DESCRIPTION: More or less elaborate diagram-maps, in the tradition of the early medieval world maps, were still being produced in the 14th and 15th centuries. This manuscript has the ownership inscription of John Wardeboys, who was abbot of Ramsey at the time of its dissolution in 1539.
The world map of Higden, derived as usual from a variety of Roman sources, is found in the first book, and some 21 extant examples can be traced to the 1342 London manuscript of the Polychronicon for which stemmata have been developed by Konrad Miller, with modifications by R.A. Higden began work on the Polychronicon early in the 1320s and regularly updated it until his death in 1363. There is no evidence that Higden himself, unlike his famous predecessor, the chronicler Matthew Paris (Book II, #225), was particularly cartographically literate. The map that Higden finally selected for what is now the Huntington Library manuscript HM 132 was probably an already rather ancient model. Detail of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, from Ranulph Higdena€™s Polychronicon, England, c.
There is no pictorial illustration on the Huntington map apart from the depiction of Adam and Eve in Paradise and two dogsa€™ heads outside the map. The absence of any explicit connection between illustration and text brings to mind the acute observation made by Rudolf Wittkower in relation to the divergence between the illustrations and the text in 15th century copies of Marco Poloa€™s travels: a€?No medieval artist aimed at a descriptive illustration of a text. In the course of the 1340s - possibly before Higden had selected a map to fill the space left in the text for it - a copyist, perhaps working for Ramsey Abbey, Huntingdonshire, created a larger, more detailed and better-executed world map, which illustrates the text much more fully.
If evidence is needed of the decline of cartographic consciousness in England in the second half of the 14th century - perhaps as a consequence of the Black Death pandemic of 1348 a€“ one needs also to bear in mind that only twenty of the surviving 120 or so complete Polychronicon texts in Latin (and only those of the intermediate text and its continuations) contain maps. See also monograph #236.2, the Evesham world map, for additional information on Ranulf Higden.
Detail of Noah in the ark with a ram, lion, and a stag, from Ranulph Higdena€™s Polychronicon, England, c. An example of Higdena€™s mandorla or almond-shaped maps is shown here, perhaps representing a common Christian symbol of the aureole surrounding Christ. English manuscript map centered around Jerusalem and to be read from the north-west, in Ranulf Higden, Polychronicon, late 14th century, Oxford University MS.
To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today.
To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands. I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book.
Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful. It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book. 8 Newcomba€? Cpt. Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St. Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe.
Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position. Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded.
Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people. When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin. They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them.
The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well.
There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc.
Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century. We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers.
In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America. As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them.
Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity.
In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement. In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value.
Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter. Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship.
When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location. On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome!
The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him.
When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind.
After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow. Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts. In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods. When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I. From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area. Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath. Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed. Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth.
Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death.
Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him.
Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all. During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth. According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense. In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for.
In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation.
Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe. Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem.
Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem. Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem. Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander.
The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard.
When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe.
The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position.
In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen.
In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English. After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away.
As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies. Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip.
The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English.
Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth. Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war. These [drawings of the surrounding mountains] was all taken from the shape of their tops as appeared from the camp on Tuesday 24 of November, 1846. We traveled from these hills the same direction as we had the day before, southwest, making 12 in the morning and 18 in the afternoon, making 30 miles.
This morning marched 10 miles and came to these hills where we are now passing southwest direction to find a pass, if possible, for the wagons into another valley. We continued our course, southeast, until we make 20 miles and camped on another plain between the mountains on a creek in the center of the flats. We have had some beautiful plains to pass over as we have come along, but a lack of water and timber. This morning the whole guard has to go on extra duty because one man run his bayonet in a mule. We traveled until 10 oa€™clock and I got ahead of all the train and stopped and took a picture of the mountains around. There was in the evening, an Indian Chief come in and told us that we was on the right road and that last summer there was one wagon went down where we was calculating to go yesterday. Accordingly, on Sunday morning the 29th day, all hands was engaged in fixing for a pass to go into the valley.
