Well, I could use a good war is the line that came into my head but I didna€™t say so because I could tell she would start into me like a whole slew of hens. He didna€™t say anything, even though he was all mouth, but I could tell a channel between us had opened.
I needed to eat something, but I didna€™t have any money, so I thought about slipping in and making cereal, but the kids always make the apartment smell like mustard and artificial grapes.
I didna€™t want Antares to know I was looking for him, so I bought a skywriter, started twirling it through the square, which is how Kate said I would find him. The first week I spent with the tubes Antares lent me, I might as well have been working with a toothbrush. The thing about making love with Kate was that she knew how to run her fingers behind my neck and hold my head to her as she kissed me, like you think a man would do, but that men never do because it seems like something they should do and cana€™t live up to doing, so nobody ever does it except men in old movies, and Kate.
Before I saw Antares again, he came to me in a dream where he was a door, or the absence of a door, so it was like talking into a hole in a room that opened up. When I saw Antares that day, it shouldna€™t have surprised me, but it was 12A° in the sun and I wasna€™t sure which side of it I was on. I raised out of my seat and tried to get off the bus, which was stuck behind a funeral procession. I got off the bus feeling wired and shaky, like the last thing in the world I need is to hear a kid playing flute. I was thirteen when I walked out the front door like every high school kid has wet dreams about doing when theya€™re not thinking about how to score. So I kept going because by then Ia€™d worked up steam and I didna€™t care about suspension or graduation or even my music collection, which wasna€™t a tremendous collection, but it wasna€™t until the bus was pulling out of Chauquahana that I realized I was going to miss that. I pushed my palm against the wall, pulled back against his hand, pushed in until my hand began to sweat. Name of a weapon of the God of War, ita€™s a star in the constellation Scorpius, same one Ia€™m in.
Youa€™re an archer, a Sagittarius, only youa€™re the arrow, a spark popped out of the fire. No, just that youa€™re protesting for the environment, and I can see you in a crowd of people like a forest. The thing about the rockstar kids was how they were all still playing characters in their own lives.
They had a hangout in the forest where somebody had made a pit by pulling some rocks into a circle big enough to sit around. The wilderness, Mickey said, is a place you can go without any Twizzlers, so when somebody brings them in ita€™s like they invented them.
I dona€™t know, if the wilderness came with a sofa, I think thata€™d be pretty rad, Chris added. Ia€™m fine, you can sell it like twice a month or something, you just have to stay hydrated. How do you love someone so much you get jammed in the arm by a noob who practically breaks the needle off in your vein, and you cana€™t feel anything but the swell of your heart aching into the bruise? No, but youa€™re gonna let me come back and belt one out next Saturday night and audition properlike. A woman in a purple dress that plunged to the whitewater of the polar caps took the stage and the lights dimmed again.
The song she had chosen was not the right one for this crowd, but MelanieE?s a€?Brand New Keya€? did have enough rhythm to get them clapping along. When the third singer approached the stage, a wave of applause moved over the crowd like gossip.
You want to stick a fondue forkful of ColemanE?s fuel down your ripe throat for the show of it, go ahead. To admit youa€™re not in control and meet it with both fists hanging by your side is pretty brave.
Kate was wearing black coconut perfume and the rockstar kids were looking especially bright-eyed under their Lucky Charms dye jobs. DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral.
While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication.
Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St.
As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland.
THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n.
16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, .
23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia. Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object.
After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history. There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St.
Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first.
A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left).
The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square.
A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism. Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings.
A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map.
These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals.
Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster.
The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. I just loaded the rice into my satchel, which she was looking at because it had a skull and bones and said POISON on the side.
The deer was tinged at the tips with auburn, so it mighta€™ve been a fire I have to burn off, like karma. It was so much effort for me to stay on and for her to pedal, I shoulda€™ve just jumped off and walked, but she was laughing the whole time like she was made of glass and breaking, so I held on, holding my legs out of the way of the wheel. I had fallen asleep in Katea€™s bed with her hand tucked between my legs like kids do, because ita€™s warm.
