These [drawings of the surrounding mountains] was all taken from the shape of their tops as appeared from the camp on Tuesday 24 of November, 1846.
We traveled from these hills the same direction as we had the day before, southwest, making 12 in the morning and 18 in the afternoon, making 30 miles.
This morning marched 10 miles and came to these hills where we are now passing southwest direction to find a pass, if possible, for the wagons into another valley. We continued our course, southeast, until we make 20 miles and camped on another plain between the mountains on a creek in the center of the flats. We have had some beautiful plains to pass over as we have come along, but a lack of water and timber. This morning the whole guard has to go on extra duty because one man run his bayonet in a mule. We traveled until 10 oa€™clock and I got ahead of all the train and stopped and took a picture of the mountains around. There was in the evening, an Indian Chief come in and told us that we was on the right road and that last summer there was one wagon went down where we was calculating to go yesterday. Accordingly, on Sunday morning the 29th day, all hands was engaged in fixing for a pass to go into the valley.
We left one wagon above and yesterday another as we was descending and we are not yet down and out of this hole that is here marked out. On the north is a hollow where water sometimes rises, putting down from the mountain into the river or creek. The weather is rather cool and the clouds are in the west, hovering over the mountains as far as you can see. This chain of hills or mountains runs from 12 miles southwest from here to the northwest, out of sight running northwest. On the sixth day, the camp traveled through the brush for about 12 miles and passed in among the hills and I found a beautiful grove of young timber of ash and a kind of walnut, a little like black walnut and a great variety of other wood or brush which grows on the mountains and in the valleys, good to burn. This place is where the camp passed through into a small valley, where we found an old yard that we understand from one of our guides was built by the man who owned the little town we passed through. One of the Spanish drovers left and went to the Spanish settlement below here a short distance.
This is a large valley and we are calculating to descend it northwest until we come to the river Saint Padra. I awoke and told my dream and went to sleep and dreamed that I was called up by the brethren to tell it which I did and told them I thought it was for not keeping the covenants, but use the name of the Lord, their God in vain and it had become common language to curse each other. The bottom land here is about one mile wide, with now and then a scrape of bottom much wider.
This day, some of our hunters informed me that they have seen a number of bear tracks and one was the width of his hand and length of his thumb.
I understand there is a plenty of wild oxen here among these hills, which is excellent beef. These bottoms look like the best of soil in these valleys for about one mile wide, some places wider. Where our camp is, a small town called a€?Barnadenoa€™, once owned by a rich man who built it for himself. Last night I took a view of our camping ground and saw that it was like the one we had the night before. This is the mountains east are very high, running south until they come against this camp, then they turn east rounding corner and then turns north as I have laid down on another map down the St. As curious a thing as I have seen with thorns, is the large prickly pear or water plant or tree, which is often as high as 20 feet, 16 inches over. On the morning of the 18 of December {LNa€™s note: This day was the 32nd birthday of Levia€™s wife, Clarissa Reed Hancock. These mountains are from the left of the center line, running southeast to northwest and on the other side of the road is mountains that are as high as these on the left.
This land that we have passed between here and town is baron, desolate waste and nothing grows here and it looks like the best of land, a plenty of wood here, fires.
North, half mile from the road to the foot on the right of this center line as I was facing the mountain, I took this map. I then looked and I stood at the right hand of him and expected he would say something, but did not. I remembered a dream I had before, which was this: I saw him all alone and said I, a€?There is my fathera€? and got him by the hand and said, a€?Bless me, O my father. These mountains are those that are on the right hand and is about the same distance and height of those on the left.
Along our last days travel, which is the 21 day and I am now in camp, in the borders of the Pema town or on the east side of town.
This, the 22 day of December, on Tuesday morning, we left our first camping ground on the Hely and went down this river 8 miles to the Pemo village and pitched our tents. On the 24th day, I got in conversation with one of our guides and showed him my map of Hely River and the Colorado, Salt and Francisco.
Marched at 10 oa€™clock from our camp and the maricopers and raveled southwest by west 8 miles, then by the end of the mountains four miles southwest then west, far enough to make 18 miles and camped on the desert on the left hand side of some hills.
This is Christmas Day and yesterday there was watermelon brought in camp for sale and they was good melons, too. I saw the Chief last night and he said that he knew who we was and some time he meant to go and see the Mormons in California. In one hollow or gully, it is said that this valley is the best of any and that here is a good place for raising any kind of grain, also anything of the fruit kind, and by the looks of the land here, it seems that a nation might be fed here as in Egypt, by watering the land which might be easily done.
Early in the morning, the old doctor came to one tent where some had been boiling beans and asked, a€?What is this?a€? a€?Beans and corn.a€? was the answer.
This day I had a talk with Brother Dikes and traveled about 2 miles with him, in which time he told me that he had wanted some conversation for some time and would be glad if I would give him some council and then said that there was considerable feelings existing against him in the Battalion and he would like to do right and that he considered that I was the one to come to get council.