We left one wagon above and yesterday another as we was descending and we are not yet down and out of this hole that is here marked out. On the north is a hollow where water sometimes rises, putting down from the mountain into the river or creek. The weather is rather cool and the clouds are in the west, hovering over the mountains as far as you can see. This chain of hills or mountains runs from 12 miles southwest from here to the northwest, out of sight running northwest. On the sixth day, the camp traveled through the brush for about 12 miles and passed in among the hills and I found a beautiful grove of young timber of ash and a kind of walnut, a little like black walnut and a great variety of other wood or brush which grows on the mountains and in the valleys, good to burn. This place is where the camp passed through into a small valley, where we found an old yard that we understand from one of our guides was built by the man who owned the little town we passed through. One of the Spanish drovers left and went to the Spanish settlement below here a short distance. This is a large valley and we are calculating to descend it northwest until we come to the river Saint Padra. I awoke and told my dream and went to sleep and dreamed that I was called up by the brethren to tell it which I did and told them I thought it was for not keeping the covenants, but use the name of the Lord, their God in vain and it had become common language to curse each other.
The bottom land here is about one mile wide, with now and then a scrape of bottom much wider.
This day, some of our hunters informed me that they have seen a number of bear tracks and one was the width of his hand and length of his thumb. I understand there is a plenty of wild oxen here among these hills, which is excellent beef.
These bottoms look like the best of soil in these valleys for about one mile wide, some places wider. Where our camp is, a small town called a€?Barnadenoa€™, once owned by a rich man who built it for himself.
Last night I took a view of our camping ground and saw that it was like the one we had the night before. This is the mountains east are very high, running south until they come against this camp, then they turn east rounding corner and then turns north as I have laid down on another map down the St. As curious a thing as I have seen with thorns, is the large prickly pear or water plant or tree, which is often as high as 20 feet, 16 inches over. On the morning of the 18 of December {LNa€™s note: This day was the 32nd birthday of Levia€™s wife, Clarissa Reed Hancock. These mountains are from the left of the center line, running southeast to northwest and on the other side of the road is mountains that are as high as these on the left. This land that we have passed between here and town is baron, desolate waste and nothing grows here and it looks like the best of land, a plenty of wood here, fires. North, half mile from the road to the foot on the right of this center line as I was facing the mountain, I took this map. I then looked and I stood at the right hand of him and expected he would say something, but did not.


I remembered a dream I had before, which was this: I saw him all alone and said I, a€?There is my fathera€? and got him by the hand and said, a€?Bless me, O my father. These mountains are those that are on the right hand and is about the same distance and height of those on the left.
Along our last days travel, which is the 21 day and I am now in camp, in the borders of the Pema town or on the east side of town.
This, the 22 day of December, on Tuesday morning, we left our first camping ground on the Hely and went down this river 8 miles to the Pemo village and pitched our tents. On the 24th day, I got in conversation with one of our guides and showed him my map of Hely River and the Colorado, Salt and Francisco.
Marched at 10 oa€™clock from our camp and the maricopers and raveled southwest by west 8 miles, then by the end of the mountains four miles southwest then west, far enough to make 18 miles and camped on the desert on the left hand side of some hills. This is Christmas Day and yesterday there was watermelon brought in camp for sale and they was good melons, too. I saw the Chief last night and he said that he knew who we was and some time he meant to go and see the Mormons in California. In one hollow or gully, it is said that this valley is the best of any and that here is a good place for raising any kind of grain, also anything of the fruit kind, and by the looks of the land here, it seems that a nation might be fed here as in Egypt, by watering the land which might be easily done.
