Our story for this Buck family begins with the marriage of Davida€™s parents, Thomas Buck and Elizabeth Scott, on 4 May 1738 in Glastonbury, Connecticut [see Glastonbury Vital Records by Barbour, available on the Internet.] The record of this marriage does not provide any additional information about the ancestry of Thomas Buck, but it does tell us that Elizabeth was the daughter of Thomas Scott. We know that these were the parents of our David Buck as his daughter, Elizabeth Buck Garlick (who we will frequently refer to as a€?EBGa€?) left a record in 1841 (in Nauvoo, Illinois) and again in 1872 (in Salt Lake City in the Endowment House). Following their wedding in 1738, Thomas and Elizabeth Buck completely disappear from the local records. Fortunately their grand-daughter, Elizabeth Buck Garlick (EBG), lived long enough to be listed in the 1880 US Federal census for Springville, Utah.
The birth-dates are unknown for several of these children, but since there was such a large gap between Thomas, Jr. There was also a John Buck and a Joseph Buck who were closely associated with this family in Bedford County, but we have no document that establishes their relationship to the rest of this family. With all of the above as foundation for our story we will now present the documented history for our David Buck, Sr.
The very first item we can find for our Bucks in Bedford County is in the 1775 tax list where a Thomas Buck was listed as paying 7 pounds, 6, as a resident of Colerain Township in Bedford Co., PA. In the next yeara€™s tax recorda€”1776, we again find Thomas Buck, along with Jonathan Buck listed in Colerain Township of Bedford County. We have no tax records for 1777 & 1778, but in 1779 there was no Thomas Buck in Colerain Township. In 1780 we still find David Buck and John Buck paying taxes in Colerain Twp., and Davida€™s brother, Thomas Buck, Jr. The 6th Company, 1st Battalion of the PA militia was formed from the men of Providence Township in 1781, with George Enslow as Captain. We do not know any details about Davida€™s military service but we do know there were many British inspired Indian-attacks within the county where settlers were killed and their homes burned.
By 1784 both David and Jonathan were located in Providence Township in Bedford Co., PA, and their brother Thomas was still in Hopewell, just a few miles north of Providence. In 1789 Jonathan Buck sold his land in Providence Township and moved to the western side of the County, and from there (in 1793) he moved to Tennessee. Note that most of the purchases above naming Thomas Buck were surely for the Captain Thomas Buck of Hopewell Twp., the brother of our David, Sr.
David Buck, land deeded to him by Benjamin Ferguson and Zilah, his wife, for 45 pounds, that tract of land called Oxford Situate on the waters of Brush Creek also running by the land of Thomas Buck, Esq. Thomas Buck and wife Margaret, sold to George Myers, land in Providence Twp being rented by William Conners for $2,400., on Brush Creek joining John Allisona€™s survey and running by David Bucka€™s property.
This is a very interesting entry as we know that the Captain, Thomas Buck (brother of our David Sr.) was the man who was married to Mrs. Before we continue with the Buck family, we need to take a sideways step to briefly discuss the Cashman family, as that brings in the wife of David Buck, Sr. This family lived for many years in Berks County, PA, and then in York Co., PA, before moving to Washington County, Maryland in 1777.
We should mention here that by this time the old Germanic family name had seen a number of changes that show up in many of the documents.
Martina€™s oldest daughter, Catherine grew up in Pennsylvania and moved with her parents to Maryland when she was about 25 years old. David returned to his farm in Bedford County, PA with a new wife and four little step-children.
While we are talking about close family members showing up in the temple records, there is one more that we should discuss at this point. The 1800 federal census is also a bit bewildering (but then census records are not known for their accuracy).
This entry make sense if there was only one Bumgardner boy still living in Davida€™s home and if he was between the ages of 10-16a€”which would be about right.
In 1808 there was another tax list which shows David with 247 acres in Providence Twp, with 1 horse and 2 cows. His oldest son, Thomas, was already married and had been out of the house for about seven years before his father died.
We dona€™t know how long Catherine Cashman Buck lived after the death of her husband but it appears she was still alive during the 1820 census as discussed above.
The oldest child of our David Buck and Catherine Cashman (after her Bumgardner children) was Thomas Buck. Very nearby lived the family of Michael Blue, who had a daughter, Elizabeth Blue, born 30 March 1788, in Providence Twp, making her just about two years older than Thomas. Shortly after the birth of their youngest child the family moved to Van Buren, Pulaski Co., Indiana, where they were living in the 1860 census, and where Thomas died on 27 Feb.