Kate teaches flute lessons to rich kids whose parents are practically salivating all over themselves to invite their friends to the Philharmonic and brag how they recognized little Magnusa€™s gift when he was playing recorder in his crib.
Ia€™d seen it on a calendar of discount hotels, and there was something about the mountains in the backdrop of the a€?biggest little city in the worlda€? that I knew would look nice on a person, very steady and sedate.
I was sitting in Geometry class and never has there been such a terrible useless fact as learning that no matter how you stretch sides AB and and AC of an isosceles triangle, they will always remain of equal length.
How you had to ride over it to cross the bridge and at sundown the light shone in the Sunsphere like copper. I felt like my hand was an ear pressed against the wall, which was sounding something I could almost make out. Kate was sure, but she knew if she told him, hea€™d start thinking of his bumper stickers as blazons. I get honked at less on the holy days, but not as seldom as youa€™d think considering the town is cinched tight with the rhinestone buckle of the Bible belt. He was walking the other way, arms swinging side to side like they rocked him and he was the anchor ship of his own row. Every time they discussed bringing a sofa they could leave in the woods, but they always forgot.
I got so I started practicing in the morning before IE?d eaten so I didnE?t throw up food IE?d gone to the trouble of making.
It reminded me of a coat I saw in a museum oncea€”belonged to a Native American chief, made entirely of feathers. I knew it didna€™t matter if I lied, and honesty really is the best policy six times out of ten. When Reno broke into a€?Some people say IE?ve done alright for a girl,a€? she drew enough hoots not to hang her head when she strode back to her stool, yellow flicker feathers at her earlobes turning like wings.
Every part of her was shinya€”lips glossed like a piece of hard candy, dress glinting with zirconium mirrors, heels polished as a stockbroker. AntaresE?s comment surprised me so much, I wondered afterward if he said it inside my head or out. Nobody was around to see me, which was chancy, but it would have been more dangerous to have Kate there. Just like that, I knew I could drop the weight of the past like a coat, forgive Mama everything and the whole goddamned world we were born into, wash us off in a wave of flames, let the current carry us to another shore. The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223).


Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head. James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities. Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G. The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents.
The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography.
The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons. This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history.
Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text.
Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them. Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace. Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated. I knew shea€™d be good for me, which she started being as soon as she got me up to her apartment. I pulled in back of myself as far as I could and looked across the crystal desert of the parking lot. She wasna€™t home but leaves her door unlocked for situations like this, and she almost always has tuna fish, the good kind, with oil. She said it so often I thought it was her way of telling me things were going to be hard, and it took me more years than it should have to realize it was a line in the song.
Plus, I figured I was about the biggest little girl in the world, so me and that name took up with each other like an old couple who buy each other cough drops and dona€™t have their own socks. I stood up and walked right out, which probably even I thought I was doing for a breather, go to the weight room and tip the machine for a Coke, but once I got out, I felt the sheer absurdity of it all. Something about a river makes a town flow through you, and you can ride off on the rainbow current with some boozy grubfish.
She fought the look of naA?vety on her, had her lip pierced, painted black wings around her eyes. She asked herself, folding another sheet of colored paper onto the burn pile of Cancer crabs.
The thing was, it was February and we were getting a glimpse of the spring to come, but we still had the rest of the month and all of March left. Thata€™s what paradise is, like when you really need a drink and the liquor is right there. My stomach clenched when the bar reached my back palate, but I found a little arc in the reflex where it becomes involuntary. It jumped out of my hand twenty-seven times, but on the twenty-eighth, I breathed deep and it stayed awhile.
I stitched the smaller feathers onto larger feathers and the larger feathers onto patches of cloth.
They werena€™t two individuals playing it out, but artists thrumming on the heart of a Siamese people.
Shawn was riding the silverplated eagle up the crystalcoated stairs, drying glasses off and shaking rocks into my whiskey, like diamonds, hea€™d say smiling every once in awhile.
You donE?t rewire a reflex to become a circus freak, collect a few ahs and rounds of applause. When she appealed to them with a€?If I Were Your Woman,a€? the crowd slammed their mugs against the bar and smacked their thighs and shouted out promises of what they would do if she were theirs.