Early in the morning, the old doctor came to one tent where some had been boiling beans and asked, a€?What is this?a€? a€?Beans and corn.a€? was the answer. This day I had a talk with Brother Dikes and traveled about 2 miles with him, in which time he told me that he had wanted some conversation for some time and would be glad if I would give him some council and then said that there was considerable feelings existing against him in the Battalion and he would like to do right and that he considered that I was the one to come to get council. I told him I already had that laid to me and I had had a put down for it when there never had been any cause for it and if I should give any council, it would be said again that I sought power and authority and I had concluded not to give any council to any officer, lest it should cause further jealousy. And then he said that he could clear himself of the charges that was against him and that he had defied any man to prove either Eclyseastacle or Military Law against him, for he had kept them both and when he got to the Church things he thought would be differently represented and would not appear as bad as many suppose and then asked me if I did not think that he had better be independent and do the thing strictly according to law. This day we traveled ten miles and come to the river northwest, then turned west by north and went ten miles further and being 18 miles over the best kind of land. James Pace has now brought in a petrified bone which he wished was in the Church, which must have an enormous large animal, about 9 inches across one end, four inches the other way. We came to the top of the hill and the mountains presented a sight and I stopped and drew the shape of them. This day made 7 miles over the hill, down on the flats near the bank of the river near a mountain which many ascended and viewed the country and I could see the winding Hely for a long distance.
While passing along down the bottoms today, I saw another prickly body of the pear or appears to be a species of the same, in another form here. I tell the brethren to wait until they can have a hearing before the authorities of he Church and to be as patient as possible. But, thank God we have served 6 months, save eleven days and we will try to heave it as good soldiers, although our shoes are worn out, our torn clothes are all almost gone, the skins of beavers are used for moccasins. Took a northwest course for four miles and turned around a mountain and in two miles further west, I took the shape of the end of the long mountains seen a long way back.
Here the river has a bend and the valleys are not so wide as they are above, and sometimes to be narrow down below here, which is a southwest course from here and looks like the worst of going.
These hills was seen west of northwest a long ways back and sometimes the peak that is above, was west. After we had turned around here, we had to pass through the bottoms, the thickest kind of brush and small cane and cottonwood or poplar, willow and many other kinds of small brush.
I have now got in camp and the course we traveled from the bluffs was a northwest course for about two miles and began to bear a little around towards the west and now we are going west and I take some peaks that I can just see on the top of a hill or mountain as we are on the bottoms. We traveled through sand and over gravel, course and fine, until we made 12 miles and camped on the bank of the Colorado.
There is no chance for any landscape here, only on the other side and up stream is a mountain. I thought I would go and see him myself not knowing it was against orders, as I afterwards heard it was.
I am now about 8 miles from our last nighta€™s camp and while on my way here I sometimes discovered something on the ground that looked like a red clear stone. Hah-yo-de-yah, is all he scrub that grows here on this desert and no grass and in the aroyohs, muskeet and a few other scrubs. This day traveled northwest by west course until we came to where men was digging a well and found water, but it was poor and but little of it and we was ordered to march on to the next, which was 20 miles ahead. This day made 18 miles over some hills of sand and the bottoms or flats was gravel and sand. In the hollow, when we got to the top of this hill, we saw that there was no outlet to this valley, nor inlet.
Last night, one man catched up with us who had been sent back after a p low that had been left on Hely River by the commissary.
Here is a vineyard that looks beautiful and I am told that there have been clusters of grapes that would weigh 14 pounds and that not uncommon. We put up, making 20 miles this day, by a good creek that would make the best of mill seats, not more than two rods to dam in between the mountains of rocks and there might be a lake formed big enough to water all the country below, but lack of building timber here. It made me think of the storm when Joseph Smith was with us between the two Fishing Rivers, only here we had no thunder.
Once I felt it in my heart and although our men, many of them had become basically wicked, He would spare them. 4 miles from last nights camp and in plain sight of the snow top mountain described here, which I took yesterday and soon after I took it, I ascended a hill and looked at the northwest and between the hills down a valley, I saw a wide extended plain and an arm of the big waters, putting up a point of land, running into the sea about northwest. At the northeast mountains covered with snow and here it is hot and all things in bloom, birds singing and all around presents a beautiful sight. When advertisers set up their campaigns, Google, by default, recommends serving your ads on both the Search and Display Networks. A more effective strategy is to separate campaigns to serve ads on each network individually. Using negative keywords effectively will help to weed out some of the irrelevant and unrelated clicks wasting your money.