A number of local residents joined the Church at that same time which resulted in a backlash of hard feelings and persecution ensued, inducing many of them to sell their homes and move to Nauvoo, Illinois where the a€?Saintsa€? were gathering. With the other Saints, the Garlicks were forced to evacuate Nauvoo in 1846 and make their way across the state of Iowa to Council Bluffs.
We are not sure when Susannah was born, but her fathera€™s will makes it clear that she was younger than Elizabeth (who was born in 1795a€”according to her own record) and older than Mary, who was born in 1800 (as found in several census records).
50 years old (making him about 12-13 years younger than Susannah, and his wife, a€?Susana€? was five years younger than Solomona€”born about 1815.
Whether Susannah died young, or married and changed her last name, is unknown to us at this time. With a large gap between the first two children there could, and probably were, other children unknown to us at this time. In the 1870 census we do find David Jr.a€™s daughter, Catherine Buck living in Providence with her Aunt Mary Buck (both of her parents had died prior to that year). After the birth of this last child the family moved to Columbus, Franklin Co., Ohio where we find them in the 1880 censusa€”except for their son, George, who would have been 13 in that census but does not appear with the family at that time. This Jonathan Buck remained close to his extended family and traveled back and forth between Pennsylvania and Ohio on various occasions.
Note that this particular record does not say that Sarah was the daughter of Mary, but we learn that later on. In the Ancestral File (LDS FHC) Mary has been sealed numerous times to a man by the name of Amos Jones.
In the 1860 census, we find Saraha€™s mother, Mary Buck, living with her son-in-law and his two little girlsa€”Marya€™s grand-daughters.
Within the next decade (per the 1870 census) Jacob Foore had remarried and begun an additional family, so Mary moved into a home of her own and also took in her niece, Catherine Buck, with her little daughter, Amanda, who we have discussed above. This concludes the presentation of the documented life of David Buck, Sr., his wife, Catherine Cashman, and their family.
Aunt Mary Buck is well, Catharine too, neather one of them lives with me now since last spring. Yours truly, write to me again and tell me all the news and I will give you all the news then. It is with pleasure that I drop you a few lines to inform you we are all well at the present time and hope and trust these few lines may find you the same. I must tell you where we live, we live near Gapsvill and I thought I would write a few lines to you all.
Times is very dull here now all though there is plenty of everything but fruit, there is none at tale, only what is shipped here. I can't tell how Aunt or Catharine is gitting along for I have not had a letter from either one for five months or more, I can't tell why it is as I have written to both of them and got no answer. One of my boys married a girl here and they have gone to keeping house here, so if my letter does not come to hand in time he can lift it and remail. I am boarding, I don't keep house anymore and I received your picture and I thought I had thanked you for it in my letter long ago, if not I am very much obliged to you for it. I did not see Dasey Garlick when I was East, she was away from home the day I went to see her and I had so many places t go I did not get around again. I seen Telitha (Catharine) Garlick two but only to speak to her as met her on the road one day she is married to Wesley Clark, one of Elias Clark's boys. It appears that there is going to be plenty work to do this summer, lots of large buildings to go up this summer. Temple there was completed, an Endowment House was erected in which sacred ordinances could be performed.
The a€?Joseph Garlica€? listed as a€?heira€? and proxy for the males above, was EBGa€™s son. Abigail Jones 2nd cousin {Daughter of Capt. Thomas Buck nephew {EBGa€™s brother, Thomas, md. David Buck nephew {EBGa€™s brother, David, Jr. John Buck cousin {Son Thomas Buck & ELiz. Her grandfathera€™s brother and cousin had died in the attack on Pearl Harbor--both of them on the Arizona.
With plenty of time to spare, they journeyed across the park that housed the recently opened Bowfin exhibit.
