career. Not only does the prospect of the food allure us, but the fact that we shall be devouring it in a fantastic chariot of steel and glass, hurtling through a foreign country.
While we had a dinner and a lunch in Buda-Pest and a dinner in Bucharest, we had three dinners and four lunches aboard the Orient Express, along with continental breakfast served in our compartment each morning we were on the train. The experience reminded me of something I once read about the cooking aboard the 20th Century Limited in the 1930s and a€™40s, that each passenger on the runs between Chicago and New York, with just one dinner and a breakfast, consumed a pound of butter.
Bucharesta€™s traffic is terrible, but in Roumaniaa€™s countryside horse-drawn wagons are common, and speckled bands of gypsy encampments could be seen from the train as we traveled. Nonetheless, Vlad Tepes, Vlad the Impaler, Draculaa€™s fifteenth-century original, is a national hero, she said, because he fought the Turks.
I thought of the Undead again the next day as we entered Bulgaria and headed for the port of Varna, for it was to the a€?pearl of the Black Seaa€? that Dracula, aboard the ship Czarina Catherine, fled from the brave party vowed to destroy him.
A taste of the casbah, a whiff of Asia, a pause at the cross-roads of two continents, is surely the promise which has brought so many travelers on the long and tedious railway journey from Paris.
Southern Roumania, eastern Bulgaria and Thracian Turkey resemble Americaa€™s badlands, with towns full of old crumbling houses a€” so much so that I was unprepared for Constantinople, a fascinating city, the stuff of dreams in a gorgeous setting of green hills rising above the deep-blue Sea of Marmara, Golden Horn, and Bosphorus. I am not one hundred percent sure I found the precise chamber in question when we visited Topkapi Palace, for there were more than a few candidates. I also report with some pride and a little surprise at the accomplishment that we did not buy any rugs. No one likes to leave Venice in a hurry but the Orient Express departs at 19.28, and the cocktails we downed in Harrya€™s Bar an hour or so earlier are proving just the thing to make locating the right platform that bit more exciting. An hour or two later, during the final lunch aboard the Orient Express, he entered our dining-car with two Twentieth Centurys on a silver tray, and served them to Susan and me with his compliments. Yet once again an east wind is being felt by central and eastern Europeans along the storied route.
A A A  Many years later, early in my career in Washington while I was still young and unencumbered, Peter Ashman proposed that we take the last great passenger train in America, Southern Railwaya€™s Southern Crescent, all the way to New Orleans for a long jazzy weekend of eating, drinking and wenching in the French Quarter. A A A  The Passengers: about one hundred, and while I may miss a nationality or two, I noticed American, British, Canadian, Australian, French, Spanish, German, Swedish, and even a Korean couple.
A A A  Also aboard was the current president of the Orient Express Company, a French-man, and his wife. A A A  The Route: Paris a€” Strasbourg a€” Baden-Baden a€” Munich a€” Salzburg a€” Vienna a€” Buda-Pest a€” Sinaia a€” Bucharest a€” Varna a€” Constantinople, for a total of 3,469 kilometers (2,155 and a half miles, a good deal more than James Bonda€™s 1400) through seven countries.
We dined that night in the second dining-car, CA?te da€™Azur, gleaming ebony wood with striking Lalique glass panels lit softly by the Orient Expressa€™s trademark rose-shaded lamps on the tables.
A A A  The folkways grew still stranger as we moved eastward, perhaps never more so than when leaving Bucharest, where we were seen off by not only a band, but by folk dancers, including a dancing bear, a dancing troll, and what I can only think must have been a dancing werewolf. A A A  The experience reminded me of something I once read about the cooking aboard the 20th Century Limited in the 1930s and a€™40s, that each passenger on the runs between Chicago and New York, with just one dinner and a breakfast, consumed a pound of butter.
We entered Transylvania in darkness, close (but not too close) to Borgo Pass, and stopped in its legendary Roumanian mountains at a town called Sinaia to visit Peles Castle, the summer residence of King Carol I.
A A A  Bucharesta€™s traffic is terrible, but in Roumaniaa€™s countryside horse-drawn wagons are common, and speckled bands of gypsy encampments could be seen from the train as we traveled. A A A  Nonetheless, Vlad Tepes, Vlad the Impaler, Draculaa€™s fifteenth-century original, is a national hero, she said, because he fought the Turks. The Orient Expressa€™s club car has an able bartender, Attilio, but like so many bars it lacked the blonde Lillet to make my favorite cocktail, the Twen-tieth Century, named after the American train I mentioned before. A A A  An hour or two later, during the final lunch aboard the Orient Express, he entered our dining-car with two Twentieth Centurys on a silver tray, and served them to Susan and me with his compliments. A A A  Yet once again an east wind is being felt by central and eastern Europeans along the storied route.
A A A  And in Bulgaria, we were taken at the end of our afternoon in Varna to its Eastern Orthodox cathedral. DESCRIPTION: The maps of Andrea Bianco (Bianchi), along with those of Walsperger (1448), the Catalan-Estense map of 1450, the Borgia map, the Genoese map of 1457, and Fra Mauroa€™s map of 1459 (see #245, #246 and #249), form the beginnings of a transition period, away from the circular, Jerusalem-centered religious depictions of the earlier medieval mappaemundi, and toward those that were to form the Renaissance period of cartography.
However, biblical sources still predominate, especially for the land areas toward the edges of the map. The Andrea Bianco world map locates the earthly paradise beside Cape Comorin, with the four rivers flowing through the center of India. Following custom, Marignolli notes that the river Gyon (Gihon), after passing through Ceylon, encircles the land of Ethiopia and flows into Egypt. Other Old Testament stories to be commemorated were the fortunes of Noaha€™s Ark, the punishment of Lota€™s wife, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the sojourn in Egypt and the Exodus.
Andrea Bianco described himself on his chart of 1448 as comito di galia [a senior officer on a galley], and official documents survive that link him with almost annual galley sailings throughout the period 1437-51.
The atlas of 1436 comprises ten leaves of vellum, measuring 29 x 38 cm., in an 18th century binding. To this he appended his world map in the old circular style as well as a copy of Ptolemya€™s world map This juxtaposition of portolan theory, wheeled map tradition, and Ptolemaic theory signals that Bianco was an acute thinker about global geography and interested in stimulating the thinking of his contemporaries. The circular world map shows an island in the same place as the Dicolzi of the Vienna-Klosterneuburg corpus, and on it is the notation a€?griffons and girfalcons.a€? However, this mapa€™s treatment of Gog and Magog is different from that on any other map. In its general character the circular world map faithfully reproduces the pattern introduced by Fra Paolino and Petrus Vesconte (#228) over a century earlier, augmented only by the representation of northwest Africa and the Atlantic islands borrowed from Biancoa€™s charts. The circular world map is oriented to the East, surrounded by a blue rim representing not the ocean (which is green) but the heavens, as we can see from the stars painted on it. Not surprisingly, the map borrows the coastal forms from the sea charts, and the vernacular winds, whose lines divide it into eight pie-shaped section. The mappamundi is the only map in the atlas to have sea monsters, and they are all in the southern ocean, at the edge of the world far from Europe: there we see a two-tailed siren and two winged dragons. The correctness of this interpretation is confirmed by the presence of a figure who can only be Judas on an island near this abyss: in the Nauigatio sancti Brendani abbatis, St Brendan while sailing in the Atlantic encounters an entrance to Hell, and nearby, Judas alone on an island, and Judas tells Brendan that he is allowed to escape Hell and rest on the island on Sundays and church holidays. This circular medieval mappaemundi had placed the world in its universal context, frequently including the structure of the four elements, the nine spheres, and the ordering of time by the motions of the moon and the sun. Wittkower, Rudolf, a€?Marvels of the East: A Study in the History of Monsters,a€? Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942), note 6 on p. Detail showing (on the left) Mary of the Christ child, and (on the right) the southern portion of Africa with hanging man and sea monsters.
A Ptolemaic map of the world, from the tenth page of the ten-sheet atlas by Venetian cartographer Andrea Bianco, dated 1436. The first five charts are drawn and colored in the usual portolan style, with strongly accented coastlines; they are on a common scale, and oriented with south to the top (as indicated by the writing of names and legends not on the coasts). DESCRIPTION: The Stiftsbibliothek at Zeitz in Germany possesses a large folio manuscript atlas of Ptolemaic maps, with accompanying commentary, dated 1470. The orientation of the mappa mundi towards the South is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to North-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned a€?upside down,a€? thus losing their familiar shapes. At the first glance, the map reminds us of Andreas Walspergera€™s circular map of 1448 (#245), which also has the sea in green and lacks the compass lines.
The complete divergence from the portolan charts is noteworthy in other respects also, as is the renunciation of their geographical advances, i.e. In the light of this increase of topographical data it is surprising to note the negligent treatment of the North, especially in the Zeitz map, considering that the atlas also contains the much more detailed map of the North by Nicolaus Germanus. While the anonymous author of the Zeitz map drew the geographical outlines exactly as Walsperger did, he follows his own path as regards the number and wording of the legends. The Zeitz map has a much smaller number of cities in Europe than Walsperger, only about 70, and moreover, its selection is different. Moreover, names have been added which are not found even in the most detailed portolan maps such as Dalorto, Dulcert, Pizigani; thus kempem (Kampen on the Zuidersee), and kamen (Caumont near the mouth of the Rhone?). There are far fewer city pictures and other illustrations in the Zeitz map than in Walsperger. One cannot consider so late a Ptolemaic document without remembering the substantial inroads made by the a€?modernizationa€? of Ptolemy, which originally consisted in the adding of newer maps (for the first time in 1427, the map of the North by Claudius Clavus in the Nancy Codex) and which left traces in almost all later editions. The Zeitz manuscript still retains the old rectangular form for the land maps, including the map of the North. The map of the North shows Greenland erroneously as belonging to Europe or Asia, but otherwise it is placed correctly long beyond and to the southwest of Iceland.
Quite unusual is the Ptolemaic world map which is pasted in two parts on the inner sides of the covers where there is scarcely sufficient space for it, suggesting that it had originally been larger.
As shown by the reproduction, the Ptolemaic world map in Zeitz is drawn on the conical projection which Ptolemy described as the easier one and had primarily discussed. Another innovation which appears together with the trapezoidal form as used by Nicholas Germanus is the shape of the Jutland peninsula. The written text includes, in addition to the explanations pertaining to each map and discussed above, the a€?Ptouincie seu Satrapiea€?, always placed after the last map (Taprobana).
The words octauus et ultimus liber suggest the question whether the whole is only a fragment and whether the eighth Book, short in itself, or even the complete work had existed. 18.A  Here is said to be close to the sea a statue of Pallax, which has nine heads, three human heads and six heads of serpents.
22.A  The Gulf of Arabia in which many islands and innumerable red cliffs for which reason it is called the Red Sea. 28.A  Island on which lived the Brahmans?, naked, black and devout people [from the Alexander legend]. 43.A  The wicked people of the Scythians who are always on the move because of the severe cold. There are far fewer city pictures and other illustrations in the Zeitz map than in Walsperger.A  We see only the crescent on the Mountains of the Moon in South Africa, the monastery of St. Quite unusual is the Ptolemaic world map which is pasted in two parts on the inner sides of the covers where there is scarcely sufficient space for it, suggesting that it had originally been larger.A  It does not comprise, as usual, the 180 degrees of the Ptolemaic Orbis terrarum, but only 90 degrees up to the middle of the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Persia.
DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral.
While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries.
Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication. Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome.
Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p.
10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p.
11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n.
16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, .
23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia. Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object. After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history.
There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime.
Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St. Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first. A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square. A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism.
Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings.
A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals. Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common.
At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. The evidence is purely circumstantial, though the map would have been more encouraging to anyone hoping to circumnavigate Africa, and Crinoa€™s thesis has had no other advocates. Oddly, there is no city view of Genoa [Janua], while Venice is represented by an impressive set of buildings. Much scholarly ink has been spilled over the meaning of this caption, particularly cum Marino.
It therefore indicates the longitude of the habitable world as about twice that of the latitude.
Hugh of Saint Victor had described the world as being the shape of Noaha€™s Ark, and Ranulf Higden world maps were oval (#232). It is interesting that the maker of the Genoese map mentions peculiar customs (cannibalism, people who have no names) but no a€?monstrous races,a€? that is, people with aberrant physical characteristics, other than the pygmies. Gog and Magog are enclosed in northeast Asia, Noaha€™s Ark rests on a mountain range in Armenia, and the Red Sea is red, though there is no text about the passage of the Israelites through its waters. There are four prominent sea monsters in the Indian Ocean, which ocean thus remains a venue for exotic wonders. The legend says that the creature sprang out of the water and attacked some cows pasturing on the shore, and then was captured and mounted and exhibited in Venice and elsewhere. By reason of the limited space, the geographical details inserted in this section of the map are not numerous; indeed, of no part of the map can it be said that the author has crowded it with details. The Rhone, the Rhine, the Po and the Danubea€”the latter with an extensive deltaa€”have been inscribed in a manner which leaves no doubt as to their identity, while into the Black Sea, which with the Sea of Azov is well drawn, flow the rivers Don and Dnieper, and into the Caspian Sea flows the Volga, though no names are affixed. Here we also find the representation of a ruler, Lordo Rex with genuine Mongol features, the chief of the Golden Horde. To the south of Ireland, in the ocean, we find the following legend: Concerning Ireland two [stories] are told. The names of nine cities in addition are given in northern Italy: Florentia, Ravenna, Ancerra, Borletta, Bor[i], Rana, Galta, and Napoli, with one illegible. After the Alexandrian, the second main authority for the eastern portion is Nicolo Conti, the Venetian traveler, who reached the East Indian islands and perhaps southern China, returned to Italy in 1439 and whose narrative was written down by Poggio Bracciolini shortly after 1447. In the extreme east are two large islands, Java major and Java minor, and to the southeast two smaller islands Sanday et Bandam. In this enormous prison, labeled Scythia ultra Ymaum montem [Scythia beyond Mount Ymaus], is the word MAGOG in large letters (perhaps in Ezekiela€™s sense as a country?). The remarkably strong ebb and flow of the waters in the Persian Gulf at the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, observed by Conti, is thought by the Genoese cartographer worthy of mention: Sinus persicus in quo mare fluit et refluit velut oceanus [The Persian Gulf, in which the sea ebbs and flows as in the ocean]. This section of the coast could not well remain unknown to travelers coming from the mouth of the Indus River. The legend on the Genoese map relates in part to the Chinese junks, in part to the trade with India, which in the 15th century was in the hands of the Arabians, from whom the Portuguese seized it. Near the Persian Gulf in Arabia a mountain is represented, out of which flows a river, emptying north of Mecca, which doubtless is the Betius of Ptolemy. This is doubtless one of the passes lying somewhat to the west, where Scythia on the north joins with the highlands of Iran, and is probably the Khyber. This lake, mentioned in the fabulous stories concerning India in the middle ages, is, again, derived from Conti. In the extreme northwest, in genuine medieval fashion, a leopard and a griffin have been sketched. In this part of Asia the cosmographer places the land of Magog, whence Jews, Mohammedans, and also Christians of the middle ages, expected the coming of the destructive races at the last day.
In Armenia appears Azerum, and to the southeast of this, in an incorrect position, Sauasto.
In the interior, Jerusalem, Damascus, placed far to the north; Antioch and, less accurately placed, Tiberias. Among the cities Media Arabie appears most conspicuous, and the tower decorated with a flag, and lying on the coast, is undoubtedly Dschidda, Contia€™s Zidem. In the interior are Tauria, a center of trade with remote Asia and India; and Ragis, the ancient Rhagas, a residence of Mohammedan princes, and, since the destruction by the Mongolians, a vast ruin, out of which in part the neighboring Teheran is built. Testango, which Pizigani calls Trestago, is Tysch-kandy on the Mertwyi-Kultuk Bay, whence the commercial highway led from the Caspian Sea over the Ust-Urt plateau to Organzin, the ancient capital city Chowaresmiens on the Darjalyk. By this we are to understand Coromandel, lying on the east coast, since it appears evident the legend refers to Meliapur.
Meliapur is distinguished by a Christian church with a cross and the legend, Here lies the body of the apostle Saint Thomas.
The Genoese cartographer appears to have known the trend of the coast even to Cape Verde, although his representation of the coast southward of Cape Bojador is far from correct in its details. These last-named cartographers call this gulf Sinus Aethiopicus, while the Genoese cartographer, the name being repeated many times, designates the mainland as Ethiopia, and his legend here reads: Contrary to the tradition of Ptolemy, this is a gulf, but Pomponius speaks of it with its islands. Before this bay, that is, in the open waters of the Indian Ocean, is represented a fish with a swinea€™s head. In the extreme south of the continent the Mountains of the Moon are represented as snow-covered, with the following explanatory legend: These are the Mountains of the Moon, which, in the Egyptian language, are called Gebelcan, in which mountains the river Nile rises, and from which, in the summer-time, when the snows melt, a very large stream flows.
It was the Abyssinian Christians whom the cosmographers, at the close of the 14th century, had to thank for information concerning their country. Marco Polo ascribes the use of war elephants to the inhabitants of Zanzibar, while Masa€™udi expressly states that their land was rich in elephants, which, however, were neither tamed, nor were they used in any manner.
A river empties in the Syrtus west of Masrata, which comes from a lake in the neighborhood of Wadam, and which is called by Idrisi Palmenoase, a river five daysa€™ journey south of the Great Syrtus. In addition to the elephant and the crocodile, a camel is represented in the southwest, and near it a mythical animal, which may be a dragon or a basilisk, and which, according to tradition, inhabited Africa in antiquity and in the middle ages. For instance, the name Ethiopia appears six times, and in addition, in Western Europe, Ethiopia interior, and in the east, Ethiopia Egypti. To tackle this question, it is necessary to hypothesize on the mapmakera€™s intentions and study the way he handles the space on his map.
Just as important are the various dimensions of meaning on the Genoese World Map relating to faith and social life. Today, in character with the preferences of our own culture, we are persuaded to live our everyday life in a homogeneous, absolute space, neatly separated from time, notwithstanding that Albert Einstein disproved this notion. Compare, for instance, this Catalan-Estense map (#246), the Walsperger world map (#245) and this Genoese world map, all of approximately the same date, ca. My mother had wanted us to fly, but my father said No, the kinds of passenger trains we know wona€™t be around much longer, and I want Jon to know what they were like.
But before we could, the Crescent derailed a bit south of Charlottesville, Va., killing several passengers. But this was so exceptional an experience that I want to write about it for you, and while it is fresh in my mind. After checking in at the Gare de la€™Est and seeing our luggage whisked away, an Orient Express demoiselle led us across the way to an Alsatian brasserie to wait embarkation time at the Orient Expressa€™s expense, with other travelers for Constantinople. While the chef was French, most of the crew were Italian out of Venice, including our sleeping-car steward Marco, and couldna€™t have been better. He was clearly along to be sucked up to (and was, by the chef especially), without ever descending from Olympus to speak to another passenger as far as I noticed, let alone ask whether the rest of us were enjoying the ride. We had not finish-ed tea before the MaA®tre da€™ and an assistant came to take our reservation for dinner; we took the second seating in order to relax and enjoy while the daylight lasted the view of the French countryside through which we were passing. But I didna€™t go back to sleep until the train finally moved again a€” on through the night to cross the border into post-Anschluss Austria, heading for Buda-Pest. I only want to mention a few things for the record, hoping that they will be of interest to you. So after Hungary had ejected the communists in its first free election in 1990, it was my first destination behind the crumbling Iron Curtain just two weeks later as we started developing defense and intelligence relationships with the new emerging democratic Eastern European governments.
The meals were splendid, more often than not more than we could manage a€” something the chef found distressing, as he made his way through the dining-cars each time to see if wea€™d been good boys and girls. Meal for meal, those aboard the Orient Express may not be quite that rich, but its chef got more of a crack at us over our six days aboard.
And in the moments when the racing wheels quieten, one can hear cartridge-clips being fed into well-oiled automatics, ready for the final shoot-up amid the snows of the frontier.
Built principally between 1873 and 1883, ita€™s a knock-out inside and out, and I will never again think of The Prisoner of Zenda without visualizing Peles.
Bucharest itself has a long way to go before it matches Buda-Pest or other Eastern European capitals, even though theya€™re also recovering from fifty years of communism. After a tumultuous welcome at Sirkeci station, Susan and I stayed for three additional days at the Seven Hills Hotel in the Sultanahmet a€?old citya€? district, with a staggering view from our balcony of Hagia Sophia rising a block up the hill. Yeats-Brown, the old Bengal Lancer, we are all indebted for some knowledge of how, in April five-and-thirty years ago, Abdul-Hamid the Damned spent his last night as Caliph of Islam.
But I certainly looked for it, and I took away, if not a precise identification, then at any rate an enviable ticket of admission to the Harem. Anyone who has been to Constantinople or similar points in The Levant will know how hard that can be. The Orient Express was historically a train of international intrigue, running originally from the heart of the Entente Cordiale at its western terminus through Wilhelmine Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire to the seat of the Ottoman Empire at its eastern end. Our voyage aboard the Orient Express took place as Russia was invading Georgia in the Caucasus Mountains on Turkeya€™s eastern border, and it was on the minds of both the passengers and the peoples through whose lands we were passing. It looks ancient but is actually not, having been built only in the beginning of the twentieth century after the Turks were finally expelled. The maps mentioned above are ones that began to assimilate the new discoveries into the Ptolemaic framework (Book I, #119), thereby abandoning the form and format of the earlier maps.
The clerical hold on scholarship was responsible for two of the most conspicuous features of the typical world map: (1) the prominence given to biblical topics and topography and, (2) the survival of certain traditions at a time when fresh knowledge was making them untenable or at least demanding their modification.
John Marignolli, who reached Ceylon in the 14th century, describes a glorious mountain (probably Adama€™s Peak) barely forty miles from paradise, according to the natives. Such a belief is based on the ancient theory of subterranean watercourses flowing deep in the earth, under oceans and between continents.