For example, if you are a lawyer defending DUI cases you will want to filter out terms such as: DUI alcohol limit, free lawyer, domestic violence lawyer, etc.
Hopefully, these 5 critical tips for PPC success for small businesses on a budget will help you to achieve advertising success. The post 5 Critical Tips for PPC Success for Small Businesses on a Budget appeared first on Portent. Due to the nature of my multiple projects, I get many questions from readers and bloggers which I try to address in as much detail as I can.
As someone who had (and witnessed) WordPress-run sites being hosted as regularly as once a year and handled the consequences, I highly recommend focusing on the hosting service security.
Speaking of changing your hosting service, yes, like I said, that’s no fun and in most cases results in lost visits, leads and income.
For the past ~10 years I’ve had to deal with (optimize and customize) dozens of WordPress themes (usually with help of my tech team). To my surprise the Kickstart Pro theme was so flexible and easy to set up that I managed to do everything myself and actually enjoyed the process. You can hook it up with Mailchimp which is free until you build over 2000 subscribers (Which will take some time to build up).
It’s not that crucial for new blogs (where you can easily handle linking to your old content manually) but for older sites this one is totally a must. Simple Follow Me Social Buttons Widget: You can handle these without plugins or your theme might already have them.
These are more optional at the start (Many new bloggers would want to wait until their blogs start earning some money to cover additional expenses). Viral Content Buzz PRO ($20 per month): VCB extends your social media content exposure to users outside of your own following.
Social media ads: Once I see some good organic growth (usually thanks to Viral Content Buzz), I add some social media ads to help the growth. The history-as-value clause: A lot of the work your agency does builds history, and that history is worth hard dollars.
If an agency gets grabby, insisting they don’t have to hand something over, check the contract. To be fair, I don’t think there have been any public stories on Linkedin actually enforcing this policy on long-time active users.
Founded by former Facebook employees, Quora is making the same mistake Facebook started with, the only difference being Quora has never tried correcting it standing firmly by their questionable decision.
It is still hilarious to find such an adamant policy enforcers on the Internet, and it makes me wonder how Quora managed to put a bunch of lunatics to frame a policy on the Internet that forces users to reveal their identities. In an obvious effort to profile the web, Google started Google Plus with a very strict real name policy which ended up in lots of controversies. The policy didn’t work for Google Plus well, especially when they started aggressively integrating it into Youtube (where few people use real names). On July 15, 2014 it was announced that there were absolutely no restrictions as to what name you should use when registering an account at Google Plus. The post Real Name Policies on Facebook, LinkedIn, Quora and Google Plus: Clarified appeared first on Internet Marketing Ninjas Blog. We’ve also got a fun rant about keywords from SEO Chat and some privacy-focused topics from Cre8asiteforums! You may not have heard the term before – clickjacking is when you click on a video to play it, for example, and instead a new window opens up with an advertisement. There’s a bonus discussion on WebmasterWorld, where users wonder how fair and accurate Google will be in identifying actual clickjacking attempts. Over 70 pages of charts and information from comScore is up for discussion in this Cre8asiteforums thread!
The post Getty vs Google, Long Tail Rants, and More: Weekly Forum Update appeared first on Internet Marketing Ninjas Blog. Sitelink extensions are one of the most commonly used ad extensions available in Google AdWords.
These additional links, which are typically displayed when enabled for ads holding the first or second ad position in Google’s search engine results page (SERP), provide a large handful of benefits for advertisers using them. Typically located under your standard PPC headline and description lines, the example below highlights four sitelinks being used by this particular advertiser.