Discarding their empty smoothie cups in the trashcan outside, they reentered the visitora€™s center and headed for the theatre. Thank you very much to my lovely editors Susansuth, Dianafan, and WendyM for keeping me on the straight and narrow. Sure enough, they had reached the entryway, and the docent was handing out tickets.A  Each of them took a ticket with the time stamped on it and stepped inside. Based on stylistic comparisons such as striations inside body contours and the presentation of horns in twisted perspective, several Paleolithic art experts, including the first curator of the Chauvet Cave, Jean Clottes, have accredited the Portuguese friezes to the early Solutrean of about 20,000 years ago3. In Portugal, the government did the opposite a€“ plunging ahead with a project destined to destroy the nationa€™s oldest cultural heritage by completing a 300-million-dollar dam whose reservoir will flood a valley packed with dozens of art sites spread over at least 17 kilometers. Yet construction continues - even on holidays - and the water is about to rise another hundred meters. A male ibex with his head shown in two positions, as if he were turning to watch the female behind him. As we drove up to a sentry box perched on the lip of a road into the vast, unnatural gashing of mountains at Foz CA?a, it was hard to tell if the young guard blocking us in a crisp red and gray uniform represented a well-heeled security service or an elite military unit - but it was plain that bluff and sweet talk wouldn't get us far. The next time the car eased over the knuckles of a road crisscrossed by up-ended strata, past empty huts built just of stacked slabs, and jostled between overhanging and plunging cliffs until an avalanche of tailings from an old quarry almost blocked the path. Here was one of the places of grandeur where our ancestors had first grasped visions and then concretized them by hewing - and sometimes painting - images into rock panels. As I pushed forward and the river grew shallower, turtles became so numerous that their stacks toppled like circus acts from the brinks of submerged cliffs.
As a draftsman, I could feel empathy for the beast flowing into the hands that had etched her. This first frieze stood at a fitting point, practically where the reservoir yielded to the original rapids and long pools of the virgin river.
Far away across the moonscape of rutted ramps, knots of men stood before tunnels as fleets of dump trucks, made so tiny by distance that they only gave away their magnitude by over-sized wheels, eased to the brink of platforms, and added avalanches to tailings. Above us, the titanium-white cleanliness of the cement plant's towers stood in bold contrast to the devastation, like a phalanx of gigantic chess-rooks bunched for the kill. According to press articles, the dam-builders had recognized him as the true discoverer of Portugal's first reported Paleolithic engravings, at nearby Mazouco, even though the doctoral student's mentor, Professor Vitor Oliviera Jorge, had stolen his thunder.7 They had given Rebanda a job as their obligatory salvage archaeologist when the new doctor somehow couldn't get a position on a faculty.
In return, all he'd had to do was wait till their concrete curtain had gone up and its reservoir had risen into a sea so voluminous and costly that its drainage would have been unthinkable. My goateed interlocutor smirked as he told me I could try looking for the doctor at the complex built for the previous dam, 15A kilometers downstream. But I'd hit pay dirt: the fact that I might hear Rebanda's mea culpa was more than Ia€™d hoped for. Sebastian elected to wait outside and embarked on Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth as I knocked at the locked door. Still, I complimented her on her English, sympathized with them for having to put up with this hierarchical bother, and kept spinning innocuous questions, while she kept waiting for me to go. When Rebanda's secretary came out again, to see if she could get either me a€“ or her boss - to give up as the wait grew embarrassingly long, I asked her what the round silos with tipped roofs on the hills had been used for. But the next time, after they had gotten used to my rounds, I stepped inside and admired a sequence of two eight-foot-tall maps full of pins.
Something was wrong: in addition to the constellations of pins extending for 17 kilometers upstream from the construction site, there were dozens downstream, along the reservoir behind the dam just outside! Finally, so many hours had passed, and she'd informed the doctor so many times that I was still hanging around, that I was forced by the sheer need for new scenery to vary my route, and drifted through empty rooms. The only thing the reports agreed on was that Rebanda had somehow discovered the flooded portion of Canada do Inferno by the previous autumn22 a€“ asking the EDP to lower the Pocinho reservoir by just 3 meters in November 1994 so he could study the engravings.23 a€?They told me it was too expensive,a€? Rebanda had told the New York Times.
So who had shot these photographs, which looked like they had been taken when the sites were dry vegetated hillsides instead of among the muck and bare banks below a fallen waterline? I realized that the photos of the dry sites might have been taken before the Pocinho Dam, which had flooded them, had even been completed a€“ over 12 years before! UNESCO had suggested Clottes, who, in an uncanny convergence of good and bad karma, was taken on a whirlwind tour of the tip of the iceberg at Canada do Inferno, then immediately whisked to a press conference in Vila Nova do Foz CA?a on Dec 16th, 199428 a€“ just two days before the discovery of the Chauvet Cave that catapulted him, as its first interpreter and protector, from the summit of the French archaeological establishment to world fame.