I told him I already had that laid to me and I had had a put down for it when there never had been any cause for it and if I should give any council, it would be said again that I sought power and authority and I had concluded not to give any council to any officer, lest it should cause further jealousy. And then he said that he could clear himself of the charges that was against him and that he had defied any man to prove either Eclyseastacle or Military Law against him, for he had kept them both and when he got to the Church things he thought would be differently represented and would not appear as bad as many suppose and then asked me if I did not think that he had better be independent and do the thing strictly according to law. This day we traveled ten miles and come to the river northwest, then turned west by north and went ten miles further and being 18 miles over the best kind of land.
James Pace has now brought in a petrified bone which he wished was in the Church, which must have an enormous large animal, about 9 inches across one end, four inches the other way. We came to the top of the hill and the mountains presented a sight and I stopped and drew the shape of them. This day made 7 miles over the hill, down on the flats near the bank of the river near a mountain which many ascended and viewed the country and I could see the winding Hely for a long distance.
While passing along down the bottoms today, I saw another prickly body of the pear or appears to be a species of the same, in another form here. I tell the brethren to wait until they can have a hearing before the authorities of he Church and to be as patient as possible. But, thank God we have served 6 months, save eleven days and we will try to heave it as good soldiers, although our shoes are worn out, our torn clothes are all almost gone, the skins of beavers are used for moccasins. Took a northwest course for four miles and turned around a mountain and in two miles further west, I took the shape of the end of the long mountains seen a long way back. Here the river has a bend and the valleys are not so wide as they are above, and sometimes to be narrow down below here, which is a southwest course from here and looks like the worst of going.
These hills was seen west of northwest a long ways back and sometimes the peak that is above, was west.
After we had turned around here, we had to pass through the bottoms, the thickest kind of brush and small cane and cottonwood or poplar, willow and many other kinds of small brush. I have now got in camp and the course we traveled from the bluffs was a northwest course for about two miles and began to bear a little around towards the west and now we are going west and I take some peaks that I can just see on the top of a hill or mountain as we are on the bottoms. We traveled through sand and over gravel, course and fine, until we made 12 miles and camped on the bank of the Colorado. There is no chance for any landscape here, only on the other side and up stream is a mountain. I thought I would go and see him myself not knowing it was against orders, as I afterwards heard it was.
I am now about 8 miles from our last nighta€™s camp and while on my way here I sometimes discovered something on the ground that looked like a red clear stone.
Hah-yo-de-yah, is all he scrub that grows here on this desert and no grass and in the aroyohs, muskeet and a few other scrubs.
This day traveled northwest by west course until we came to where men was digging a well and found water, but it was poor and but little of it and we was ordered to march on to the next, which was 20 miles ahead. This day made 18 miles over some hills of sand and the bottoms or flats was gravel and sand.
In the hollow, when we got to the top of this hill, we saw that there was no outlet to this valley, nor inlet.
Last night, one man catched up with us who had been sent back after a p low that had been left on Hely River by the commissary.
Here is a vineyard that looks beautiful and I am told that there have been clusters of grapes that would weigh 14 pounds and that not uncommon. We put up, making 20 miles this day, by a good creek that would make the best of mill seats, not more than two rods to dam in between the mountains of rocks and there might be a lake formed big enough to water all the country below, but lack of building timber here.
It made me think of the storm when Joseph Smith was with us between the two Fishing Rivers, only here we had no thunder.
Once I felt it in my heart and although our men, many of them had become basically wicked, He would spare them.
4 miles from last nights camp and in plain sight of the snow top mountain described here, which I took yesterday and soon after I took it, I ascended a hill and looked at the northwest and between the hills down a valley, I saw a wide extended plain and an arm of the big waters, putting up a point of land, running into the sea about northwest. At the northeast mountains covered with snow and here it is hot and all things in bloom, birds singing and all around presents a beautiful sight. It was Christmas of 1939, and Ida and Viola, my two sisters, were working in Salt Lake City. The next thing I knew I received a letter from Ida telling me of her experience that morning. The LaGrande 2nd Ward, of which I was a member and from which I was leaving for my Mission, gave me a farewell party as we customary in those days.
My brother Alex and his wife had not been to the Temple to have their marriage sealed since she had joined the Church a few years before. Those of us going down to Salt Lake were Alex and Mildred, their two sons, Richard and Gerald, my sister Viola, and Dorothy Richeson, a friend, and myself. Then, Monday morning, I checked into the Mission Home on State Street for the two weeks training they gave all Missionaries prior to their leaving for their fields of labor.
Previous to my going on my Mission and during the time we were making plans to go, I had somewhat of a heavy feeling. Then, the morning of April 25th came and I found myself, along with all, or a lot, of the other Missionaries getting ready to leave on various trains for their mission fields. Upon arriving in Los Angeles, we were met at the Union Station by the District President of the Los Angeles District, Ferris R.
Later in the afternoon, I took the Pacific Electric Train out to Belflower where I met Elder Archibald, my new companion. For the first few days of our stay in Belflower, I got to meet a lot of people who were members of the Branch. We often went with President Visser to Long Beach to Leadership meetings as that was their stake Headquarters.