Additionally, advertisers can add description lines to their sitelinks in an effort to further develop context. Implementing sitelinks into your Google AdWords campaigns can provide a ton of additional value for advertisers. Local PPC is a topic seldom discussed in the digital marketing sphere, and that’s a problem. For many of these businesses investing in paid search ads, a typical B2C or B2B strategy just won’t do. If you have a location in a large city, or if you have multiple locations which are in close proximity with one another, you may find that city location targeting isn’t practical. The single most important element to winning with local PPC is the utilization of radius targets. The signals AdWords uses when determining if someone is within a custom radius target often rely on physical indicators such as WiFi hot spots and GPS. Radius targets are important, but they’re not the only factors which will make or break a local PPC strategy. Use bid modifiers on schedules and devices – Chances are your conversion metrics, such as conversion rate and average cost per conversion, will vary depending on the time of day, day of week, and what type of device a user is on.
Create a campaign template – For businesses with multiple locations, create a campaign template (or set of templates) so it can be used on a one-store-per-campaign basis. There needs to be some action on your website a user can take which indicates they’re likely to actually visit your physical location. How else will you know the money you’re investing in PPC is actually working to drive people physically to your place of business? We have a couple of current, large-scale examples at Portent where we’ve proven out this strategy (on top of many small business accounts). In both cases, conversions went up, the average cost per conversion decreased, and conversion rates increased, all by noticeable margins.
When most people think about online marketing, they think about the straightforward side--the one that makes them money directly. When social media platforms just started springing up, I remember many experts assuming social media would kill email marketing. Maintaining a loyal, active and steadily growing list is one of the strongest assets you can build: This is what can secure your business against various rankings fluctuations and emerging competitors.
These months I am experimenting with my blog calls-to-actions (primarily for the sake of self-education but also to be able to share my results with my community and help others grow). This article is my first step in the long-lasting experiment: Making the most of calls-to-actions. Creating a sense of urgency gets users to take action immediately instead of holding off on the purchase.
One of them, in various versions, appears in copies of a compendious and immensely popular universal Latin history book, the Polychronicon, written in the mid-14th century by Ranulf Higden, a Benedictine monk at Chester (ca.
It is oriented with East at the top, Jerusalem near its center and the heads around the map represent the twelve winds. It depends largely on classical writings such as Plinya€™s Etymologia (especially as transmitted by earlier medieval writers and encyclopaedists, notably Isidore of Seville (Book II, #205), on medieval chronicles, on travel accounts such as those of Vincent of Beauvais, Giraldus Cambrensis and Marco Polo, on the Alexander legends and, above all, on the Bible. Other chroniclers contributed their own a€?continuationsa€™ to Higdena€™s text until after 1400. Their occurrence or non-occurrence, however, is so apparently arbitrary and the design of most of them so unrelated to the text as to prompt questions about Higdena€™s attitude towards maps and about the nature and purpose of these so-called Higden maps. Almost certainly the now-lost original short version of the Polychronicon did not contain a map. It presented the essentials of his worldview without the frills (such as the texts and illustrations relating to the Marvels of the East and to the Bible) found on the great 13th century world maps.
Only the principal cities, rivers, seas and provinces of the classical world are named, except in Western Europe where some medieval place-names appear. In some ways this work resembles the great maps of the previous century with their descriptive texts.
Even if a few of the other hundred mapless texts may originally have been accompanied by larger, separate maps - in the way that a copy of Gervase of Tilburya€™s Otia Imperialia may once have accompanied, explained and elucidated the Ebstorf world map (Book II, #224) a€“ the likelihood must be that most had none.
At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations. She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts).
Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin.
We passed over the best kind of land I ever saw and came to another creek, putting down from the west into this river large enough to carry a grist mill continually and might be brought onto a overshot wheel as clear as crystal.
It is imperative that advertisers stretch their PPC budget to get the highest return on their investment. Each network has been made to reach an audience with different goals on different types of sites. This way people searching for those specific terms won’t trigger your ads and cost you money.
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They have a handy backend full of tips, resources and video guides and I eagerly went through them, step by step, until I liked what I saw. And trust me, an oldie blog like this one is in every spam database that exists, so I am getting a ton of spam comments. Usually the budget is as low as $10 and the two best-working social media networks for that are Facebook and StumbleUpon paid discovery. I don’t know why, but they cling to your stuff like the ex who never returns your houseplants. If the old agency wrote formal reports or audits, they should provide them in digital format.