However, of all the topics to be given pictorial expression, few enjoyed a wider vogue than those concerning the lands of Gog and Magog which are also displayed on Biancoa€™s map.
The Archives of the Republic record his certification, at various dates between 1437 and 1451, as ammiraglio and uomo di consiglio in ships plying the trade routes to Tana [Black Sea], Flanders, Beirut and Alexandria, Rumania, and Barbary.
These are the atlas of ten leaves, with nine charts or maps, dated 1436 and preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice, and the nautical chart of 1448, preserved in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan. Until 1813, when it came to the Biblioteca Marciana, it was in the possession of the Venetian family of Contarini, and there is no evidence that it ever left Venice, where Bianco seems to have executed and signed it.
Description of the Rule of Marteloio (la raxon de marteloio) for resolving the course, with the a€?circle and squarea€?, two tables and two other diagrams; to the right a windrose. FOURTH CHART: coasts of Spain and Portugal, NW Africa, and Atlantic islands (Azores, Madeira, Cape Verde Islands, Antillia, Satanaxio ). SEVENTH CHART, on a smaller scale: all the coasts of Europe and NW Africa comprised in the previous six charts.
The sixth chart is drawn in somewhat different style, with the coastlines traced in smooth broad curves, suggesting less detailed knowledge or information from hearsay. The incongruous appearance of a circular mappamundi of archaic design and a Ptolemaic world map in this company has prompted the suspicion that one or both may have been added to the atlas at a later date. Bianco depicts this land as an extension of Asia that juts out into the blue border surrounding his map, as if beyond the middle of da€™Aillya€™s equinoctial circle (#238). Neither in design nor in content does its author seem to have sought novelty; there is no attempt at originality of design as in Pirrus de Nohaa€™s world map (#239), or at conscientious scrutiny of sources, as in the maps of Leardo and Fra Mauro. The landmass of the earth is shrunk considerably within its frame in order to increase the size of the ocean and to include the polar regions.
Despite dire warnings, a small ship drawn with loving detail is advancing bravely around the southern coast of Africa. The dragons are in what looks initially like a bay, but the feature is actually intended to represent an underwater abyss at the southern end of Africa: the wave pattern at the southern edge of this feature indicates that the dragons are underwater. Biancoa€™s transfer of this entrance to Hell to the southern tip of Africa is surprising, particularly as some authors and cartographers had located the Terrestrial Paradise in the same area. The three continents of the then-known world were associated with the biblical distribution of the lands to the sons of Noah (Book II, #205). In addition to the Ptolemaic world map on the conical projection, there is as the fourth TabulA¦ modernA¦ a circular map in the manner of the portolan [nautical] charts, but without the network of rhumb lines typical of the latter. Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappae mundi of the period 1150-1500 are oriented to the East.
We must recall however that other atlases also often give different forms to a specific area. It is true that he takes over almost all the legends, about 30 in number, but he gives them in shorter or more detailed form and adds to them at least 18 new ones, and in some of the legends taken over from Walsperger he also shows that he is using his own knowledge. There are in this desert innumerable lions, tigers, centaurs and various large unnamed animals.
Island of Jupiter or Immortal Island where nobody dies but in old age is expelled and deprived of life. Here are black naked forest people who live on the fruit of a (certain) tree and therefore worship that tree.
In the river Nile and its lakes there is plenty of purest gold, but there are many serpents and great crocodiles. Here the people are so obedient to their masters that they hang themselves quickly rather than provoke their mastera€™s wrath. On the coast of Scotland are trees on which grow geese suspended like pears, and as soon as they fall down they swim to the water and live.
In England he stresses Winchelsea which at that time was in fact the most important of the Cinqueports, and Canterbury, giving a Germanized spelling to both, i.e. The atlas contains the usual 27 maps and, as Tabulae modernae, Spain, Italy, the Northern areas, and the circular world map. Ptolemya€™s land maps were rectangular with equidistant meridians and parallels of latitudes, or as Fischer put it: a€?on a modified Marinus-projectiona€?. Italy, as in numerous manuscripts and the Ulm editions, still has the old Ptolemaic sloping position, while Berlinghieri gives the peninsula its correct southeastern direction as all portolan maps had done long before.
It thus represents the so-called Zamoiski-type, referred to by Fischer as the second version, while the Wolfegg MSS by Nicolaus Germanus and the Ulm editions which are close to it constitute the third version according to which Greenland is mistakenly placed north of Norway. It is true that the printed Ulm and Berlinghieri editions are the only ones known whose world maps logically show at the equator square meshes of the five-degree network, while others, as far as can be judged from the reproductions by Fisher, have transverse oblongs (approxi-mately 4:5).
The more difficult one, which was nevertheless recommended by Ptolemy, described by Fischer as a a€?modifieda€? conical projection with circular meridians, latitude parallels and borders is known to us from some printed editions (Berlinghieri, Ulm, etc.). In Ptolemy it was an almost rectilinear lozenge, strongly bent eastwards, with a head placed on it. It is another enumeration of the most important provinces, 94 in number mostly identical with the chapter titles, and of their longitudes and latitudes.
Fischer expresses the opinion that it comes from Italy since the former owner, the Naumburg Bishop Joh. Catherine on Mount Sinai, the Iron Tower as the passage to India (Legend 37), Noaha€™s Ark on Mount Ararat.
The atlas contains the usual 27 maps and, as Tabulae modernae, Spain, Italy, the Northern areas, and the circular world map.A  Here too the maps usually extend over two pages, but do not, as in later editions, consist of one piece, being drawn in two halves. It thus represents the so-called Zamoiski-type, referred to by Fischer as the second version, while the Wolfegg MSS by Nicolaus Germanus and the Ulm editions which are close to it constitute the third version according to which Greenland is mistakenly placed north of Norway.A  Fischer discussed the dating of the map of the North and held that it could not be dated before 1474 since Holstein became a duchy only in that year. The 57th longitude degree is drawn in red like the climate lines and thus is especially marked in the series (every five degrees).
It is true that the printed Ulm and BerlinghieriA  editions are the only ones known whose world maps logically show at the equator square meshes of the five-degree network, while others, as far as can be judged from the reproductions by Fisher,A  have transverse oblongs (approxi-mately 4:5).A  In the Zeitz map the mesh, if the meridian is prolonged to reach the equator, has a height of five degrees of latitude equal to eight degrees of longitude!
It has also occurred that the text and the maps were separated.A  In such a case it would seem in no wise impossible that these words were included without special thought, in other words that the Zeitz manuscript also originally contained only the maps.
The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223).
Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head.
James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3).
1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities. Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created.
In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G. The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents.
The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons.
This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history.
Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north.
They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text.
Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations.


For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes.
They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them. Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace. Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated. However, the map is not well preserved, a fact due in part to careless handling, in part to its peculiar mounting which evidently is very old. The map was made not for practical use but for display, probably in the library of the Spinola family. It has been read to refer to Marino Sanudoa€™s map, to the knowledge of sailors (though ungrammatically), and to Marinos of Tyre. It is, however, but mere conjecture to assert that our draughtsman had a Marinus map before him while working out his sketch, though it conforms to the geographical notion of that ancient cartographer. A standard way of describing the earth, from Bede to the Catalan Atlas (#235), was to compare it to an egg. But since this is a description of the cosmographers, who make no mention of it, it is omitted from this narration.a€? Who are the cosmographers, who also appeared in the caption cited above but in a more negative context?
Angelo Cattaneo has identified the source of this legend as Chapter 18 of Pero Tafura€™s Andancas e viajes de Pero Tafur por diversas partes del mundo avidos, written c.
Between the Dniester, at that time the western boundary of the Mongol empire, and the Dnieper is the city Lordo, a name that often appears in references to treaty relations established between the Mongols and the people of the Occident. Here we also find Lisbona, Sibilla, Taragona, Barcelona, Saragosa, and a few other names which are illegible. From the names given which so frequently appear in the history of the period that of Constantinople is omitted. All these are taken from the Conti narrative: Java major is thought to be Borneo, and Java minor the island now known by that name. West of the Golden Chersonese is an animal with the tail of a fish, a humanlike head and large horns and ears, with outstretched arms so attached to the body as to make them serviceable in flying or swimming. Heinrich Wuttke (Karten der seefahrenden Volker) provides a transcription of the captions in the margins and in the figure. In the place of Ptolemya€™s Taprobana two islands are represented, the larger of which, though appearing in outline to be Taprobana, is rather to be taken as a representation of Sumatra, while the smaller bears the name Ceylon. The inhabitants of this Taprobana, which in their language is called Ciamutera, are barbarians, having large ears in which they wear ornaments, and they dress in linen clothes. According to a conjecture of Yule, the name Sumara, which appears in a manuscript of Marco Polo as the name of one of the kingdoms of the island, is only a corruption of Sumatra. The other legend, near the picture of a three-masted ship, reads: The Indian Sea is filled with many islands, rocks and sand-banks. Chinese junks, after an interval of five hundred years, again sailed the Indian Ocean at the end of the 13th century. In addition to the sails, which were made of bamboo matting and attached to four or more masts, these Indian ships had rudders, which were handled by from ten to thirty men. Marco Polo called it the Sea of Ghel, or Ghelan, since Gilan, the city whence silks came, was to the Italians the best-known city on its shores.
A mountain range farther eastward, and stretching in a northeast-southwest direction, is the east Iranian mountain range, along which flows the Indus. Here was a national highway over which, immediately preceding this period, the wild people of central Asia so frequently came into southern Asia.
In these rather remarkable sketches we probably have a reference to the lakes of Udaipur and Dbar on the southern highlands of Mewar, which lakes in fact lie between the Indus and the Ganges. Yule refers to it as one known in the fourth century of the Christian era, in which allusion is made to the hyacinth or jacinth. In Turkestan is the legend King Cambellannas, son of the great Khan, by which legend is probably meant Timur, who reunited the numerous small kingdoms into which, about 1350, Dschagati had fallen. On most of the early maps of the middle ages this land of Gog and Magog is represented, but with the advance of knowledge of Asia the names were given to lands further northward. Of the cities which are here most distinguished there may be named Sinope, which is adorned with a Genoese banner. Of the cities of Parthia only the name Yier appears, by which perhaps Dschordschan is meant. Maabar, it should be noted, is not to be confounded with Malabar, or Melibar of Marco Polo.
There was scarcely a Christian traveler from the time of Montecorvino and Marco Polo, returning with information concerning the so-called Thomas Christians, who had failed to visit Meliapur near Madras, since the place of Saint Thomasa€™ burial was a sacred spot not only to Christians but also to Mohammedan pilgrims.
The Arnona Civitas of the Genoese cartographer seems to lie in about the position of Contia€™s Cernove, reached by him in a fifteen daysa€™ journey from the mouth of the river. The southern coast of Africa is made to extend in a flattened curve toward the east, which representation is similar to that on the world maps of Sanudo, of Leardo, and of Fra Mauro (#228, #242, #249). A legend here reads: This animal, called the sea hog, gathers its food with its snout like the land hog. This legend gives us the Arabic name for the Mountains of the Moon as Gebelcan, which is doubtless the same as Gebel Camr. The Blue Nile, however, is represented according to most recent information from Abyssinia; this river, uniting with the Atbara, forms one river which flows out of a large lake, in which an island is represented. It may be noted that even today the banks of this lake, as well as its islands, are the site of numerous churches and monasteries.