Of course, I was ready in the alloted time and on my way to Downey to work with Elder Ray Fransen. Another interesting experience we had was one Sunday when they were having Stake Conference in the South Los Angeles Stake. After visiting with him all afternoon and again in the evening, after Conference was over, Theron took us home. In a couple of weeks we called back to see if she had read the book and to pick it up if she was through with it.
After he left, we went out to Sister Mossa€™s place to break the news to her and her husband, because Elder Holt also was being transfered to Compton, California, and there would be no missionaries in Downey at all.
Saturday morning, October 12, President Hagey, my District President, came to Downey to take me to Los Angeles to report to President MacDonald for my instructions about the new district. While in Los Angeles getting instructions from the President, I got to visit some with the other missionaries at headquarters. President Hagey and I stayed in Los Angeles that night and the next morning he drove me out to Riverside, which I greatly appreciated, as I did not have a car then. We soon moved our headquarters of the Mission (District) to a better location, and the Missionaries started coming into the District. As soon as I had assigned all of the Elders to their various fields of labor, I wrote to all the Branch Presidents in the District to introduce myself. One of the outstanding experiences I had in that District was holding Cottage Meetings in Hemitt. Needless to say, I was a little nervous also with the minister sitting in the back of the living room staring at me. A few months later, after I had been transferred up to the Bakersfield District, I received a letter from President Choate, saying that the Rev. I remember the Easter Sunrise Service we held in Hemitt that year as a District Conference. With two carloads of missionaries from our district plus one carload from the mission office, for we invited them out to speak at our conference, plus all of the people from over the district, we had a real conference.
At the end of the first month I was out in Riverside, which was the day before I was to expect Mr.
About a month later I was down in the Los Angeles area and went out to call on them for a visit. On one of those subsequent visits I remember telling her that I hated to see them wasting their time outside of the Church. Once, President Durham wrote to me to see if I would come down and speak in the Downey Branch for their Sacrament Meeting. She had originally resigned as pastor of the local United Brethren Church there in Holiday, California when she first decided to join ours; then after backing out of being baptized she went back and accepted the position again.
With this introduction, they all commenced talking at once telling me what a bad thing I was doing, disturbing people who were happy in their own religion until they heard me.
The last time I saw her in the mission field was about three months before I was to be released to go home. While in Riverside, I had the privilege of baptizing a Sister James and her six children into the Church. I have surely been blessed to have the opportunity to meet many of my friends from the mission field. Another interesting experience was when President Blood (Verna€™s next Mission President) called me into his office one day to talk about the Imperial Valley District.
Once, when I had gone down there to take over the office from President Burton, I toured the district and visited all the branches in it. While down there we accompanied one of the local brethren over to Yuma, Arizona to the branch there to speak in Church.
I met some wonderful friends down in the Imperial Valley; President Cyril Gardner, and President Lunsford of the El Centro and Brawley Branches.
It was here we met and stayed with a wonderful family by the name of Arthur Lee {LNa€™s note: This man, Arthur Lee was a first cousin to Rhoda Jane Perkins Wakefield, being a descendant of Mosiah Hancock}. At this time of my life my hair was getting pretty thin in front, and in her conversation she turned to Elder Richards and asked him if he was out of high school. As the month of June was drawing to a close, I received a letter from President Blood transferring me up to organize a new district in Bakersfield, California. They immediately started to explain to me that a€?Eldera€? was not their name, that it was their title. Both Elders Grant Fisher and Glen Sorenson turned out to be really good missionaries and both served as District Presidents before their missions were finished.
That evening I held a meeting with the missionaries and gave them their assignments as to where they would labor. After all the elders were assigned and working, I took three Elders with me and drove to Bishop.
One day the two Lady Missionaries who were working out in Oildale, came in to the office asking if I would go the next week with them to a Cottage Meeting they had scheduled. We met regularly every week with her in her home and enjoyed the Spirit of the Lord to a very great degree. It had grown into a habit each week that after our subject matter was completed and we had taught them that part of the Gospel plan we had decided on, that Dorothy would bring in some sort of refreshment such as pie and ice cream. When I arrived in San Francisco it was raining and nearly evening by the time I found the Mission Home. That night and the next day I spent time with President Ellsworth outlining what he had in mind for me to do. On my way up to San Francisco I received a letter as I was going through Bakersfield, from Clayton M. The last week of my Mission, after having visited all of the districts in the Mission except Reno, Nevada, President Ellsworth called me into his office for a visit.
Then, he told me to go to Reno, Nevada, hold the Conference there and instruct the Missionaries. I was in Reno, Nevada when my release took effect, and with instruction to stop in Salt Lake to be set apart as a Counselor in the Bishopric, it would not allow for me to go back down to Bakersfield to baptize Dr. The next morning, which was Sunday, I went out to go to Church with my sister and brother-in-law, Paul and Helen Zaugg. The first of the week, or Monday morning, I went into the Church Offices to be interviewed and report my mission. If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make? Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism.
However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law.
In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism. And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs. This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany.
Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires.
Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult. Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body. Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders. Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt. In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments.
Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law. The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor. Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s). Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top. Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed. Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D.
In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic. All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives.
Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution.
Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern.
Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another. The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people.
All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!). The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit. The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution.
Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives. When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums. Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work. Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image? Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects. Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people.
After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages. In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici. When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France. Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X. With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility. Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots.
Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism.
Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated. Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down.
Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII.
He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes. His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state.
The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture.
Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign. Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe.
Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government. Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe). In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold.
Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492.
Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain. By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory.
England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people. Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons.
Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs). Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters. James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king.
Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament.
Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament! These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated. The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism. Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534. Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign. With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began. James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule. When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England.
Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici.
After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!).
By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland. In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel. A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens. In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them. With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England. Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights. After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II.
After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell.
He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship). His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England.
Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy. When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism. He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act.
James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England.
When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament.
With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James. The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France. Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain.
William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702. The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne.
In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights. This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth.
The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament.
Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S.


The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria.
The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority.
These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition.
What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law?
How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms? What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism?
What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included?
Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants? What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U.
Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal. This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny. In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain.
After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic. The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers.
Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power. In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament. Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports.
Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride.
The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph. At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist. The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival. Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people.
Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe.
Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power. Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers. Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary. Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power.
Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe. Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants. Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe. The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory. By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe. In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months. After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales.
1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558. 1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands. 1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701).
The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing. Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism. Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture. France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688. The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government. The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic. List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic. List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France.
Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe. Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism. Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary. Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries.
There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay. Would you like to discuss your concerns with a very experienced and knowledgeable HR Specialist? COME ALONG TO ONE OF OUR FREE CLINICS FOR SOME IMPARTIAL, PRACTICAL ADVICE FROM OUR HR CONSULTANT, JO CAIRNS.
Please come to our Leopold Street entrance and call 0114 272 1884 when you arrive; a member of the team will come and meet you. You are welcome to drop in at any time between 3pm-5pm or if you would like to book a specific time, please call our reception on 0114 272 1884.We look forward to meeting you soon. Taylor Bracewell operates from offices in Thorne Road and Ten Pound Walk in Doncaster and Fountain Precinct in Sheffield. In contrast, full-time working mothers earn 11percent less than women who do not have children. A recent study of carried out by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) analysed the pay of 17,000 42-year-olds in full-time work.
Working fathers tend to work longer hours after having children, while mothers tend to work shorter hours or go part-time. 77% of new mothers and pregnant women have experienced discrimination in the workplace according to the Equality and Human Rights Commission and Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. The pay gap applies to those without children too; childless women earn 12% less than childless men working in similar jobs. If you'd like some practical advice and guidance regarding discrimination in the workplace or any other Employment Law or HR matter, please get in touch. When separated parents cannot agree arrangements about where their children will live or the time they should spend with each parent, they will need to look into the options available to resolve the dispute.
Mediation is an option parents are encouraged to consider prior to making an application to the court.
In February 2016, Cafcass (Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service) confirmed a 10% increase in the number of cases they dealt with, compared to February 2015. In some circumstances, mediation may not be the best course of action, perhaps because one party refuses to attend or there are allegations of intimidation or harassment. These statistics confirm that despite alternative dispute resolution methods being encouraged, more and more parents are going through the courts.
In some instances children find themselves caught in the middle of their parentsa€™ disagreements and this can be worrying for them. Voices in the Middle is their current campaign, encouraging young people to share their stories. We have a specialist team of very experienced family law solicitors at Taylor Bracewell in both Doncaster and Sheffield. Having a formal tenancy agreement in place is not a legal requirement; however it is something that we would strongly advice.
Research carried out by Direct Line exposed worrying statistics about the lack of formal tenancy agreements in place. Out of the contracts that are in place, 58% of landlords who do not use an agent used amended tenancy agreements from old contracts, 38% used contracts from other landlords and 20% used an updated template they found online. It is possible to have a verbal tenancy agreement in place, which would be construed as an Assured Shorthold Tenancy Agreement. Another concerning statistic is that despite the fact ita€™s a legal requirement to do so, 9% of landlords have failed to make their tenants aware that their deposit is held in a government-backed tenancy deposit protection scheme (TDP). Wherever you are in Doncaster, there will be plenty of opportunities to watch the mena€™s and womena€™s races cycle past, as the Tour de Yorkshire will go via Hooton Pagnell, Sprotbrough, Warmsworth, Conisborough, Tickhill, Bawtry and Bessacarr, before finishing on Bennetthorpe in Doncaster town centre. Lots of information regarding parking, race timings, events and much more is available on the Doncaster Council website and you can pick up spectator guides from the Doncaster Tourist Information Centre on Priory Place. Join the Tour de Yorkshire Party from 10.30am to 6pm on Doncastera€™s Town Field (leaflets listing all events are available from the Doncaster Tourist Information Centre). If youa€™re lucky enough to have been invited to a hospitality event for the Tour de Yorkshire Stage 2 finish in Doncaster, take the opportunity to go. Decorate your home or business on or around the route, with yellow and blue bikes, balloons, bunting or anything else you can think of!