If your site’s built using free software (like WordPress), you should get everything necessary to re-launch the site elsewhere. 99.9999% of web analytics data is stored using cloud-based systems like Google Analytics and Omniture. If your agency built something for you, created something or managed something, it’s probably yours. Maybe you decided to let your marketing agency own the custom e-commerce package they wrote so they could re-use it. It helps people to find, share, and access an amazing wealth of content regardless of how they connect or where they are located. In case you are reported for not using your real name, you have to provide your ID which means you have to use your legal name.
They provide advertisers the ability to promote additional links to their website within a signular PPC ad.
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When executed properly, these extensions can provide a ton of extra value on top of your standard PPC ad.
There are many businesses which depend on potential customers among the local population to physically enter a specific location and spend money; restaurants and service shops are two of the most prominent examples. Budgets might be extremely tight and every penny needs to count, especially for small businesses. In this post, we’re going to cover the key elements to a successful local PPC strategy, provide a few tips on how to execute it, and show you what to expect after you execute these changes. Furthermore, using more specific targets, like zip codes, may be more of a pain than they’re worth. When it comes to utilizing a budget most efficiently, it’s safest to switch that setting over to target only users physically in your targeted location(s). Use bid modifiers accordingly to bid down (or stop showing ads entirely) for poor conversion metrics and bid up for good conversion metrics. This way, you can keep your account organized, your campaigns consistent, and be able to devote specific amounts of budget toward any given location. As a result, PPC influenced more people to physically go to these places and grow these businesses. You just need to make sure you’re utilizing the key elements which make it a success. They think about earning more traffic from their target demographics, and earning more conversions from the pool of that traffic. Not too surprising, in Britain (shown in the color red, lower left) there are more town symbols than are shown for all the rest of Europe. Fourteen cities are represented and identified, including London, Winchester, Lincoln, Oxford, Worcester, Gloucester, Norwich, Northampton, York, and Exeter. Commonly styled the Polychronicon which comes from the booka€™s longer title Ranulphi Castrensis, cognomine Higden, Polychronicon (sive Historia Polycratica) ab initio mundi usque ad mortem regis Edwardi III in septem libros dispositum, Higdena€™s Polychronicon became the most popular history book in medieval England and, as mentioned above, more than 120 manuscript copies survive today. Although Higden occasionally interjected stories and observations of his own, and sometimes criticized earlier authors, he was generally satisfied with their information. After a few years, however, Higden evidently concluded that a map would be appropriate, and the intermediate and final versions of the text specifically refer the reader to a map. Furthermore, the one copyist of the 1340s who was sufficiently enthusiastic to create the more elaborate of the Ramsey Abbey maps, which closely corresponds to Higdena€™s text, was an isolated figure. That the Caspian is not an inland sea but open to the ocean signals this depictiona€™s conservatism.
Below them to the right is the Red Sea (colored red), interrupted by a label marking where Moses led the Hebrews to safely from Herod.
She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself. For example, if you are trying to run a branding campaign to grow awareness, then the Display network is a good bet. The longer a campaign runs the more opportunities there will be to add negative keywords which are triggering irrelevant clicks.
When going through the account, you should be adjusting bids, monitoring average position, adding negative keywords and testing ad copy to find the highest converters. Most good hosting services offer one-click WordPress installation, so anyone could handle that. If you prefer short-form content or don’t use subheadings much, this one may be skipped. So they provide an easy transition, delivering creative, PPC accounts and all the other goodies without any fuss.
If you ask for paper copies, expect to receive a bill, a call from your local environmentalists, and a complimentary membership for the Luddite Hall of Fame. Some agencies will try to look you in the eye and tell you the keywords, campaigns, ads and everything else you paid them to create is still theirs.
As a result, we typically see ads with sitelinks earning a click-through rate 10% – 20% higher than ads without sitelinks. When implemented properly, we typically see conversion rates rise with the presence of sitelinks. And with no extra cost associated with these ad extensions, all advertisers should be using them when applicable to their Google AdWords campaigns. So, how do you execute a winning local PPC strategy when there’s such little room for error?