There can be no doubt that in the lands on the west side of the Red Sea elephants were captured by the Ptolemies in great numbers, tamed and made use of in war, as Ptolemy Euergetes testifies in the inscription from Adulis that he employed Troglodytic and Ethiopian elephants against those from India. It is difficult to determine whether by this Wadi Schegea or Wadi um el Cheil is to be understood. One here recalls the description which Idrisi gives of a dragon living on an oasis to the east of Sahara, so enormous in size that it was often mistaken for a mountain. But since that is a representation of cosmographers who have given no description of it, therefore an account of it is here omitted. What is clear is the mapmakera€™s declaration of intent, his striving for accuracy and a near-natural depiction of the world, all of which make his map look rather modern.
Using these histories, he concentrated his attention on certain regions, emphasizing especially Asia, distinguishing certain locations through different forms of depiction, thereby creating a hierarchical space.
Perhaps in answering certain questions one should not look too hard for historical transitions or changes in cartography, as this tempts one to privilege current representational conventions.
Therefore, although this study focuses on maps that are centuries old, it just might enhance our understanding of the current conflict between our daily experience and our theoretical knowledge of space and time.
So we drove to Chicago, stayed overnight at my aunta€™s, and then took the Pennsylvania Railroada€™s Broadway Limited to New York. We found ourselves at a table, as if the other two seats had been kept open just for us, with an affable man in his fifties and his younger blonde wife. When it began to grow dark, we unpacked and changed into black tie (no mean feat, to do that simultaneously in a Pullman compartment), and set forth for the club car where the champagne was flowing generously on the house that evening. To me those games of CIAa€™s are little more than the Mad Magazine spy vs spy hijinks I enjoyed as a kid, but I was reading it for a reason a€” to be able to discuss it in London later with someone whoa€™s turning it into a screenplay. Peering out past the edge of the window shade, I saw we were sitting in Municha€™s Hauptbahnhof a€” with people milling about on the platform at that beastly hour? In the afternoon I had wondered how well Ia€™d sleep with the motion and sounds of the moving train; but it was only when it occasionally stopped in the middle of the night that I would awake, with a start, alert and tense.
Buda-Pest in 1990 was threadbare, soiled and wary, since the Red Army had not yet pulled out. Susan once provoked close to the reaction of Aunt Dahliaa€™s temperamental chef Anatole when Bertie Wooster organized a hunger strike amongst some star-crossed lovers in P. The final one took place in Turkey en route to Constantinople, after a Turkish chef and groceries came aboard at the frontier to prepare and serve our final lunch aboard. But poor King Carol did not put the finishing touches on it until 1914, the year he died; and by then the World War had already begun to destroy the civilization Peles represented. Thanks to Ceausescu tearing down beautiful old neighborhoods to build pyramids to himself, prior to Christmas 1989 when the Roumanian Army shot it out with the secret police (shooting Mr. The next night, back on the train for dinner, we were served shot-glasses of really scorching Romanian grappa. Our guide, a woman who was probably an Intourist guide in the bad old days, was full of facts and figures about Varna, none conveying anything of its character.
Lord, as he liked to put it, of Two Continents and Two Oceans, he whom Gladstone had dubbed the Great Assassin knew on that night that already the obstreperous Young Turks, twenty thousand strong, were starting toward him from Salonika. He speculated as to what among his bottles might make a decent substitute for Lillet until he was back in Venice at the end of the return voyage, with full resources for comprehensive testing. Instead of Lillet, he had used a lesser amount of Galliano, he said, so the chocolate of the crA?me de cacao stood out a shade more than it would otherwise.
World Wars interrupted service, and then the Cold War brought the Orient Express to a halt, for too many years. As we rolled through Strasbourg, how best to respond to Russiaa€™s reviving imperial ambitions was being debated in the European Parliament there. There half a dozen priests chanted prayers for us, and the bishop spoke to us, one of our guides providing a running translation. Since the traditional frame no longer held the new discoveries in the 15th century it became a practical impossibility to center the maps on Jerusalem. The Terrestrial Paradise, for instance, forms an almost constant component of the mappamundi, and what could be more natural? And from the height, the water falling from the fountain of paradise divides into four rivers that flow through the country. As mentioned above, this belief, as old as Pindar, was later revived by Christian writers to explain the rivers of paradise flowing into the world from some remote point in the east. In the north of Asia, on a peninsula that stretches far out into the sea, are the words a€?Gog Magog chest Alexander gie ne roccon ecarleire de tribus iudeorona€? [Gog and Magog of the Jewish tribes whom Alexander enclosed in the rocks (mountains) ages ago]. That was the only year in the period 1445-51 for which his destination is not independently documented. The latter is the primary cartographic authority (since no Portuguese charts of this period are extant) for the Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic and of the African coast up to the year 1445, extending southward to Cape Verde. The seventh chart embraces the a€?normal portolani areaa€?, with some extension to the north (from the sixth chart) and to the south and west (from the fourth chart). The similarity of the handwriting in these two maps and in the rest of the atlas, however, leaves little doubt that they were executed at the same time as the other charts, or else a little later and certainly at the same time as one another. Rather than dismiss Bianco as a€?a casual and untutored cartographera€?, it is tempting to speculate that in adding the two world maps to his atlas he was deliberately presenting side-by-side the old world picture and the new, the geographical lore of the Christian Middle Ages and the lately discovered geography of Ptolemy; just as 16th century editors of the Geographia printed a modern world map, based on experience, alongside the traditional maps of the Ptolemaic atlas. Because of this mapa€™s early date, there is no record of the Portuguese voyages, but in Biancoa€™s 1448 chart, their progress in west Africa is duly noted. The legend between the dragons is usually transcribed as nidus abimalion, but without adequate explanation. But his location of an underwater nest of monsters, including sea monsters, at the southern end of the world (which is what he represents, whatever the precise interpretation of the text) is a startling innovation that defies ready explanation.
The classical heritage was marked by the surrounding twelve winds, as well as the dominance of geographical names harking back to ancient times. Andrea Bianco was followed in 1459 by Fra Mauro, who made his famous planisphere for Alphonso IV of Portugal (#249).
The legend of Antillia (or Antilia), also known as the Isle of Seven Cities, originated in an old Iberian legend about seven bishops from the eighth century who fled Muslim conquerors by fleeing westward to the island. This is one of the first Ptolemaic maps made since the recovery and Latin translation of Ptolemy's work in the early 15th century. The circular world map has a diameter of 45.7 cm (44 cm wide and 57 cm high), there are minor cuts on the sides, but originally it must have been complete as indicated by the fact that on the left side, where the sheet has been enlarged by pasting on a narrow strip of paper, parts of the legend have been lost.
But among the maps contemporary with that of the Zeitz mappa mundi is the 1448 world map of Andreas Walsperger (#245), the so-called Borgia world map (#237) of the first half of the 15th century, the Benedetto Cotruglia€™s De navigatione world map of 1465 (#250) and the Fra Mauro mappa mundi (#249) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South. Likewise, the limits of the terrestrial disc as determined by the circle are the same, the only difference being that in Walsperger this circle is drawn eccentrically and does not define the limits of the map, and, moreover, it is not complete, being interrupted by the seas. Thus, to the legend according to which the wife is buried alive on her husbanda€™s death, he adds the critical remark that Strabo had stated that the wife was burnt (Legend 35). In their stead Donnus Nicolaus Germanus, who worked in Florence, introduced from 1466, not only for the Tabulae modernae but also for the actual Ptolemaic maps, the trapezoid form with slanting meridians, retaining however the horizontal latitudes (the so-called Donis projection). Although in this case, as in the case of the modern maps of Spain and Italy, the portolan maps had smoothed the road to truth, Germanus gives Jutland the form of a prancing caterpillar with an open mouth (the eastern mouth of the Lim Fjord?), which is familiar to us especially from the Ulm editions. While Walsperger lists kA¶ppenhan in Denmark, Zeitz considers the southern outer port of DragA¶r?
Winkelse and Candelburg.A  This divergence from the portolan maps is striking, as Canterbury was called a€?sco pomas da€™conturbaa€? in the Pisan map and Winchelsea is spelled Ginalexo almost without any variation from the Luxor Atlas to at least FreducciA  in 1538 (London).
It is the only map to show Jews, with their pointed hats, confined in the mountains by Gog and Magog (Legend 40). In addition to the outer frame with degrees there are also two inner frames, also with indication of degrees, as was the case in the Nancy codex of 1427 and the Brussels Lat.
The map of Europe VIII (the area between the Baltic Sea and the Balkans) thus shows, despite the previous existence of the map of the North, only the island Scandia, while in the maps referred to above the entire southeast of Sweden with Bornholm and Gotland have been taken over from the map of the North. Also the Zeitz map says a€?ducatusa€? but writes correctly a€?olsaciea€?.A  Later, after the date October 4, 1468, had been established in the Wolfegg manuscript, Fischer arrived at the conclusion that this type had existed earlier as confirmed by the Zeitz map. FischerA  discusses the Zeitz manuscript and calls it only a€?a peculiar and, indeed, incomplete world map which, as regards structure and execution, depends on the outline maps of the second Greek version of Ptolemya€?. Although in this case, as in the case of the modern maps of Spain and Italy, the portolan maps had smoothed the road to truth,A  Germanus gives JutlandA  the form of a prancing caterpillar with an open mouth (the eastern mouth of the Lim Fjord?), which is familiar to us especially from the Ulm editions.
One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7. In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches. India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts. A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead. Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly.
Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps.
The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser. Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery.
Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time.
Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes.
Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top.
Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world.
They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books. God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map.
Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories. The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers.
Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors.
More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries. Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England. We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265. A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them. The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries.
To prevent the crinkling of the parchment, as would appear, it has been mounted on four boards of suitable width and of about half an inch in thickness, which boards have been adjusted to fold. In support of the last idea, it is noteworthy that the map appears to extend 225A° by 87A°, the extent of the habitable world, according to him. This abandonment of the more common circular form enabled the cartographer to show features that were increasingly squeezed on 15th century mappaemundi.
The main purpose of the analogy seems to have been to describe the various spheres surrounding the earth (egg white, shell), but the idea of an egg shape could have been derived from these works. In the Indian Ocean are shown a mermaid and a fish with a devila€™s head, while on land nearby is a snake with a human head. Prester John is represented behind a wall, protecting him from the future rampages of Gog and Magog.
This monster is said to attack the ships of the Indians, usually breaking them immediately, but its crest can get stuck in the ship's wood and as a result the creature, unable to escape, kills itself. Sara was the capital of the Kipchak, and in the 14th century was a city of great importance, but in 1395 was destroyed by Timur.
Though the names Sanday and Bandam have not been satisfactorily explained, the reference in the legend to spices and cloves makes it fairly certain that they are islands of the Moluccas group. If we have here an attempt at a representation of the Gulf of Siam, the city Pauconia is probably Bangkok. A legend gives the following information: This species of fish, recently [caught?] in Candia, feeds upon the meadows of the shore like cows.