The buy-to let-surge is expected to subside following the stamp duty changes, which took effect on the 1st April 2016. The latest figures released by E.surv Mortgage Monitor revealed that in the first quarter of 2016, home lending was at the highest level since 2007. There has been an annual rise of 19.3% from 9,625 loans granted in March 2015 to 11,487 granted in March this year. The latest First Time Buyer Tracker by Your Move and Reeds Rains showed that, in February 2016, purchases made by first time buyers were up 6.6% to 21,100 compared to 19,800 in February 2015. This trend is expected to continue as schemes such as the Help to Buy ISA make saving for a deposit easier.
Our experienced specialist team of 'Law Society Conveyancing Quality Scheme' accredited conveyancing lawyers in Sheffield and Doncaster have expert local knowledge to help you with your property purchase or sale.
If you require advice about buying or selling property, contact Head of Conveyancing, Mark Walton on 01302 341 414. It has recently been announced that leading Sheffield Charity, Sheffield YWCA has re-launched as YWCA Yorkshire. Whilst this growing influence is to be commended, there are several things that will have happened behind the scenes in order for this to happen. From a legal point of view any major change, such as a change of name, of a charity needs to be approved by the Charities Commission which governs and scrutinises charities within England to ensure they comply with the Charities Act 2011.
What many people might not be aware of is that a registered charity that is set up as a Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO) is similar to a limited company, insofar as it is classed as a separate legal entity in the eyes of the law, and as such it needs to have a strong and robust constitution to help govern it. As the constitution is an extremely important document, it is always advisable to contact a specialist who may be able to help determine not only what the rights are under it, but also propose changes and draft them to allow a charity to develop and progress as YWCA Yorkshire has. The first wave of Help to Buy ISAs have been claimed since the scheme was made available in December 2015. One estimate suggests that those with the scheme have been able to purchase their first home up to two months earlier than those without a Help to Buy ISA.
The scheme has received a thumbs up from Conveyancers across the country with the deposits being simple to claim. If you are interested in setting up a Help to Buy ISA, click here to read our helpful summary blog. Our experienced specialist team of 'Law Society Conveyancing Quality Scheme' accredited conveyancing lawyers in Sheffield and Doncaster have expert local knowledge to help you buy or sell a property. Lauren Smith who dealt with our will was very helpful and explained everything that we wished to do re: our will in detail.
Everyone was very helpful when I had to visit Taylor Bracewell, and I thank them very much. Former Welfare Officer at Leeds United, Lucy Ward, is claiming unfair dismissal and sex discrimination following her dismissal from Leeds United. The tribunal has heard claims that Ms Ward was dismissed on the basis that she was in a relationship with the cluba€™s former manager, Neil Redfern. The club has stated that the dismissal was made due to Ms Ward exceeding her annual leave entitlement and denies improper conduct. Ms Ward argued a€?My working pattern was well known and agreed with my line manager each season. In a statement to the BBC after her successful hearing, Ms Ward stated a€?I look forward to the rest of my career, hopefully back into footballa€?. This is another case that highlights the importance of having a policy on workplace relationships!
What further complicated matters in this case was Ms Warda€™s argument that this working pattern had been agreed and she had worked in this manner for the past 11 years.
If the Club genuinely believed Ms Ward was taking annual leave it raises the question of why her leave was not being managed correctly in order for this issue to have been picked up sooner and not 11 years later! Ms Ward was correct to argue that her contracted hours do not include Wednesdays, and to discipline and dismiss her for this was unfair. In 1999, while living in Hull, I secured employment with a law firm in Sheffield and started my journey by inputting client data on to internal computer systems.
Robert has achieved consistent 5-Star ratings on the independent a€?Vouched Fora€™ website and has been listed in the Sunday Times 175 Top UK Solicitors. I have had many jobs, working almost full-time in a public house while studying before university, but my first "real" job after university was at a salad packing factory while I decided what I was going to do with my degree.
From a young age I was always told that I would argue black is white but it was not until a family member suffered life changing injuries that I knew I wanted to do everything I could to ensure that people were treated fairly and not left without help. I am dedicated and passionate about helping people in their time of need and take real pride in getting to know clients so that I can be confident in identifying what they need and rightly deserve out of any dispute. The apprenticeship scheme and investment in people is really encouraging and, from my experience to date, unique in a law firm.
Before the arrival of my two children, Lexi-Mae and Loui, I enjoyed competing with other pubs in the local pub pool team. I would be a Cat as they are independent, loving and loyal, they have 9 lives, can be fierce and if provoked can leave a lasting scar.
Witness the birth of my 2 children, the first of which I almost had to deliver on our living room floor.
The people I saw at Taylor Bracewell were very polite and very helpful, Lauren explained things to me and simplified things when I didnt totally understand. We had a very pleasant, courteous and efficient service, and everything was explained well. If you find yourself in this situation it might seem excessive to incur the significant costs and time making an application to the Court for an Order.