Just as important, you need to be able to track these conversions accurately using AdWords, an Analytics platform, or a combination of both. And that, really, is the whole point to this entire post: utilize these tactics to make more money.
This leads to more sales (or leads), which then translates to bottom-line dollars for the company. That he was English may be significant given the English associations of the group of world maps that include the Ebstorf and Hereford maps (Book II, #224 and #226). In fact, there are some 39 castellated towns throughout the entire world map, 14 of which are in England alone, while there are only four throughout all the continent of Africa.
The original manuscript of the earliest version is lost, but the copy that the Huntington Library possesses is now generally accepted as Higdena€™s working copy for the intermediate version, which contains the text up to 1327 with continuations recording events up to 1352.
Unlike Paris, however, Higden was either unable or unwilling to create a map specifically for his description of the world. The map omits all legends, notably those referring to the Marvels of the East or to the Bible (with the exception of an indication of the passage of the Hebrews across the Red Sea) even though these are dealt with in detail in the text. The other copyists became, if anything, less cartographically concerned than Higden and their maps even more conventionalized.
The text specifies that Gog and Magog will break out at the end of the world and do great damage, and that they were enclosed by Alexander.
The small square islands near the middle of the page, set against a green sea, include Crete, Cyprus, Rhodes, and Sicily. As with illustrations, so with maps, Higden may have realized that the map he selected was not ideal, but he was not sufficiently cartographically sophisticated to be bothered by it.
Without proper care, things can hit the fan quickly, negatively affecting your campaign’s performance and ROI. Believe in yourself: Your site is likely to pay for itself soon enough if you do everything right when starting out. If your agency hands over a spreadsheet, you’re still required to set up new accounts. If someone tries to prevent that, maybe they’re not the right agency for you in the first place. But there's another way that online marketing can help your organization--by promoting an open position and attracting more qualified candidates to apply.SEO for Human ResourcesSEO (search engine optimization) is a marketing strategy, plain and simple. As a testimony to its popularity, some 150 manuscript copies of the Polychronicon have survived and are illustrated by a world map, all having similar geographical content, although their individual form and shape vary considerably.
Not all of these town symbols are the same, for instance Jerusalem, Rome, Babylon, and Santiago de Compostella (Spain) are quite unique, large cathedral-like drawings with considerable more detail than the other identified towns. Although he was evidently proud of Chester and of the English language, the tone of his text is not at all nationalist. Skelton and David Woodward have all followed Konrad Miller (who, however, did not know of the Huntington Library map) in focusing their attention on this map from Ramsey Abbey.
By the 1370s they were creating circular maps (or maps shaped like the aureoles often shown surrounding Christ in medieval art), which mostly lacked even the rudimentary coastlines and decoration shown on the Huntington Library Map.
Higdena€™s work seems to have been very popular: around 185 Latin manuscripts traceable to Higdena€™s design.
In this case, Higden himself is likely to have been responsible for the additions as well as the core text, and the Huntington Library manuscript, therefore, should be regarded as the most authoritative expression of Higdena€™s own intentions.
Almost certainly his chosen map was a familiar image that, because of its very familiarity, would have been as acceptable to his readers as to himself in providing an illustration of the world. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement. Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry. Stay safe on the web and take preventative measures to protect your content on the web.We saw an increase in the number of sites with thin, low quality content.
On some the map is circular, on some a pointed oval (vesica piscis [fish bladder] or mandorla type), and on some it is a rounded oval.
Book I is devoted to a geographical description of the world, while Books 2 through Book 5 encompass the history of the world. It is surely significant, as John Taylor has pointed out in his The Universal Chronicle of Ranulf Higden (1966), that several of the later copies of the earliest version have a blank folio - or a completely unrelated piece of text - at the end of the prologue to the first book - exactly where the map is to be found in the Huntington Library manuscript. Undoubtedly it is relatively more informative than the Huntington Library map, i??but there are major problems in terming it the Higden map, as has been the practice.