But Clottesa€™ judgement was mixed, confirming that the art could be dated on stylistic grounds to the early Solutrean or even late Gravettian of twenty to twenty-four thousand years ago while suggesting that flooding the valley might be the best way of protecting it, since Portugal was ill-equipped to protect such widely dispersed panels from vandals!29 a€?There is no easy solution,a€? he told a reporter. What the press forgot to emphasize with quite as much fervor was the fact that Clottes had prefaced his Solomonic verdict by saying, a€?Whatever happens, the engravings must be preserved and not be damaged.a€? Clottes might have felt that he could safely pass the buck because no art conservationist could honestly guarantee the engravingsa€™ fate once they were subjected to currents carrying abrasives, burial under the petrifying alluvia that accumulates behind dams,33 and the worlda€™s most destructive solvent a€“ water, which would dissolve pigments and destabilize rock that had proven its resistance to aerial conditions over tens of millennia. While chatting up the gaunt fellow traveller at the construction site, Ia€™d pretended to make small talk by asking engineering questions, including one about the depth of the sediment that had accumulated behind the Pocinho dam.
The irony of it was that Clottesa€™ efforts to be honest without irritating his hosts had been the spark that the French diplomats had dreaded. Despite the fact that the great prehistoriana€™s reputation would remain largely intact, and with good reason, in much of the rest of the world,34 the Portuguese intelligentsia began to shun him. A€ propos of CA?a, two Portuguese rock art researchers, who couldna€™t stomach Clottes after his press conference, ironically echoed him by telling me, confidentially, that flooding the engravings could still be a blessing since it would save them from graffiti and those boogeymen of archaeologistsa€™ dreams, prowling collectors.
My guess is that he was so beleaguered by advisers that he was just trying to get out of an awkward situation as quickly, judiciously and diplomatically as possible. I mentioned to Rebanda that I had just attended the lecture on Chauvet, that I even had a videotape of it right there in my camera. So it's true, I thought, drowning the site was Rebanda's solution to the problem of ownership of photographic rights.
But then, what about Rebanda's self-serving talk of photo credits, not to mention the engravings already submerged by the dam at the doorstep a€“ and his belief that the engravings were doomed to be flooded?
Strangely enough, I could again see it being both ways, since the roots of tragedy are self-deception and entwined motives. He must have realized that I was rooting for him to pull himself out of his tailspin, because suddenly he decided. Upon leaving, Sebastian asked to check out the Pocinho dam, so I drove round an interchange into an empty parking lot with planters. As the sun slanted over the plateau into the wilderness of the CA?a valley, I decided to sneak into a side-valley to the north of our campsite that Rebanda's map had cluttered with pins. Then, after breaching a wall of rushes, we broke to the reservoir's edge - and were met by a horned skull stuck on a stake. Suddenly, I remembered what Rebanda had said about the engravings' association with witchcraft.
Being obstinate (or perhaps because of the prehistoric setting), I started whittling stone, knapping a microlithic surgeon's kit, and then bent single-mindedly to my task - failing till I was disgusted with myself and worried for my victim (which I had bizarrely associated with Rebanda). This time there were two guards behind an overhanging military fence crested by barbed wire.
The guard who beckoned us in was rearing a guard-dog puppy, which scampered around, tumbling over ledges and using its chin to lever itself over steps. Our guide was a decent young man who couldn't help feeling uneasy blocking access to these bold masterpieces at the source of all our arts. Still, these guards were actually tame as the locals poured down to catch a glimpse of the animals through the fence. After he'd hastened to take up his time-clock again, I wandered if there might not be even more testimonials of man's attraction to this classical Eden with its islets and fords in the flowery river, and browsed through a plowed orchard, along a contour which I judged would have been the valley floor half a million years ago. We knew the next dawn would be our last, so we broke camp in blue light to explore the teeming side-valley beyond the first auroch. Not Portugal's - OURS - because this art is so old, despite its elegance, that we share the blood and genius of those distant ancestors who awoke to the universe, whether our cavalcade of ancestors migrated around the Old World or came across the Bering Straits 14,000 years ago.
Footnotes have been added to the internet version of the article to provide historical perspective and more detail about sources than the versions that were published & distributed in 1995. 1 The three discoverers of the Chauvet Cave were Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet. 2 The IPPAR announced the existence of the valleya€™s engravings on November 19, 1994 but a video was made of them in 1993. 10 Bahn 1995 for a re-capitulation of the same accusations against the IPPAR & Rebanda. 33 Bednarik & Jaffe have been the most outspoken spokesmen about delusions concerning the protective qualities of reservoirs a€“ which not only inundate art panels with water but deep alluvial deposits that make their later recovery dangerous and impractical.