It is fairly common for grandparents to offer extensive support to working parents, take their grandchildren on holiday and even in have their grandchild live with them on a permanent basis.
Unless grandparents acquire legal Parental Responsibility through a Court Order, they may face difficulties dealing with routine appointments with doctors, dentists, schools or taking their grandchild on holiday abroad. The family team at Taylor Bracewell can draft a document which is signed by you and a parent with parent responsibility to record delegation of parental responsibility and provide permission to remove the child from the country for up to one month.
The delegation of parental responsibility and permission within the document can be fine-tuned to meet your individual needs, dependent upon your family circumstances.
Provided the delegation of parental responsibility is agreed, and no unforeseen issues or delays arise, we can provide this service from as little as £180 plus VAT.
Excellent professional service, we were advised and kept informed at all times and completed our sale very quickly.
The service I have received from Lauren has been no less than professional in doing my wills.
Emma Cornell joined Taylor Bracewell as Head of Dispute Resolution in January 2016, having progressed from Associate Solicitor to Partner in her previous firm after qualifying as a Solicitor in 2004. Emmaa€™s experience is extensive and varied and includes numerous Contested Probate and General Litigation cases that progressed to Appeal at the High Court.
Taylor Bracewell, a South Yorkshire law firm with offices in Doncaster and Sheffield, has experienced significant growth recently, resulting in the expansion of the Dispute Resolution team and appointment of a new Head of Department.
Taylor Bracewell, a Legal 500 UK recommended firm, operates from offices in Thorne Road and Railway Court in Doncaster and the Fountain Precinct in Sheffield.
A very helpful and friendly group of people who we would certainly recommend, also a big thankyou to Lauren Smith for sorting all three of us out. 31st March 2016 was one of the busiest days of the year for the Conveyancing department at Taylor Bracewell. Staff worked around the clock to ensure as many clients as possible completed before the 1st April to beat the stamp duty tax increase. Our figures show a 43% Increase in the number of residential property purchases in March 2016 when compared with last years figures. The majority of these purchases are likely to have been made by buy-to-let investors and those purchasing second homes, as they face the biggest increase in stamp duty. You may have already given us feedback on our customer feedback form after we completed the work, but we would love it if you could also take a couple of minutes to post a star rating and comment in the 'Reviews' section on our Facebook page.
We are happy to have had Taylor Bracewell dealing with a difficult and awkward purchase in their professiomal and courteous manner. We are more than delighted with how Lauren Smith explained all the details to us regarding our business with her.
Our dispute resolution specialists have an in-depth knowledge of relevant laws and legislation that, combined with their unbeatable skills, produces outstanding results for our clients.
The Dispute Service Annual Review 2015 released by the Tenancy Deposit Scheme (TDS) reveals a 25% increase in the number of disputes since the previous year. The most common reason for a dispute to arise is cleaning (58%), closely followed by damage (52%), then Redecoration (32%) and Gardening (17%), with rent arrears being the least common reason, causing only 10% of disputes.
Tenants are responsible for raising 53% of deposit disputes, agents raise 35% and landlords raise 12%. Disputes are often resolved to the satisfaction of both parties without the need to go to court.
It was extremely easy to sell our house, the service was efficient, quick and the paper work easy to understand. Prompt, efficient and friendly service throughout, as were all the staff we were in contact with. Recent Research carried out by SunLife revealed that 55% of grandparents planning to leave their grandchildren an inheritance would rather do so directly rather than trusting their own children to pass it on in the future.
If you are planning on leaving your grandchildren an inheritance, it is essential to have an up to date Will to ensure that your wishes are reflected. You will be able to discuss any changes with a Solicitor who is experienced in issues relating to Wills and will be offered the best advice for your own circumstances.
Everything was handled extremely fast and without fuss, and questions were always answered immediately and we were kept well informed. We have been clients of Taylor Bracewell since 1979 and would look no further than this firm. The Land Registry is responsible for keeping a register of ownership and interests in freehold and leasehold land in England and Wales. The number of employees at the Land Registry has dropped from around 12,000 in the 1990a€™s to 4,100. The Government has recently initiated a consultation on privatising the Land Registry in the hope that it will help to reduce the national debt. The consultation document suggests that the expertise from the private sector could speed up the digitisation process, with the likelihood of more digital technology being introduced to the system. The Government has made it clear that, under any privatisation, the registers will remain under government ownership, ensuring the data will remain secure and confidential.
It is unlikely that homeowners will have had much contact with the Land Registry as solicitors tend to handle the registration process. Our experienced specialist team of 'Law Society Conveyancing Quality Scheme' accredited conveyancing lawyers in Sheffield and Doncaster have expert local knowledge to help you. Would highly recommend Taylor Bracewell in all property advice in relation to sale and purchase of property. When April comes around each year, most employers are prepared for the increase in the National Minimum Wage. We passed over the best kind of land I ever saw and came to another creek, putting down from the west into this river large enough to carry a grist mill continually and might be brought onto a overshot wheel as clear as crystal. Taylor of the First Council of the Seventy, I was asked if I wanted to go to New Zealand, being as that was where my Mother had been made a convert to the Church and had lived all her growing years until she was about twenty one years old.