A legend near this reads: The island of Ceylon, having a circumference of three thousand miles, is rich in rubies, sapphires, and cata€™s-eyes, and produces cinnamon from trees similar to our willow tree. Marco Polo, the first traveler from the west who seems to have brought definite word from Sumatra, called it Java the Less, under which name, however, according to the Genoese cartographer, we are to understand Java or Borneo.
Their ships, therefore, are constructed with many compartments, to the end that if they are broken in any part, the remaining parts may be sufficiently strong to complete the course. Marco Polo, who, on his homeward journey, sailed in one of them as far as Malabar, gives us a detailed picture of these boats.
The larger vessels also carried small boats, which were used, as Marco Polo states, a€?to lay out the anchors, catch fish, bring supplies aboard, and the like.
Mons Synai, near the northern border of the Red Sea, is represented, on the summit of which is the Convent of St. Aside from the Volga and the Ural, two other rivers are here represented, rising in a range of mountains that extends in an east-west direction. This river forms through its four outlets a conspicuous delta, and receives from the neighboring mountain range two tributaries. Indeed, from the most ancient times this important highway was the connecting link between northern and southern Asia, and its architectural ruins a€”the fortifications erected by the different peoples at different timesa€”point to its significance.
It was one known to the Byzantines, to the Arabs, and to the Chinese, but it seems to owe its origin to India. King Cambalech, that is, the Great Khan, is represented in a picture as ruling Cathay, and the King of India is represented on horseback with sword in hand. Here the cosmographer seems to rely in the main on Arabic sources, and especially on Idrisi.
On the Persian Gulf lies Ragan, by which Arragan is probably to be understood, whose ruins are found in the vicinity of the present Babahan, with Fars on the Ab Ergum. Destroyed first by Genghis Khan in 1221, and again by Timur, this great Asiatic frontier commercial city in the time of Conti was in ruins. The tradition that the holy Thomas preached Christianity in India, suffered martyrdom, and was buried in a mountain had its origin in very early times. Conti gives a vivid description of this part of the Ganges River, up which river, as he states, he sailed for the space of three months; and from his description one might conclude that he had passed entirely through Hindustan, and that after he had made the desired commercial observations he turned about to make a long sojourn in Maharatia, perhaps one of the four important cities to which he refers. The southern continental boundary of the Indian Ocean appearing on Ptolemya€™s world maps, reduced to a long and narrow peninsula by Sanudo and Fra Mauro, is still further reduced by the Genoese cartographer. The name Djihal-alqamar, Mountains of the Moon, according to a conjecture of Kiepert, was derived in Ptolemya€™s time erroneously from Djibal-qomr, Blue Mountains.
Meroe, however, does not, as with Ptolemy, lie on a river island, but on a river peninsula. The large island Dek, or the Holy Daga Island, dedicated to Saint Stephen, is now inhabited by hermit monks, and to it the outside world is not admitted. In Tunis a river is made to empty into the Mediterranean, which is probably the Medscherda, with one branch emptying on the north side of the Gulf of Tunis, and with another into the Gulf of Hammamet. It had the form of a snake in that it crawled on the ground, but had large ears extending forward.
Professor Fischer thinks this is to be understood as signifying that the Genoese cosmographer based his information on pre-Christian authors, that is, Pliny and Ptolemy, while omitting his own view concerning the position of the earthly paradise. The mapmaker saw apparently no inconsistency in depicting different times simultaneously or one element in multiple locations, melding time and space seems to be effected unconsciously. In studying cosmological models of the Middle Ages, it would be more constructive to look for continuities that might even expose our modern understanding of homogeneous space as an illusion.
I have never forgotten that trip; I can still see the gleaming chocolate-brown Pullman cars alongside the platform at Chicagoa€™s Union Station, still remember our sleeping compartments and dinner in the dining-car.
And rich smooth Colombian coffee afterwards, followed by Armagnac and such in the club car.
Now Peles Castle is to be returned in two years to the king in exile, Michael, already eighty-nine years old, whom the Roumanian government expects will sell it back to the State for a sum that will set up Michaela€™s daughter and grandson for life, or however long the loot lasts after their grieving arrival in Monte Carlo.
On the large round bottlea€™s label was a famous fifteenth-century woodcut of Vlad the Impaler. What she did convey again and again is how Bulgarians feel about Turks, who conquered and ruled the land for several centuries.
He could only issue a statement breathing his somewhat belated passion for constitutional government and then await another daylight. Finally the implosion of Soviet Russiaa€™s evil empire in 1989-90 made it possible for service to be restored.
In Buda-Pest, Istvan took us to the Citadel the Austrians built after the 1848 revolutions, a spectacular artillery platform high above the Danube below which the entire city lies totally exposed.
The bishop spoke for at least ten minutes, maybe fifteen, but I can reduce what he told us to these few pointed words: a€?Make no mistake about it, the Cold War is coming back. The Andrea Biancoa€™s mappamundi, made in Venice in 1436, forms part of an atlas, which also includes nautical instructions, a series of sea charts, and a Ptolemaic world map. No orthodox Christian in the Middle Ages doubted the existence of this original home of mankind as a fact of contemporary history.
Gog and Magog begin at this time, following the trend established by the 12th century in popular exegesis, to be confused on world maps with Jews, especially the Ten Lost Tribes. This chart, which has been frequently reproduced, has been the subject of much discussion in regard to its representation of the Azores and of islands shown at the southern edge of the chart, two off Cape Verde (conjecturally identified as the Cape Verde Islands) and ixola otenticha. The geographical delineations in this and in the circular world map agree on the whole with those in the six special charts and seem to be generalizations from them. However, it does not appear that Bianco clearly understood or intended this map as a global representation in the same sense as da€™Ailly did his Seventh Figure. The first Latin translation of Ptolemya€™s Greek text was completed by the Florentine Jacopo da€™Angiolo in 1406, and the maps were turned into Latin soon after. To the south of this promontory lies a long gulf, and on the peninsula nearby is the Garden of Eden, with Adam and Eve standing on either side of the tree, and the four rivers flowing to the west.
Bianco frequently ends words with a€?-ona€? where a€?-urna€? would be normal in Latin, e.g. While current events and newly founded cities were not excluded from the maps, historical sites were equally important: the cities of Troy and Carthage, the sites of ancient battles, the exploits of Alexander, the progress of the empires from east to west. Andrea Bianco included the island in his map of 1436, but it was omitted in his later map of 1448. The map was also formerly folded, as can be seen from a mark passing through Jerusalem, the center of the map. Thus it is not surprising that, around the mid-15th century, a mappa mundi was oriented to the South.
In Walsperger, the circumference forming the northern limit, with an extensive stretch of sea beyond, makes Norway appear as a peninsula, although, as the Zeitz map shows, this was not the intention (in the Table, the southern part of Norway seems to be cut off by a sea inlet, while actually the separating feature is a mountain chain). In this connection, compare the Catalan-Estense map in Modena (#246), whose author, approximately contemporary with Walsperger (#245), used the old portolan chart as a basis and only enlarged it to east and south to about double the extent. And in contradiction to Walspergera€™s statement that in Norway the trolls (goblins) appeared in concrete shapes (in figuris) and aided people, the Zeitz map says (Legend 45) that, instead, they beat them but had never yet been seen. According to NordenskiA¶ld, Berlinghieria€™s printed edition is the only one to retain the rectangular form, and the Bologna edition is the only one that uses the pure conical projection with slanting meridians and bent parallels of latitude. However, it appears already in the first version (which lacks the map of the North) in the Germania map and was then taken over into the map of the North.
This opinion is contradicted by the fact that the script is Gothic, while contemporaneous manuscripts that came from Italy already show the antique. Also Truntbaym (elsewhere tronde = Trondhiem), rogel (Rochelle) and the frequent use of W instead of V (Wenecia, Wiena) must be cited as examples of Germanization.
As regards also the shape of the mountains, the number of cities and other symbols, Zeitz differs considerably, and on the whole appears to be executed with less care.
From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves.
Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181). 12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words. Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map. Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St.
It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus.
As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps.
Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added. It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi. They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features.
Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360.
In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
In certain parts the colors are yet brilliant, though softened with age; in other parts they have almost disappeared, and nothing has contributed more to this destruction than the nibbing of part-on-part. Without an expert and minute palaeographical investigation, it is impossible either to accept or reject the attribution to Toscanelli, but Crino presented a case which requires further examination. What we now know about Marinos is mostly from Ptolemya€™s criticism of him, but the Arab geographer al-Maa€™sudi reported in the 10th century that he had seen Marinusa€™ geographical treatise. Jerusalem does not appear in the center of the map but is considerably to the west of a center located south of the Caspian Sea. Another possibility is that the oval form represents the mandorla, or nimbus, which surrounded Christ in many medieval works of art.
The title of Ptolemya€™s work, as it circulated through Italy in the 15th century, was usually given as Cosmographia rather than Geography, a less familiar Greek term. As we might expect from a Genoese map, good use has been made of the nautical chart as well. Van Duzer adds that Tafura€™s account derives from Poggio Bracciolinia€™s Facetiae, written between 1438 and 1452, which describes a very similar monster that attacked some women by the seashore, and was killed and exhibited in Ferrara.
Between the Dnieper and the Don the author has made a suggestive reference to the custom of that migratory folk of transporting their houses about with them on wagons drawn by oxen, a custom also attributed to the early Teutons and the Huns. Saratellis, if this is a correct reading of the name, is probably the Saracanco of Balducci Pigolotti. We may have in this gulf one of the earliest cartographical representations of the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of Petchili. In this island there is a lake, in the middle of which is a noble city whose inhabitants, given over to astrology, predict all future events. Conti gives to the island a circumference of about two thousand miles, as does Marco Polo, which is very nearly correct. These, moreover, are supplied with several masts, from three to ten, and having sails made of reeds and palm-leaves joined together, they pursue their courses with great rapidity.
When the ship is under sail, she carries these boats slung to her side.a€? Many of the vessels had as many as four decks, and even the smaller ones, fifty or sixty cabins. Catherine; and we also find here the highlands of Armenia, out of which flow the Euphrates and Tigris, these highlands being especially distinguished by a representation of Noaha€™s Ark. From the mountain range on the northern border of Parthia, a great range stretches diagonally across the entire Asiatic continent, to the gulf indicated on the east, to which gulf reference has been made. Very properly, the name of Alexander is associated with it, since through his founding of Alexandria ad Caucasum the southern region was secured against the attack of the northern barbarians, the Scythians, who, in the language of the middle ages, were called Tartars. They owe their origin in part to artificial dams, and serve the purpose of reservoirs for artificial irrigation. Northern Asia is properly made to appear as a region covered with pine forests, a representation which is to be found on no other early world map, and which seems to suggest that the Genoese mapmaker was in possession of somewhat detailed information concerning the character of the region.
He places Magog north of the mountain range stretching entirely across Asia, Gog south of the same, and on the border range several towers are indicated. In the highlands of Iran appear the names Media, Zilan, Parthia, Aria, Aracosa, Gedrosia, Cormania and Persis. This place, incorrectly located on the coast, is not referred to by Conti, nor is it to be found on any other map.