The relatively high level of map consciousness and cartographical skill that had distinguished England and the English in 13th century Europe had sunk low. The oval shape of Higdena€™s maps and its simplification, the vesica piscis, is a particular characteristic of his, but not original. Undoubtedly it is relatively more informative than the Huntington Library map, but there are major problems in terming it the Higden map, as has been the practice.
Getting personalized attention for your account by someone who knows the intricacies of the platform is an invaluable tool. Such content contains little or no added value and is often scraped from other sites.2015 spam-fighting effortsAs always, our algorithms addressed the vast majority of webspam and search quality improvement for users.
The delusion that most optimizers have fallen into, however, is that the pages you promote should be directly tied to your bottom line.
The circular Higden maps are thought to be simplifications of the earlier oval maps, and they certainly appear in later manuscripts.
One of our algorithmic updates helped to remove the amount of hacked spam in search results.The rest of spam was tackled manually.
The cities of Rome and Jerusalem are always prominent, but are rarely placed in the center of the map. Second, the inclusion in the same manuscript of another simpler map that is closely related to the Huntington Library map and may, therefore, be a slightly later addition to the Ramsey Abbey copy of the Polychronicon, suggests a loss of confidence on the part of the copyist - a feeling, perhaps, that with the fuller map he was unacceptably stepping out of line. Skelton implies that a lost prototype (which may have been a large world map such as that referred to by Matthew Paris a century earlier) was probably circular and that the oval shape was an adaptation to the shape of the codex leaf. Include a general human resources page.This should be a main navigation "housing" for your subsequent open position pages. Third, it is worth recalling that the fuller Ramsey Abbey map produced no cartographic progeny, whereas the Huntington Library map is related to, and is probably the ancestor of, no fewer than ten oval or circular maps, including the Evesham world map (#236.2), which were being created up to and into the 1460s. It is more likely, however, that the oval shape was derived from the practice described by Hugh of Saint Victor of drawing maps in the supposed shape of Noaha€™s Ark (which, by the way, is actually pictured at center-left on the map displayed below). After prioritizing the reports, we acted on 65% of them, and considered 80% of those acted upon to be spam. Here, you'll detail your company's human resources department, optimizing for keywords related to your business as a place to work rather than a place to do business with. Thanks to all who submitted reports and contributed towards a cleaner web ecosystem!We conducted more than 200 online office hours and live events around the world in 17 languages. For example, a SaaS company may use a phrase like "a leader in software engineering," as opposed to a phrase like "a leader in task management software" to cater to software developers over paying subscribers.2. These are great opportunities for us to help webmasters with their sites and for them to share helpful feedback with us as well.The webmaster help forum continued to be an excellent source of webmaster support.
Create a dedicated page for each position.Creating a dedicated page for each open position you have provides the opportunity to optimize a page for each of those keyword phrases.
He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors. Webmasters had tens of thousands of questions answered, including over 35,000 by users designated as Webmaster Top Contributors.
Title the page with the job title near the front, and include at least one or two synonyms for that job title in the description. Also, 56 Webmaster Top Contributors joined us at our Top Contributor Summit to discuss how to provide users and webmasters with better support and tools. In the body content, describe job responsibilities in detail, and be sure to include at least a handful of instances of the job title.3. Target individual locations.Even if your company is a national level organization, and even if you're hiring multiple people at multiple locations, it's a good idea to segment your open positions by location.
This will allow you to optimize for geographic keywords in your titles, descriptions, and of course, your body content.4.
Use referral links to drive more traffic.The more links you have pointing to your individual position pages, the stronger those page authorities will be (and the more likely you'll be to rank for keyword terms relating to that position).
Build links on as many different sources as you can, and don't forget the power that referral traffic can lend to your site. There are dozens of synonyms for your job title, and the job title you give may carry different connotations than you intend.
At the same time, there are only so many "alternative" job titles you can include in your body content.



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