34 Interestingly, a few years after this appeal was written, Clottes came under fierce attack and even ridicule by many representatives of the French intelligentsia, including some of the countrya€™s most prominent prehistorians, after he and David Lewis-Williams published a€?The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and magic in the painted cavesa€? in 1996.
As soon as their results indicating that the art might be only 3,000 to 6,500 years old (if not even younger) were announced a€“ which actually made the engravings even more astonishing, potentially rewriting the history of rock art or even making Portugal the last bastion of the Paleolithic tradition a€“ the most important Portuguese right-wing weekly screamed that the direct-dating results proved that stylistic daters like Clottes had perpetrated a a€?FRAUDa€? (O Independente, 7 July 1995). It should also be noted that the individuals who participated in the debate were often somewhat unwittingly drawn into playing secondary or tertiary roles in a struggle between the Portuguese Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Industry.
40 In November 1995 - six months after this call-toa€“arms was published and circulated to Prehistoric Art Emergencya€™s volunteers (who Ia€™m glad to report included a young actor, Yann Montelle, who went on to earn a doctorate in prehistory) - a book edited by Jorge called a€?Dossier CA?aa€? appeared with 20 contributions by him or his wife.
44 After writing this article in May 1995, it occurred to me that I might have missed one of the main reasons for eliminating Rebanda from Portugala€™s archaeological milieu a€“ the fact that he was so effective at finding rock art that drew international attention, first to Mazouco, then to CA?a.
49 When I wrote the article, I assumed that the two young men were Rebandaa€™s subordinates and referred to them as a€?draftsmena€?.
50 After initially denigrating both the art and the idea of extracting it, the EDP later adopted the idea as one of its three strategies for overcoming opposition to the dam project.
Co-authored with my friend the late David Galerstein (a€?Bert Stephens,a€? BSI) of northern New Jersey (the region covered in it). One evening in 1936, a 42-year-old businessman sat down at home at 638 Prospect Street, Maplewood, New Jersey, for some leisure reading. Later that year, Smith wrote Morley on October 28th that he had a€?acquired a country hang-out . The Pips held their annual dinners at membersa€™ homes, but Smitha€™s plan to host the 1941 Pips dinner at Thorneycroft on December 12th was aborted by Pearl Harbor. The Smiths had a year or so weekending at Thorneycroft, but wartime gasoline rationing made it difficult, Smith told Starrett in September 1942, and in May 1944 he sold it.
Most of Smitha€™s Irregular business, though, was transacted at his office in the General Motors Building at 1775 Broadway, New York.
Highcroft Cottage had one large room, 15x21, with a flagstone floor, four windows on two sides (one nearly nine feet in length), and a fireplace at one end. We walked down to the garden to that little wooden cabin, in size not unlike Black Petera€™s, which was veritably the 221B of Edgara€™s dreams. Smith was supposed to go to Europe on business in September 1960 when he died suddenly of a cerebral hemorrhage, a few days after Prestigea€™s visit. In 2000, Epstein permitted Irregulars Henry Boote, Ted Friedman, Irving Kamil, Warren Randall, George Sturm, and David Galerstein to visit the property. Epstein sold off eight acres in 1961, and the remainder will be developed now, for it lies in a very desirable part of Morristown.
1 See Glen Mirankera€™s chapter, a€?Prolegomenon to a History of The Pamphlet House,a€? in Irregular Records of the Early a€™Forties. 4 a€?Plaque for a€?Sherlock Holmesa€™ to Mark Erstwhile Headquarters of His Devotee,a€? Newark Evening News, September 8, 1963. A A A  Later that year, Smith wrote Morley on October 28th that he had a€?acquired a country hang-out . A A A  The Pips held their annual dinners at membersa€™ homes, but Smitha€™s plan to host the 1941 Pips dinner at Thorneycroft on December 12th was aborted by Pearl Harbor.
A A A  The Smiths had a year or so weekending at Thorneycroft, but wartime gasoline rationing made it difficult, Smith told Starrett in September 1942, and in May 1944 he sold it. A A A  Most of Smitha€™s Irregular business, though, was transacted at his office in the General Motors Building at 1775 Broadway, New York. A A A  Highcroft Cottage had one large room, 15x21, with a flagstone floor, four windows on two sides (one nearly nine feet in length), and a fireplace at one end. A A A  When Smith built Holmcroft, the post office agreed to his request to number the house 221. A A A  Smith was supposed to go to Europe on business in September 1960 when he died suddenly of a cerebral hemorrhage, a few days after Prestigea€™s visit. A A A  In 2000, Epstein permitted Irregulars Henry Boote, Ted Friedman, Irving Kamil, Warren Randall, George Sturm, and David Galerstein to visit the property.