The name Machin seems clearly to be a modification of the Sanskrit Maha Chin, that is, Great China, a name which the Persian and the Arabic writers frequently used for Manzi, the southern part of China. Legends are here inscribed on either side of a broad scroll, wherein the author refers to his work and gives the date of its composition, which legends are almost illegible. This seems to refer to the snow-peaks of the Kilimanjaro and Kenya, as seen from a great distance, which mountains send their waters toward the interior of the continent. Even the irrigation canals, which lead out from the Nile in Nubia and Egypt, are represented by the Genoese cartographer. About the time that the Genoese cartographer produced his map he could well have received excellent information concerning Abyssinia.
A similar river, dividing into two branches near its source, empties into the sea in Algeria east and west of Algiers, and a smaller one east of Ceuta. Medieval cosmographers place this now in East Africa, now in East Asia, but more frequently in the latter. Taking his stated aim for truth seriously would imply that all of these features were part of his truth.
But it wasna€™t that we were unsteady on our feet as we made our way back to our sleeping-car, you understand; it was the rocking of the train as it sped along.
Susan, seeing it for the first time, loved it and wants to return sometime to spend a week there.
Many writers devote long chapters to the description of its delights, though none from first-hand enjoyment of them. And on that river excellent craftsmen have their dwellings, occupying wooden houses, especially weavers of silk and gold brocade Banaras?), in such numbers, as in my opinion do not exist in the whole of Italy.
Three ships were certainly fitted out by the Venetian Senate in February 1448, two of them intending to call at London. While Biancoa€™s meridian line passes through the same area as da€™Aillya€™s, his equatorial line passes through Greece, Italy, and Spain, far north of the true global equator. Biancoa€™s copy of the Ptolemaic world map, made in Venice in 1436, testifies to the diffusion of the Latin manuscripts of the Geographia and has a possible relevance to the Ptolemaic echoes in the nomenclature of the Vinland Map (#243), few and faint though they are. Of special significance was biblical history, and the most complete mappaemundi covered it all, from the Creation through the Incarnation to the Last Judgment, important sites such as the barns of Joseph, the sites connected with the life of Christ, the missions of the apostles, and the bishopric of Saint Augustine, set forth the sacred story in spatial terms.
The existence of the island on maps has been used for theories of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact and some say may represent the American landmass.
The sea, as in all other maps of this atlas, is green, the mountain ranges grayish-brown or yellow, while the cities are represented by small filled red circles.
Some explanations also include the influence of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the maritime commercial focus of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the South. The author of the latter map has, consequently, used either that of Walsperger or a source common to both.
But unlike this Modena map, which shows even fewer cities than most portolan charts, we find in the same area on both charts almost the same wealth of topographical data which is surprising (since the portolan charts never suggested anything of the kind) in the first Tabulae modernae of Spain and Italy appended by Donnus (Donis) Nicolaus Germanus. And the legend concerning trees that give birth to birds (Legend 46), which all other maps, including Walsperger, place near Ireland, is in Zeitz linked to Scotland. However the Zeitz Germania map retains the Ptolemaic rectangular shape of the land map and Jutlanda€™s old shape, although it shows the new form in the map of the North.
Much more weight attaches to the germanization of city names, referred to above, which we find also in Walsperger who worked in Constance.
Directly outside the gate holding them in are the characteristic legends a€?here the pygmies fight with the cranesa€? (a reference to the ancient tale of the pygmies and the cranes) and a€?here men eat the flesh of mena€?.
This usage presumably had its origin in the difficulty of obtaining large sheets of vellum of double size for the often used format of a€?fol.
A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted.
Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow. At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself. The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events. Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning.
More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity. Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions. A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning.
Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury.
In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. On the question, of main interest here, as to the correspondence between the letter of 1474 and the map of 1457, it is possible, however, to form some opinion.
The highly pictorial character of this well-preserved map leads us to think of it as more traditional than it actually is.
In the 14th century didactic poem, a€?Il Dittamondoa€? Fazio degli Uberti, described the inhabited world as long and narrow (a€?lungo e strettoa€?) like an almond (mandorla), with no apparent religious significance. Certainly, neither Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela, nor Pliny had given a location for Paradise, save for fantasies about the Fortunate Islands, and the Genoese mapmaker appears to associate classical with scientific geography. These fantastic creatures join other wonderful but real animals, such as a giraffe, a leopard, a crocodile, two monkeys, and a swordfish.
Illustrations of the monster which are very similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map accompany excerpts from the Facetiae which are appended to various 15th and 16th century editions of Aesopa€™s fables.
Such a wagon with driver and oxen, rather crudely sketched, is represented moving eastward, near which appears the legend, Ubi lordo errat.
The other [story relates] that certain of their trees bear fruit which, decaying within, produces a worm which, as it subsequently develops, becomes hairy and feathered, and, provided with wings, flies like a bird. According to Pigolotti, Sara could be reached in a day by water from Astrakhan, Saracanco in eight days by water or by land. Longer legends take material from Conti on the funeral practice of wife burning (a€?if they refuse out of fear, they are forced to do ita€?), the cultivation of pepper, the collection of human heads in Sumatra, the sea-tight compartments of Chinese junks, the practice of tattooing, and the availability of spices and multicolored parrots.
Sanday sends saffron, nuts, muscatas, and maces to the Javas, Bandan an abundance of cloves.
Magog (Gog is missing), the Tatars, the Ten Lost Tribes, the Antichrist and the Alexander story are mixed as though they naturally belonged in the same place - as they by then did, at least in the literature and exegesis directed to the literate but not learned. The position of Ceylon was now well known, being here placed to the east of a peninsula that we can recognize as the southern point of India.
In its outlines Further India, UltraIndia (Southeast Asia) is Ptolemaic, a fact which is especially noticeable in the very prominent peninsular character. And these [ships], loaded in particular with spices and other aromatics, sailing rather often to Mecca in Arabia, trade with the Western merchants through an exchange of their goods. South of the Caspian Sea we find a quadrangle framed by mountains that appears to be Parthia, according to the representation of Ptolemy.
The Genoese cosmographer must have had information concerning the numerous towers scattered here and there over this pass.
They are remarkable for their natural surroundings, and for the palaces of the rulers of Mewar erected on their banks. In the extreme north appears the figure of a man casting himself into the sea, whose act is explained in the following legend: It is the custom of these people, as old age comes on, to cast themselves from the steep precipices into the sea. The people Gog appear as a group of dwarfs covered with a shield, who are attacked by two cranes. On the Sea of Marmora is Palolimen and Diascinolo which on English charts is represented as Eskel Bay, a semicircular harbor with a very good anchorage twelve kilometers east of the mouth of Susurulu Tschai. Including in part Indo-China, the name Machin may also include Southeast Asia, for which there is support in certain 15th century references, as there are people of Southeast Asia among whom the custom of tattooing prevails; this being particularly true of the Laos and the Burmese. One of them seems to read: This sea is called the ocean which, according to cosmographers, stretches out infinitely in every direction, covering the earth except about a fourth part here laid down.
It was doubtless through Arabic merchantmen that the Alexandrian geographer derived his information, on a visit to the east coast of Africa. On an island in a lake of Abyssinia there appears to be a floating house, and near it the legend: In this lake there is an island, Tana by name, which contains forests and groves and a great temple of Apollo.
In 1439 Pope Eugenius IV named an apostolic delegate to that region, and sent a letter to Prester John, the ruler of Abyssinia; and we also learn that an Abyssinian ambassador appeared at the Council of Florence in the year 1441. If the Genoese cosmographer, in the well known regions, represents somewhat arbitrarily his watercourses, we can certainly expect to find this in the less known regions.
Three human figures are introduced to represent the political and ethnographical situation, one a turbaned Mohammedan ruler of Egypt, with the inscription Dominus; the other a crowned head with black hair, carrying a banner, on which is a cross with the inscription, Presbyter Johannes Rex, denoting the Christian ruler of Abyssinia. The north coast of Africa embraces Mauretania, to which Regnum fesse and, in part, Regnum Trenecen belong. Calata is probably Idrisia€™s Al Cal, near Msila in the highlands of the Schotts, a significant city before the rise of Bougie, the capital city of the kingdom of the Hammaditen. And just had dinner the night before with good old class-of-a€™69 Bob Kimmett, the Treasury under-secretary!
This stop was only twenty-four hours, but we had perfect weather, a personable young guide named IstvA?n SzabA? whose enthusiasm for his city was infectious, rooms on the Buda heights with smashing views of the Danube below and Pest on the other bank, a banquet at the Academy of Sciences, a cruise up and down the Danube as well as an excellent tour of the town, and lunch the day of our departure at Gundel, one of Buda-Pesta€™s great surviving institutions. It must have come all right in the end, though, because when the chef inscribed a menu for Susan at the end of the journey, it was practically a mash-note. It was the chimney, he told us, of a nineteenth-century power plant now converted from coal to natural gas. These transitional maps are often circular, with a well-defined Mediterranean and Black Sea area directly derived from the portolan [nautical] charts. Even Mandeville, the most romantic geographer of the age, confesses that he had not visited it on account of his unworthiness, but that he had derived his information about it from trustworthy men. Presumably Bianco drew the chart ashore during the three and a half months allotted for cargo loading and customs clearance. The curious mixture of wheel-map tradition with global projection theory is further emphasized in the west.
The Indian Ocean is open to the east and crowded with islands, while Africa extends far to the east, bounding the ocean on the south.
Asia is almost entirely taken up by an array of enthroned kings, flanked by what appear to be their entourages.
Thus, according to Van Duzer we are to understand nidus abimalion as nidus abimalium, and the phrase evidently means a€?nest of the creatures of the abyss,a€? though abimalium is not attested in other sources (compare the French abime, a€?abyssa€?).
As he had renounced Walspergera€™s scientific additions (celestial spheres, climates, polar legends, etc.), which partly fill the seas, he could also do without the now empty ocean space and close the two circles. Especially in the German region we find names of quite insignificant places like Ragnit, the only town of the district of the same name in the former East Prussia.
The author of the Zeitz map gives the islands of the Indian Ocean names different from Walsperger in part (Insula Jabadum, Orgia, Insula preciossissima); he also shows Imaus mons, the Magnus sinus and other details absent from Walsperger, and places the Amazons not on the continent but on one of these islands.
Finally, the correction of a€?olfaciea€? into a€?olsaciea€?, as stated above, speaks for a German rather than an Italian author. The author of the ZeitzA  map gives the islands of the Indian Ocean names different from Walsperger in part (Insula Jabadum, Orgia, Insula preciossissima); he also shows Imaus mons, the Magnus sinus and other details absent from Walsperger, and places the Amazons not on the continent but on one of these islands. Within the enclosure is a crowd of people, the only ones depicted on the entire map, wearing pointed hats - a clear though exaggerated reference to the a€?Jewa€™s hata€? of medieval custom.
It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]).


Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards. This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed.
Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it.
Kimble, there are at least three distinct influences, in addition to the portolan [nautical] chart tradition, that can be detected in these examples: Classical, Christian and Arab. Oversized crowned or turbaned kings, monstrous and simply exotic animals, an elephant bearing an elaborate howdah, and scary sea monsters associate with more scientific signs, such as flags and city symbols.