Moss got a little tired of their conduct also, for she reached over and slapped one of the women on the arm who was doing most of the talking and said, a€?Shut up!a€? She told them if they would just listen to me I could explain everything.
She had a sister who had been at her home a couple of times when we were there teaching them. Button asked me when I entered with Elder Crandall was, a€?If I should decide I wanted to join your church and asked to, would I have to deny all the spiritual experiences I have had?a€? My answer to her was, a€?Our Church was founded on revelation, which in, and of itself, is a highly spiritual experience.a€? That seemed to strike her very pleasantly and that night we started a very congenial, friendly relationship. Lyle Wynn came in to take my place as District President, and I left along with Elder Sorenson who was transferred with me. Button: As a young girl she met her husband while in a seminary studying for the ministry of the Methodist Church. Button and her membership in the Church: Each year for two or three years she would lock up her office and go up to Salt Lake to do Temple work and research in genealogy. Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance. This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe. Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648).
The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation. In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace. In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy. It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights. He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses.
The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people.
Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain.
They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor.
He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism.
The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king. The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation. His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII. Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work). But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility! To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear. He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes. The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set. His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection. Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam.
His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific. The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings.
The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered.
Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary.
She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen.
To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen.
Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p.
These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do. In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth. He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights.
Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future. Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I. Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited.
In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose). Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England.
James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband. Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords. As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?. In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed!
He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France. Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism. With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king. He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy. He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England.


In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists.
The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William. The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed. But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God. In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands. From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence. The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes. A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause.
In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France.
Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces.
While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment. In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health.
The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights. It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation.
It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact. The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs.
They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power.
The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them. The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany. He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine. Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control.
Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige. This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe. Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs.
Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism.
England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament. We are proud, but not at all surprised, to say that Robert Clarke, Solicitor in our Dispute Resolution team, was featured. At certain points in life the majority of us would benefit from expert help with complex issues such as pension planning, securing a mortgage or for advice on a legal issue. Those who have their first child after reaching 33 earn 12% more than those without children.
The mediation process enables parents to meet in a neutral location in the presence of a mediator to discuss the situation and attempt to come to an agreement.
They also noted a 6% overall increase over the past six months, compared to the previous year. The next stage after mediation, if an agreement has not been reached, would be court proceedings. As members of Resolution, and with trained Collaborative Family Lawyers in our team, the Taylor Bracewell Family Law Team in Sheffield and Doncaster will work with you to work towards achieving your desired outcome.
Our Family team have been recommended for the second year running in the 'Legal 500 UK' - one of only two legal firms based in Doncaster and Sheffield whose family departments have been recommended.
Having a document in place protects the interests of both the landlord and the tenant, setting out clear expectations for each party.
These agreements can, however, be unreliable and can make things more difficult, should a dispute arise. Landlords should provide their tenant with the name and contact details of the TDP and its dispute resolution service within 30 days of taking the deposit. The Tour de Yorkshire starts this week and, on Saturday, Doncaster will be hosting the last stretch of Stage 2, starting in Otley. There will be fun activities for the whole family, including a giant puppet show, fun fair rides, street entertainers, an army climbing wall & assault course, sports and community stalls, street food and drink stalls, live music and much more! Our Head of Commercial Property, Alison Turner, will be in the Yorkshire Bank hospitality marquee at the finish line.
We will be decorating our Thorne Road office reception with yellow and blue balloons to celebrate the Tour de Yorkshire! For example, Alison Kitchman, Family Partner at Taylor Bracewell, will be cycling to her beauticiana€™s appointment on Saturday! We look forward to seeing you soon, hopefully somewhere along the Tour de Yorkshire route on Saturday. This is to reflect the great work that they do to support exploited young women, children and families, and shows their growing influence in South Yorkshire. Rajinder Singh, Commercial Paralegal, looks behind the scenes and explains important aspects of running a charity. It is generally the constitution that sets out how and where a charity operates, what its objectives are and what powers those who are trustees of the charity wield. If the Club did have a problem with staff being in relationships, a clear policy on what the Club expects of its employees in this respect would have made it easier to manage the relationship.
This would have been a potentially fair reason to dismiss an employee, as long as the right procedure had been followed by the Club in dismissing Ms Ward. If this is true, ita€™s likely that custom and practice means that Ms Ward will have an implied term in her contract of employment that she doesna€™t work Wednesdays. I would have also argued that in such circumstances, to go as far as a dismissal is unreasonable and goes beyond other reasonable responses the Club had available to them, further advancing her claim of unfair dismissal, as demonstrated by the Tribunal awarding in Ms Warda€™s favour. After 6 months, the time and expense of the journey from Hull to Sheffield every day was becoming too much so I secured alternative employment with a debt recovery company in Hull. I thrive on the challenge of securing more compensation than previous Solicitors have suggested would be reasonable. I also enjoyed fly fishing in scenic locations such as Chew Valley and have even tried my hand at sea fishing in Hartlepool, Bridlington and Whitby.