A A A  Epstein sold off eight acres in 1961, and the remainder will be developed now, for it lies in a very desirable part of Morristown. Upon this discovery the energetic Dutch laid claim to the lands in what now are New Jersey and New York. Long before Hendryck Hudson ever went a-voyaging, nay before this doughty seaman shrilled his first baby cry, the a€?good and pleasant landa€? had been discovered, explored and settled by that immemorial legal process known as squattersa€Y rights. The Unamis branch of the Lenni Lenape Indians lived along the river known as Manasquan and upon the Island since called a€?Osbornea€Ys.a€? They claimed the exclusive right to fish in and hunt along the tributaries of the river. The last Indian claimants to the land were known to the whites as Tom Store and Andrew Woolley. So, to the Indian exploration and hunting and fishing rights and to the doughty Dutch goes the honor of discovering not only the land, but the goodness and pleasantness and worthwhileness of this part of America for all those who should follow in the centuries to come. The white man, having discovered this part of the American Continent, and having come to the conclusion that it was truly a a€?good and pleasant land,a€? his fellows proceeded to draw the conclusion into reality.
On the 8th day of April, 1665, Richard Nicholls, Esq., Governor under His Royal Highness, the Duke of York, of all his territories in America, signed a grant, which is known as the Monmouth Patent. Governor and his executives, the Indians in their primitive dress, the settlers in the dull garb of the Quakers, Puritans, Long Island Dutch, and the Governor and his executives in the scarlet and Gold uniforms of their rank, made a memorable scene in the old State House in New York. This grant embraced parts of Middlesex and Ocean Counties and all of what is now Monmouth, except the Township of Upper Freehold and the western part of Millstone.
On June 24, 1664, the Duke of York had disposed of all his interests in the territory lying between the Hudson and the Delaware Rivers to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.
Philip Carteret at once gave proclamation of his Commission as Governor a€?under the new Lord Proprietorsa€?.
The Proprietors claimed that the titles given by Governor Nicholls were void, to which the settlers demurred. Among those recorded in the record of a€?Quit-Rentsa€? and Patents are some interesting and familiar Monmouth County names: a€?Richard Hartshornea€”500 acres, January 18, 1685. Bit by bit they cleared their land, made trails which became crude roads and in their habitations began to mingle in those social gatherings that have ever been the relaxation of those who live close to the soil and come to grips with nature. To say that our town has grown is to say something that seems silly, for years ago there was no town, just settlements or habitations scattered here and there singly or in neighborly fashion in the clearings in the forests or by the quiet river-side. By the time the fateful days of the Revolutionary war had rolled around, Manasquan Inlet had become a refuge for small boats and was by way of becoming a small sea port.
The Salt Works, which were scattered all along our coast, were the objects of depredation on the part of the British and their Tory allies.
The charcoal industry was beginning to flourish and various trades and occupations which cause men to gather in groups for mutual help and convenience were being developed among the dwellers in the eastern end of Monmouth County. But ever as late as 1815, there was no village of Manasquan and its site was a thick hickory wood, having a small clearing where the Osborn House once stood (near the intersection of present Main and South Streets). It seems that the first building that could properly be called the beginning of the town was built in 1808. Soon after 1815, there was a tavern-house, the store of Jacob Curtis, the houses of Benjamin Pearce, William McKnight and David Curtis. The only house of worship in this entire community at this time was the Quaker Meeting House,but this simple, beautiful faith flourished in the midst of world cares and concerns.
Thus, through all the years there has been a strong religious influence in and around Manasquan. A weekly mail route was established from Freehold to Toma€Ys River by way of a€?Old Squan Long Bridgea€? by Act of Congress on April 20th, 1818. During the year 1854 a considerable interest was manifested toward having a postoffice at Squan, as the inhabitants were compelled to go two miles or more to Squan Bridge for their mail. I promised to write when god brought me to Jersey, but had not time till now; I shall give thee a brief account of the Country, no fiction, but the truth.