Ptolemya€™s maps, while not exactly oval, were wider from east to west than they were high (north to south).
A partially finished network of rhumb lines appears on the map, and on the right are two scale bars, though they are more a sign of intention than reality. One such edition is Sebastian Branta€™s Esopi appologi sive mythologi cum quibusdam carminum et fabularum additionibus (Basel: Jacobus de Phortzheim, 1501), in which Bracciolinia€™s text about the monster is cited and accompanied by an illustration of the monster quite similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map.
A good picture of a Mongol appears on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, and also one west of the Black Sea, being drawn about the time of the destruction of their rule. The reference appears to be to a marine animal, perhaps the dugong, which, resembling a cow and accustomed to graze in the fields along the seashore, was captured in the East and brought to Venice.
In this as well as in other parts of extreme southern Asia the Geonoese cosmographer seems especially to exhibit an acquaintance with the record of the distinguished Italian traveler Nicolo di Conti who referred to Ceylon as Zeilan. Cannibals inhabit a part of this island, who, continually waging war with their neighbors, make a collection of human heads as treasures, and he who has the most heads is the richest. It stretches toward the south, terminating in a prominent Golden Chersonese, a name which the legend suggests: Here gold is found in abundance with jewels and precious stones. In the Gulf of Iskanderun a river empties, flowing out of the northeast, recognizable as the Dschihan, on which lies the city Antioch. These mountains clearly are the Taurus, Paropamisus and the Emodas of Ptolemy, the continental axis of Asia, that is, the Hindu Kush, the Quen Lun, the Nan Schan, and the other border mountains of eastern central Asia today, which in their spurs reach almost to the Gulf of Petchili.
As in questions relating to the Nile, Ptolemy showed himself to be better informed than were geographers of later date, even to very recent times, so it also appears that his representation of the mountain systems of Asia, though somewhat altered by our author, was remarkably well done in the larger general features. This statement concerning the lakes as represented on our map is supported by the fact that a mountain appears to the southwest, from which a river flows to the south, at the mouth of which lies Cambay. A legend gives the following explanation: These are of the generation of Gog, who do not exceed the height of a cubit, who do not attain the age of nine years, and who are continually molested by cranes.
On the same strait, but farther to the southeast, lies a second city, Caila, near which is the legend, Caila, where they use the leaves of trees instead of papyrus. The Genoese cartographer clearly considers Burma a part of Machin, which since the 13th century had belonged to China.
This sea, disturbed by the force of the moon, ebbs and flows around the earth every lunar day, as Albertus says in his Natural History. In support of the statement that the Genoese cosmographer was well informed concerning Abyssinia may be found the representation of a war elephant carrying a tower filled with armed men. A third figure, unmistakably a negro, in the southwest, holds a ball (?) in his hand, and is described in the following legend: These are the people who live degenerate lives, among whom there is no distinguishing name, who behold the rising and the setting sun with direful imprecations. What the Roumanians make of Bucharest life today is mixed, according to our intelligent young guide Alexandra, but no one would think of bringing that vampiric era back. To hear her talk, Bulgarians still brood over Britain and France siding with the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War.
Today, he told us, all of Hungarya€™s electricity, power for industry and business, and heat comes from natural gas; and, he said, a€?Ninety-eight percent of it comes from Russia. Bianco is also recorded as having collaborated with Fra Mauro at Murano on his celebrated world map (#249), as payments made to him between 1448 and 1459 testify.
There Bianco apparently gives explicit attention to da€™Aillya€™s ocean problem by showing the full extent of the ocean to the global horizon.
The holy land is illustrated by Mary holding the infant Jesus on her lap with the three wise men in attendance, and Jesus is also shown being baptized by John in the river Jordan. Like Walsperger, he represents Europe as having a a€?cata€™s backa€? in the north, Jutland with the same pronounced contraction, Sweden as an island, and finally, the Baltic Sea in the same form, different from that in the portolan charts. Finally it is also very remarkable that he re-establishes the island of Meroe in the Nile, common to all old maps from Ptolemy, but replaced in Walsperger by a lacus Meroys. The confusion of Gog and Magog with the Ten Lost Tribes is not surprising unless contrasted with the careful scholarship of a Fra Mauro (#249).
Some maps or half-maps as well as explanations are lacking, and others have been mis-bound. She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season.
Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. Inscriptions on the map, as well as recently discovered geographical features, however, proclaim the map to be a document of cartographic thinking similar, if not as large and ambitious, to that of Fra Mauro (#249). For a 15th century mapmaker, this form made convenient room for discoveries in the Atlantic and in Asia. The Genoese mapa€™s sea monsters reflect the cartographera€™s interest in exotic wonders, which is everywhere in evidence on the map, and typical of the scientific outlook of the early modern period, which was driven by curiosity and took a great interest in marvels. The Italians were then in close relations with the Golden Horde from Moncastro, Kaffa, Sudak, and Tana as centers, and were, therefore, in a position to know intimately their customs and manner of life. Bandan, moreover, has parrots of three kinds: red ones, those of variegated color with yellow beaks, and white ones the size of hens. That rare animals at the time of the construction of our map were brought to Italy, where they were viewed with astonishment by the natives, certain observations of Benedetto Dei bear witness.
This description of Taprobana appears clearly to have been taken from Conti, and it is very interesting to observe that our cartographer, not in a very successful manner, has attempted to bring the report of Conti into accord with Ptolemy. The Caucasus stretches across the isthmus between the Black and the Caspian seas, and as numerous rivers rising in the Caucasus empty into the former, the mountain range had to be drawn nearer the Caspian Sea in order that there might be sufficient space for the range and the representation of the Iron Gate near Derbent. The Ptolemaic Imaus, which divides Scythia into Hither and Further Scythiaa€”Scithia citra ymaum montem and Scithia ultra ymaum montesa€”is very prominently represented on our map. Herein in particular does the value of the Genoese map appear in a comparison with the larger map by Fra Mauro (#249), although the latter is richer in details.
Even today in northeast Asia, there may be found a people among whom suicide is common, the result of a belief that should one depart this life before the feebleness of old age comes on, a life of happiness in the hereafter is secured.
Idrisi also represents the people Gog as dwarfs, and our cosmographer identifies them as the pygmies of Pliny, who placed them in the mountains of the north of India, exactly as does the Genoese cosmographer, in a beautiful valley protected from the cold winds, where they are molested only by the attacks of the cranes.
On the west coast only the name Altoluogo appears, which name one finds on almost all sea charts. The city Calacia, lying in the interior, seems more difficult to distinguish, which city is referred to by Conti, but is not definitely located. Caila is Contia€™s Cahila on the Gulf of Manaar, Marco Poloa€™s Cail, and Ptolemya€™s Colchi.
It appears from this that Albertus Magnus was one of the Genoese cartographera€™s authorities. The cartographic signs and generalization are similar in style to those of the portolan charts, as is the network of rhumb lines radiating from the center of the map. This is a device that appears again below and seems to be part of a transitional phase in which consideration was being given to the situation or the world continent relative to the global ocean.
In the north, marked off by a half-circle, we read that it is terribly cold and that every-one born in that region is a savage.
It is almost as though all of Biancoa€™s pent-up creativity is unleashed after drawing the more restrained sea charts.
Although this map derives, along with Walspergera€™s 1448 map, from a common original, circular in form, made around 1425 at the abbey of Klosterneuburg, and therefore is not Ptolemaic in origin, some Ptolemaic maps adopted the legend of the enclosed Jews, which, along with Gog and Magog, was passed down well into the 16th century. If, as is the case with the Ptolemaic Ulm editions of 1482 and 1486, the explanations (contents, length of the day, and the distance in hours from Alexandria) for each map are on the recto of the specific double-map-sheet, such mis-binding would be immaterial. In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment.
Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims. Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi. Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. Crone, is that the letter definitely refers to a chart for navigation, while the 1457 map is primarily a world map drawn by a cosmographer.
By the end of the century, the circular form was becoming impractical, and once the Americas were added to world maps, it was gone almost completely. The demon-like monster in particular is evidence of the cartographera€™s research in recent travel literature to find sea monsters for his map. If this is so, this is the first time that the much sought after spice islands appear clearly on a map. Mention may be made of the peacock which he brought from Alexandria for Cosimo de Medici; also of a chameleon, and, more important than all, of a big serpent with 100 teeth which he seems to have brought to Florence from Beirut (possibly a reference to the crocodile). This city is distinguished by a strong tower and the legend: This is Derbent, which in their language [means] a gate of iron.
It branches in diagonal directions westward of the sources of the Indus, that is, nearly twenty degrees farther westward from the continental axis than it is represented by Ptolemy. In the representation of the Indus, for example, with its five branches, our author follows Ptolemy. The river Ava, as well as the southern parallel tributary of the Ganges, and the two Chinese rivers, the one flowing to the southeast and the other to the northeast, come from a mountain which is further explained by the legend: In this mountain carbuncles are found. Two legends are here inscribed, the one relating to the medieval geographical myth concerning the ten lost tribes of Israel, and the other to Antichrist.
This identification of Gog with the pygmies of classical antiquity is peculiar to this map.
There may have been a Persian maritime city by this name on the coast of Oman, since by reason of favorable winds and gulf currents the two coasts of the Persian Gulf stood in such close relations that again and again in their history Persian rule controlled the Arabic coast, and Arabic rule the Persian coast. For centuries, even into the 16th, Caila was the central point of commerce between China, Further India, and the archipelago of the east and the trade centers of the Mediterranean. Though the geography of India as here laid down presents difficulties, there are difficulties which are equally great along the east coast. The other legend for which Professor Fischer failed to get an intelligible reading asserts that: Beyond this equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius, and in addition many others, raising a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India [the Indians], say that many have passed through these parts from India to the Spains, and .
With some degree of certainty we may identify the Wadi Draa, represented as flowing through many lakes and emptying south of Cape Bojador. On the Mediterranean, from east to west, we find Larissa, Alexandria, Senara (in the Medicean atlas, Zunara, and Vesconte also gives Zunara).
Though he bathed daily in milk and never forgot to rouge his saffron cheeks, Abdul-Hamid looked all of his sixty-six years. 1389) also assigns a terrestrial position to Purgatory, possibly on the authority of Dante who tell us that the Earthly Paradise was situated in the Southern Hemisphere on the summit of the mount of Purgatory, antipodal to Jerusalem.
The former is called the Nile in some cases only, while the one flowing in the northeasterly direction is always called the Nile.A  The use of affrorum being presumably explained by a legend on Africa in some portolan maps. This longevity may have been based on a sense of Biblical authorization, the extreme distance at which these peoples were placed a€“ a€?orientalizeda€? and a€?septentrion-ateda€? to the far end of Asia - or a popularity exceeding that of other medieval legends.
However, as stated above, we have here individual sheets pasted on a guard, and the explanation to each map is on the back of the preceding map.A  As a result of such mis-binding, for instance, not only is the explanation to Tab.