Antares had no interest in Colleen or J.TE?s business plan or Whipgloss, who was apparently a regular act with a not unwarranted following.
If Ia€™d left it there, they would have met and burned me up, but I pulled it out, satisfied, for maybe the first time. When the backup singers rose and fanned around her like a cloak, it was like a sunrise of music ordaining this dark little basement bar, a gleaming catch pulled fresh from the ocean.
I burst into song thena€”one of mine instead of a covera€”the air around me like it would never stop breathing, and me a horse standing in the mountains hitched to a frost-burned, empty cart. Frances knows I wasna€™t raised with the social niceties of skipping off to get somebody a clean spoon.
In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches.
India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts. A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead.
Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs.
Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly. Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser.
Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery.
Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research.
In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time. Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes.
Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top.
Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world.
They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books.
God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map. Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories.
The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers.
Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries. Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England. We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265.
A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them.
The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries. This land was made for you and me to escape from or to, but the mountains have just been there all along.
The thing that killed me though, the clincher, was how before I climbed on, she packed my rice into the saddlebags and started singing this song, all wavery with pauses while she made it up, patting the bags like thighs she was weighing out. He was wrapping my questions in something cool and close, like a suitcase full of dry white beans. Like their parents condense twenty-seven years of suppressed creative energy into one terrifically off-handed name. So I made myself a peanut butter and tuna sandwich, which sounded pretty good because I was running low on protein, and it didna€™t taste half bad for the first couple of bites. It didna€™t even occur to me to write Antares until about the fourth day, and then I wasna€™t sure how to spell it or what I wanted exactly. Come here, he walked over to a building and put my hand against the brick wall, his hand on top of mine.
The only thing just about Chris was his angera€”because his mother left them and his dad was a workaholic, because everyone had their own lives to live and no one paid attention to anyone elsea€”Mother Nature was just the representative. It had caught a sheet of newsprint and was tugging it into the telephone wires like an obstinate child.
On the twenty-ninth I noticed how my nasal passage was getting crushed but if I breathed slow, air could get around it.
Nobody making you, and nobody gonna pat your backside either, even if it is as sweet as white flour.
It was a Wednesday night, so there werena€™t many people in the place, but it was nice and dark and had a purple couch.
I sat for long enough to think probably Shawn wasna€™t the best person to know about time passing, so I got up and started looking for a greaser in the bowels of the place.
You might could tell if you werenE?t so busy getting that hard cold proof down your gullet.
I got three lady singers in the joint who are going to try their best to bring this place to its knees. Before the woman, who called herself Colleen Parker, took her seat, she volunteered herself. The thing is, your house burning down is just like anything else, all you can do is say no.
They were dressed to the nine-inch heels, pouting because he wouldnE?t comp all their drinks but made them nudge and flirt for them like the other customers. She said some part of me was going to rest when I found him, and some part was going to grow up.


The speakers were backed up against the stage, but there was a sweet spot if I turned a little to the left and leaned back to get my spine straight and line my vocal chords up. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves. Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181).
12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words.
Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner.
Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map.
Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St.
It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps. Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added. It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi.
They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features.
Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources.
Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235.
It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Ia€™m making my way to them on a hobo pilgrimage toward salvation, because I dreamed my soul was inside one of them in a deer. That grocery store clerk was my mother, sure as the mole on my face, springing up like a reprimand that wona€™t be put down, because her concern for me is something I have to carry for some fixed amount of time like my own dead weight.a€?a€?a€?= The Ricea€?a€?The second person I asked about Antares I slept with because it was time. I couldna€™t tell it was him at first because fur isna€™t something you expect to see on a bastard, which I figured he was. If their own parents had given them names that came with their own personality, maybe they could crawl out from the microscope under which they live.