The soile is generally black, and in some places a foot deep bearing great burthens of Corn, and Naurally bringeth forth English grass 2 years pleuching: the ground is tender, and the ploughing is very easie, the trees grow genrally not thick, but some places 10, in some 15, in some 25, or 30 upon an Acre. England, and I think feed much better, for they have Beef, Pork, Bacon, Pudding, Milk, Butter and good Beer; and Cyder for drink. In 1796, John Havens (501), then called a€?senior,a€? purchased from James Allen for A?1,500 a tract of 250 acres of farmland, woodland and meadow between Metedeconk River and Kettle Creek and bordering on Barnegant Bay. Through the large farm of John Havens, on Metedconk Neck, ran a road in an easterly-westerly direction, dividing the farm into not uneven parts. 1879 Same day, Charles and Augusta Schmidt sell Jersey City land to Sarah, of Mamakating, Sullivan Co. 1787 a€“ Thomas Buck applied for 400 acres including an improvement (house or barn) on the south side of Raystown Branch of the Juniata River on both sides of Brush Creek, adjoining Alisona€™s Survey, in Providence. 1789 a€“ Thomas Buck applied for 100 acres on the southeast side of Warrior Ridge, adjoining a survey of James Hunter on the north and by a survey of Barnard Dougherty esq. And since the times have got so hard in the West I am glad I did not go, but I will come and see you all yet if all goes right but I can't say when. John Buck told me I could write a piece in his letter and I am very thankful to write with him as we have not your address. I would have answered before now but was still thinking of being closer to you before this time but am about fixing to move back again to the old home place in Pennsylvania.
I have had work all winter in a wholesale house where it is heated with gas, as warm as wood care.
With a little over four hours before their tour time, the Bob-Whites and their chaperones toured the USS Arizona Museum, wandering through the exhibits, gazing at the photographs and memorabilia, and reading with due solemnity, the stories that graced the walls. Not only were frescoes of rhinos, horses and lions over 30,000 years old found in a cave in the Ardeche on Dec. Although theya€™re probably right, ita€™s worth noting that these same specialists used similar criteria to ascribe the animals of Chauvet to the same period - until carbon 14 results pushed their age back over 10,000 years, shattering the notion that prehistoric art had evolved linearly, like technologies.
In France, the Ministry of Culture placed its new treasure under the most draconian protection, despite the fact that the country already has the lion's share of Paleolithic art. Standing right in front of some of the most spectacular engravings, the Secretary of State for Culture dismissed them as being nothing more than a€?childrena€™s doodlesa€? a€“ whereupon the students from Foz CA?aa€™s high school turned the official into a laughing-stock by presenting him with a schist slab covered with their own scribblings4. It's now or never, the author of the following article decided in April 1995, as he set out to evaluate the engravings, find out the truth, and propose solutions.
My 13-year old son and I had flown to Porto in Portugal and driven far up the Douro valley into the northeastern mountains, prepared to maneuver around obstructions whether by negotiation or hiking through the back door.
Still, here was our first encounter with the powers that be, so I took this opportunity to probe, and get a first step up the hierarchical ladder.
So I explained how Sebastian and I had come so far to see the Paleolithic glories that Portugal would be displaying with pride, spoke of credentials, and placed us (and our pen) in his hands. Still, we had our bearings, and drove off into the late afternoon to penetrate the heart of the forbidden zone. We were getting closer, very close now, and could spy loops of a trail among the folds of a distant ridge.
And here too was the arena where one of the greatest feuds between discoverers and custodians of the past had exploded since the conflict between Othniel Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope over the fossils of extinct giants in Sioux territory during Custer's battles. With swifts swirling in up-drafts around our heads, we scrambled and picked our way among sheer precipices and ledges. Its tight horseshoe of cliffs and rubble made the perfect hiding place for our car and tent from the gray guards roaming the surrounding crests with binoculars.
Sebastian snuggled tighter into his sleeping bag, so I set out to reconnoiter alone, systematically working quadrants and contours between our quarry at Fariseu and Piscos brook. Somewhere among the jumble of a thousand rock faces would be an ancient image - perhaps masked by lichen or so faint one had to trace its parts before seeing it whole. The numbed waters suddenly spangled upstream with glitter and so many flowery white tresses of water plants that the currents looked like sudsy pastures.
After all the noisy demonstrations against the dam in Lisbon, how were they to know how much clout a nosy prehistorian might have?
Whatever was going to happen to him afterwards in the backwater of Portuguese archaeology had surely been inconsequential, since experience proved that nobody made much fuss over sites that were out-of-sight and out-of-mind - especially with archaeologists beholding to dam-builders and political appointees for access and records.