On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. Further, the Toscanelli chart presumably depicted the ocean intervening between the west coast of Europe and the a€?beginning of the Easta€™. Conti describes them as lying on the extreme edge of the known world: beyond them navigation was difficult or impossible owing to contrary winds. The Iron Gate, usually associated with Alexander the Great and the apocalyptic people, Gog and Magog, has an important place on the world maps of the middle ages. In the region at the foot of the mountain between the Indus and the Ganges we find the Indian desert represented. Judging from the rivers that spring there from, and from this legend, we are led to conclude that the mountain-land is eastern Tibet. The one to the east of Inaccessible mountains, designated here as Ymaus mons, reads: From this race, that is, from the tribe of Dan, Antichrist is to be born, who, opening these mountains by magic art, will come to overthrow the worshipers of Christ. The towers referred to above are explained in the following legend: King Prester John built these towers in order that those shut therein might not have access to him. In the account of his voyage Vasco da Gama gives information concerning the city and kingdom of Cael. Whether the rivers emptying still further southward represent the numerous rivers which empty south of Senegal and Cape Verde, it is not possible to determine.
On the portolan charts there is always represented a large bay in the southeast corner of the Great Syrtus, which must have been an important harbor. His concubines, of whom in that house of a thousand divans he had, through the force of tradition, acquired rather more than he any longer remembered what to do with, were themselves having the vapors. The South Pole is described as a€?nidus alli maliona€? [nest of all evil], and there is a man hanging from a gallows, as well as several sea monsters. On the map of 1457, this ocean is split into two, and falls on the eastern and western margins.
In the southern sea there is a note: In this sea, they navigate by the southern pole (star), the northern having disappeared. Doubtless it was the medieval wall stretching from the mountains to the sea near Derbent, closing the road along the Caspian Sea to the peoples of the steppes on the north, that called forth the legend of the Iron Door. In contrast, the Ganges is represented according to recent information, that is apparently from the record of Conti. The representations of our cosmographer are here very erroneous, and the errors may perhaps be attributed to Conti and Poggio, since one is led to conclude by a careful study of the Conti narrative that it is not simply the story of a practical merchant traveler, but a story often adorned by the additions of a learned copyist. The other reads: Here dwell the ten lost tribes of the Hebrew race with the half tribe of Benjamin, who, unrestrained by their law and being degenerates, pass an epicurean existence.
These towers stretch along the crest of the mountains, as if intended to protect the more highly civilized parts of China from the wild people of north and central Asia. Farther southward, Antioceta, a fortification on the coast often referred to in the 15th century; also corocho, the ancient Corycus, northeast of the mouth of the Selefke. The tree whose leaves, it is stated, are used for paper is not the paper-mulberry tree, but the fan-palm. It owes its origin as a harbor to a high, rocky headland, perhaps formerly an island, which extends from the southwest to the northeast and continues in a long chain of rocks. And anyway, if he must somehow while away the time until dawn, he would need a more potent anodyne. Typical of the circumstantial descriptions of this earthly Eden are those coming from the pens of Gervase of Tilbury and Ranulf Higden (#232), who based their statements mainly on the opinions of the early Fathers, Augustine, Basil and Ambrose.
The Ptolemaic text reads: Beginning from here an island, meroe regio, is formed by the Nile in the west and by the Astabora River which flows from the east. We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs.
Though Crino raised many points of interest, he did not establish his case beyond reasonable doubt. The Carbuncle Mountains and the art of obtaining these valuable stones play an important role in the records of all cosmographers of the middle ages. It seems probable that we have here an early reference to the Great Wall of China, which appears on no other medieval map. This is Straboa€™s Cape Korykos with the Koryken Cave, where in Greek, in Roman, in Byzantine, and also in Armenian times stood a fortification. Calacia, or Calacatia, according to Batuta, is Kalahat, Kalhat, Kilat or Kilhat, in Oman southeast of Muskat, where its ruins may yet be seen near a small fishing village of the same name.
The fanlike leaves, about two hundred square feet in size, the Singhalese are said to use in the place of paper. Happily this was provided by the linguists at the press bureau, for in the nick of time there came dawdling into Constantinople from London a recent issue of The Strand Magazine, and they all worked like beavers on a translation from its pages. But the authority upon whom the mapmakers relied mostly was Isidore (Book II, #205), whose statement that Paradise was a€?hedged about on all sides by a long wall of flame . 3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson. Biasutti argued that the horizontal and vertical lines on the map are parallels and meridians taken from the world map of Ptolemy, and that the longitudinal extent of the old world approximately corresponds to his figure of 180 degrees. However, Conti did not himself visit these islands, though he gives their position as fifteen daysa€™ journey east of Java major and minor, to which their products were brought for transportation to the west.
Two of these tributaries on the left seem to be the Brahmaputra and the Barak, though the larger one on the north may be intended as the Irawadi, since on this lies Ava, and above it is a legend taken from Conti: Rather the Ganges which otherwise is called the Dava. On the Catalan world map of 1375 appears a legend with an interesting pictorial representation. Abulfeda and Raschiduddin, his contemporary, refer to the great wall as the Wall of Gog and Magog.
Here we find Tarsso and Layazo, which in the middle ages was a harbor of Lesser Armenia, and an important terminal on the commercial route to India. The ancient Pusk olay manuscripts in the Buddhist monasteries were all written with an iron stylus on such paper, that is, on the leaves of the talipot palm, prepared by cooking and drying. I suspect it was the issue distinguished in the minds of collectors by the first publication of the magnificent story called a€?The Bruce-Partington Plans.a€? Thus it befell that the Great Assassin spent his last night as Sultan sitting with a shawl pulled over his poor old knees while his Chamberlain deferentially read aloud to him the newest story about Sherlock Holmes. It is difficult to see, therefore, if this map of 1457 was similar to that sent to Portugal, where its importance lay, for this information was accessible to all inquirers. Cloves at that time came only from the small islands of the Moluccas lying west of Halmahera, which perhaps the Genoese author has attempted here to represent.
The word is Persian, signifying gate or narrow pass, and is a name often met with in Persia.
Though our cosmographer makes certain mistakes in relation to the chief stream of India, yet his representation of the hydrography of Asia is near the truth, and, as stated, is much better than that given by Fra Mauro. A mountain is indicated with a deep valley out of which a bird flies, having a piece of meat in its beak, and out of the same valley a river flows which in its course forms the boundary between India and China.
As the builder of this wall, our cosmographer in his legend names Prester John who appeared on the Catalan map of 1375 in the Nubian and the Abyssinian regions, and from that time on the name seems to have been connected with the last-named region, though, as the Genoese map shows, it did not completely disappear from central Asia. Kalhat, from the time of Idrisi to the arrival of the Portuguese, was the most important harbor and port of departure from Oman and the entire Persian Gulf to India, as was earlier Sohar and later Muskat. He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity. The interest of the cartographer seems more probably to have lain in Contia€™s description of the oriental spice islands and the possibility of reaching them by circumnavigating Africa. The name Sanday is unknown, and Bandan is only a corruption, and should not be confounded with Banda, as cloves do not come from that island. As the Indus and its delta received special consideration, so also did the Ganges, the mouth of which is marked by the following legend: The mouth of the Ganges River, the width of which is fifteen miles, on whose banks grow canes so large that they exceed [the size of] the arm, and the islands grow nuts which we call Indian. There is support for the belief that in the letter of Alexander III, the ruler of Abyssinia is to be understood, although the great majority of the allusions to him seem to support the idea that the original Prester John was a central Asiatic ruler. It appears that at the time the Genoese map was drawn the shipping from the Persian Gulf and from Ormuz followed the coast from Oman almost to Ras-el-Hadd, and from that point with the monsoons direct to India. His work is clearly related, though not closely, to the great map of Far Mauro, his contemporary. The wall stretching landward along the mountain ridge is yet, in part, well preserved, and one can follow its ruins for a distance of many miles.
The vitality of the tradition was so great that this Garden of Delights, with its four westward flowing rivers, was still being located in the Far East long after the travels of Odoric and the Polos had demonstrated the impossibility of any such hydrographical anomaly, and the moral difficulties in the way of the identification of Cathay [China] with Paradise. According to popular tradition, it extends along the entire ridge of the Caucasus, and so it appears on this map extending from the second iron door, or pass, across Asia.
From Maharatia, Conti states that he made a thirteen daysa€™ journey eastward to the Carbuncle Mountains, that is, to the border mountains of Burma, which the Genoese mapmaker attempts to represent. The embarrassment arising from the knowledge that the sources of the rivers were mutually remote was banished by assuming that each of the streams, upon leaving Paradise, went underground and reappeared at their respective sources. Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young. The first European who actually visited the Moluccas was the Italian Varthena, about seventy years after Contia€™s expedition to the East.
A legend on the map of the Pizigani makes it clear that the wall from Derbent was originally constructed to protect the Persian territory from the people of the steppe region. He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal. The islands were considered as lying on the boundary of the habitable and known world, and as marking the limit of navigation.
Comorin, is prominently displayed on Biancoa€™s 1436 world map, with four rivers shown flowing through the center of India, one to the north of the Caspian, near Agrican, that is Astrakan [the Volga], a second into the south of the Caspian, near Jilan [Araxes?], a third into the Gulf of Scanderoon [Orontes?], while the fourth river is the Euphrates. The physical existence of the Earthly Eden was believed by many people, long after the Middle Ages; its location was still an academic issue when Bishop Huet of Avranches wrote his Tractatus de Situ Paradisi Terrestrii in the 18th century. Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D. He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career.
He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations. He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication. His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite.
He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain.
Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster.
Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883. She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before. One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way. 5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed. In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college. She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor. Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time. She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years. From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life. In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson. A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland. By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis. She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments. Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health.
After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae. She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous". By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out.
I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness! The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic.
Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets. By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall. When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities.
Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf. From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure.
A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family.
A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity. In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find. In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways. The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found. Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons. A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help. It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work. Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication.
Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work. He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr. Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt.
13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut. The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time.
Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic. 14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut. A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet).
The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers".
15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure. Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation. She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior. Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums.
Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site. Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation. Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence. 17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo.
Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered.
People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her.
A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier. The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number. Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work". A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys.
Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator. It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple.
On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues.
I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying. 18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday.
She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries.
The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England.
When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive". A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked.
Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement. Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls.
At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom.
In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus. In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map.
After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find. Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II. The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England. When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it. We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue. When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus.
20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds.
He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum.
The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time. The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion. One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig.
At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle.
This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected.
A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III.
21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered.
The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze. Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement. Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design. In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose. A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games. For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity. The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her.
She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site. She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her.
Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896.
After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth. That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation. The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance.
By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years". Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings. They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often. Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others. After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago. A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier. With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts. An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest. The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone. Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone. She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding.
Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period. During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained.
Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt. Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary. Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high.
The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22.
In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written. 23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking. About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken. The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits. A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard.
There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased. The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king. The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections. It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple. In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner. It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court. The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists.
In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight. It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities. A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed.
This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple.
Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing. The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center. It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration. The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators.
A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen. The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut. Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place. These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center.
They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler. The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it.
A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts. At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple.
Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel". This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls. In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered. A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken). Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues.
As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse. Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions.



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