But after about four bites I realized it wasna€™t really that good so I squirted Tabasco on it and washed it down with sour orange juice, which I must have been complaining about in my head because right then Frances walked in and told me to buy my own juice if I wanted the ritzy stuff; she was poor. Harner could tell them about Pythagoras, or drop his kids off at the swimming pool or Vietnam, where my dad had gone and gotten himself killeda€”years before, so I wasna€™t all traumatized or anything, but it did sort of rush together like a washing machine full of insight that all I had in the world was a mother who didna€™t want me to see the bruises she gave herself and a brother who was trying to raise a little girl. Ciara pushed against her hard, leaning with her whole body, digging her fingers in a little. She never felt so alone as after folding another origami scorpion to lay on top of the crowd. Something about his bare head should have made him vulnerable but instead it made him fierce. On the thirtieth try, my mind had a fita€”I should get a gig or write music instead of this useless crapa€”but the picture had hold of me, of being onstage. I want you to make E?em feel welcome, clap hardest for the one you like most, not the one with the biggest titties, E?cause IE?m trying to run me a serious music theater. I figured it was a sure thing sheE?d take the dubious honor of official bar singer, but IE?d give her a run for it nonetheless. Funny I wanted her to hear me now when I wouldnE?t let her come the first night, but I realized I didnE?t need my attention for something else. That grocery store clerk was my mother, sure as the mole on my face, springing up like a reprimand that wona€™t be put down, because her concern for me is something I have to carry for some fixed amount of time like my own dead weight.= The RiceThe second person I asked about Antares I slept with because it was time. Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow. At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself.
The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events. Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning.
More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity.
Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions. A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning. Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. Like a shadow of algae going to rive me from this stream.a€?a€?The first person I asked about him said Honey, whatchu want to know about Antares for?a€?a€?I dona€™t know that many people, I told her.
But even from that distance, I could see his cheekbones were high and carved straight out of his skull.
He talked alright, but I could hear him clear as a bell thinking, a€?slice slice slice slicea€? and the visual it came with was like fish gills full of bitters. I asked her if it would make me cursed because a girl at school said that song was about a whore.
When I saw him, our eyes locked and I panicked, wondering what I was going to do now, but he walked right up and said, What? Even if he had to wait a couple maybe agonizing days, at least he wouldna€™t spend them indentured to the terror everybody else had of the cold. It made you wonder what a whole population of people would be like if they never stopped creating themselves, like there was never any obligation to anything but cool. I knew if I swallowed a sword it would quiet the audience for the sound of my voice coming out. But I knew I put it there because I hadna€™t had time to wash my hands in the lettuce bowl. Maybe hea€™d gotten under the fence at his house or broken off the chain; hea€™d gotten loose from his owner anyhow. What I am opening to is right here, including the fear that she might miss me and the fact that I need her and she might not be able to provide.
Like a shadow of algae going to rive me from this stream.The first person I asked about him said Honey, whatchu want to know about Antares for?I dona€™t know that many people, I told her. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards. This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ.
The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it. I asked her how she dealt with stuff like that but she looked at me kind of puzzled like you dona€™t know? She asked if I felt cursed and I said no, and she said curses dona€™t exist, and besides, I liked being called Roxy-anne like I had my own adjective, and Roxy, like moxie and Rocks, like star. Something about having to make sandwiches out of ketchup and saltines made Reno unable to count on anything as unreliable as that.
When the tube touched ground in the bottom of my stomach and came barreling back out as a flame of sound, I figured.
She was ringing up my rice, which was when she noticed I had about seventeen bags of rice and thata€™s all.
Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei.
The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. I had pushed in maybe a millimeter, so I pulled back into his hand, sank in maybe a centimeter before my body dissolved like pixie stix in acid.
Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples.
There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims. Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, .
Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi.
Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. One after another I asked dumb questions like that until he started winding them around this wheel, like the millera€™s daughter spinning straw into gold, I said, which made him smile so wide I fell right through the door.
He leaned his body into mine against the wall, holding it there, which made me able to feel the wall again, him. On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes.
She told me to get on her handlebars and I did because her eyes were the color of twilight if twilight had a gray. I didna€™t do it on purpose, but once I saw the shock on her face, I started collecting finales. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs.
I mean amphetamines didnE?t help, but she wouldna€™t have needed them if she made something other than kids. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity.
Life pulls into a station, you wait for the next bus to come along, or you take it where it goes. I mean, Hank and me werena€™t something to be ashamed of, but she knew my being able to sing wasna€™t something she did.



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