He brings excellent Personal Injury and Consumer Disputes experience from his previous role at L A Steel Solicitors.
This trend was reflected throughout the property industry with most companies recording increases. Her Facebook review said a€?Richard at Doncaster branch has just dealt with the sale of my mums bungalow & I can't praise him enough. We will help you get matters into perspective and find the most timely and cost-effective solution. If you would like to review your Will to ensure it meets your needs, or discuss any changes that may be required, please contact Lauren Smith on 0114 272 1884. Especially as a novice using a solicitor, I found I was taken seriously and well informed on the whole process.
They have handled many aspects of our lives legal requirements with a thoughtful, informative and professional approach. The Land Registry is currently owned by the Government and 87 percent of land throughout England and Wales is registered. The Land Registry is currently owned by the Government and 87% of land throughout England and Wales is registered. The Land Registry is expected to increasingly utilise more digital technology to continue reducing the number of employees required to carry out administrative tasks.
Selling the Land Registry would generate up to £5 billion by 2020 to be reinvested elsewhere to benefit the tax payer. But it is thought that the registration process will become more streamlined, should the plans go ahead.
Richard was very helpful answering all our queries in a prompt and easy to understand manner.
This year employers have had to be more prepared than usual with the added introduction of the National Living Wage for those over 25.
Moss to come out and get me to take me back to baptize them, back in Downey, I received a letter from Mrs. This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away.
These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live.
He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c. Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life.
They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement.
The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?). He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs!
The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them.
It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots! Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade.
The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean.
If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went. His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign. Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne. Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home. A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution.
His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17.
Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII. In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism. Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic! When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers.
James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV. King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry. Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor.
Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven. Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants.
The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas. Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740.
Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy. After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918. After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government. Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city.
The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary. The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship. Listing professionals alongside verified reviews from their existing clients makes it easy to find a respected and trusted expert like Robert to help. The mediator is unable to give legal advice; they remain neutral and ensure all options are being considered. Taylor Bracewell is a founding member of this fantastic charity and keen supporters of the work they do for young people. Bonne chance to all the cyclists & teams, and of course a little extra dose of luck to the GB teams ! There are also distinct benefits of having a charity as a CIO, mainly for the trustees, as it limits their liability if the charity for should fail for any reason. Even if the Tribunal had accepted that she was dismissed due to her exceeding her annual leave entitlement, Ms Ward could still have succeeded in her claim for unfair dismissal if the Club had failed to follow the correct absence management procedure. This is why it is important to review the contracts of your employees regularly to ensure that they reflect the true nature of their working relationship, particularly those who have been there a while and whose roles may have changed. The Partners in the law firm in Sheffield did not want me to leave so they persuaded me to stay with the incentive of a guaranteed training contract if I passed my Legal Practice Course, which I did at Huddersfield University while still working full time in Sheffield. Nowadays my spare time is spent with my family and we frequently escape for caravan weekends away.
I was kept informed the whole way through & any questions I had were answered with the utmost speed. Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow. The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade. If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic. Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period.
His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity.
Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown.
In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic.
At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived. Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly. Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government.
Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors.
But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament.
But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary. The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent. If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy. Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings. As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible. His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes. This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule. However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement. Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army. The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult. For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people.
We would like to congratulate Robert on being one of the Top 175 - ita€™s a great endorsement of the service Robert provides. Paul specialises in Commercial Disputes and can assist clients with Commercial Property Disputes as well as disputes involving directors, shareholders and partnerships.
Archibald, was transfered into the Mission office, and Elder Lamar Fairbanks came in to replace him. The next day we went with Brother Lee out into the country to visit a man, a non-member of the Church. Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia. Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion. This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII.
The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports.
They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat. The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome. The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not. The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage. After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth. Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I.
Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611). James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son.
The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations.
The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development.
Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans. In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria. It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law.
His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva. Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir. Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand. Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs. Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire.
The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan. The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna! She said she didna€™t want to have anything to do with the Church, but as she had a brother in the mission field she wanted to do something for us because of him. And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land. This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE.
Moss came over to the door and took my hand, in their presence and with tears in her eyes told me, in a voice loud enough for them all to hear, how bad she felt for me, a servant of God, being persecuted in her home. She did this for sometime and eventually the same feeling came over her, and she said she knew it was not true. Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611. Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding. Button and told her that she should go ahead and have one of the other Elders baptize her and not wait any longer.
The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law. If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank. Moss answered the door, I could see she was all ready to leave the house, so I apologized and said I would run on. They had been through the Salt Lake Temple and had their marriage sealed for time and all eternity. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH!
Another phenomenon on top of the motos and their unbridled ability to carry just about anything are the wide variety of other Dominican vehicles and their determination to carry everything. Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant.
We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products.
We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia.
They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed.
However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility.
Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities.
One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants.
Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects.
Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling.
I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms.
Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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