According to the insinuations, he could have continued his documentation right up to the headwaters as his masters worked their way upstream step by step. I sensed that this crowd felt their doctor deserved to be the one to tell fellow archaeologists that they might as well ask to visit Atlantis. Sure enough, there was the 12 year-old Pocinho dam sweeping the valley with a clean curtain.14 But the silos of this former construction site's cement plant were speckled with rust, the ranks of its offices and dormitories were deserted and almost every window was broken. Fortunately, Sebastian was becoming ever more engrossed in Verne's book, spelunking towards the planet's core, so I began to gravitate down halls for exercise and companionship, coming to the door of the room where the secretary was braiding the blind's cord while two laconic draftsmen labored over tracings of horses, ibexes and aurochs.
It has been insinuated that Rebanda probably discovered Rock 1 at Canada do Inferno as early as November 1991.18 In Dec. So, quixotically, he had proposed building a dry-dock around the outcropping, and, failing that, underwater exploration. If so, the power utility may have known of incredibly rich sites years before the first blueprint for the new dam! Clottes was the worlda€™s reigning prehistorian a€“ the man who had risen to the pinnacle of the French archaeological establishment and held the only keys to the holy grail of art caves - the unbelievably strong and ancient Grotte Chauvet. After inspecting the 15% of the art that remained above water at the site in the rising dama€™s shadow, because the EDP had hardly felt it necessary to lower the water for the visit of the foreigner sent by the now antagonistic IPPAR, Clottes stepped before a highly polarized press corps. The dam-builders and their government backers felt vindicated while much of Portuguese public was crestfallen or furious. The dam had become a poisonous political issue in a national election with the President and his fellow Socialists attacking the center-right Prime Minister for its willingness to sacrifice both the nationa€™s patrimony and vineyards to a flaky building scheme. As if the owners of villas built around the new lake would really allow it to be drained 100 meters to its bottom - where almost all of the known panels would soon be drowned a€“ once every decade!
Suddenly, the Portuguese public felt that the dam-builders were not only destroying the nationa€™s most ancient claim to world grandeur and civilization, but that they were in league with a man who would never have been so cavalier with Paleolithic masterpieces in his own country! When I later asked Portuguese archaeologists if they were going to attend an up-coming conference organized by Clottes, they recoiled. First, because Clottesa€™ retinue of hosts, diplomats and reporters was rushing him and putting him in a bind a€“ even if his stature, pride, and role as UNESCOa€™s expert on rock art had led him into it.
They even echoed his faith in getting dam operators to regularly empty the vast lake a€“ despite the glaring evidence of the EDPa€™s behavior at CA?a itself. No sooner had Clottes triggered a public outcry, than he began to explain away his tepid defense of the CA?aa€™s importance by saying that he had not been shown enough art to form a true idea of the valleya€™s richness.35 But the truth is, he was shown Rebandaa€™s trove of drawings from submerged sections and sites upstream36 and could have been more demanding. After all it was a lot of money, the government was inflexible, the controversy had become a campaign issue a€“ which meant that his advice would seem like foreign meddling - and the elections were still far off. When, in fact, the long-term rights for the cave in France would belong to its Ministry of Culture a€“ which was already attacking its discoverer, Chauvet, for the pittance hea€™d received for his pictures. But I could hardly hold my tongue: why on earth had he invited people from this caste of academics back into his life - and the valley - when at least one of them had apparently abused him? The picture was compelling: SimAµes and her husband angelically insisting that the world must be told, while the hireling screamed demonically over the fire, accusing university archaeologists of trying to hog the credit yet again. If Rebanda had known SimAµes and Jaffe were going to paint him into a corner, wouldn't he have raced for the exit?
Both Rebanda and SimAµes de Abreu could have been traitors and saviors at once, and as long as I was with this archaeologist, I felt bound to encourage the savior in him. It must have seemed like an insult to him after all his efforts, so with an anarchic gesture, he announced, what the hell, he'd photocopy their fax when it came, so we could enter a second. Huge black derricks hulked atop the dam beside a row of gate-lifting pistons that looked like Big Berthas.
We bagged the warning or omen, caught and released a giant water beetle - the kind that injects deliquescing enzymes into living frogs, then sucks out their juice - and worked our way along what was actually the upper tier of a disappearing cliff.
When art panels are located in the CA?aa€™s side valleys, they are apparently concentrated on northern slopes. I was a willing guide as we skewered corn kernels on hooks, lashed lines around a log and threw the lethal leashes into the dark.
They were a hundred yards apart, making perpetual rounds as they kept time clocks happy by cranking them every few paces with keys chained to the fence. It was probably his first job after military service, but he was intelligent enough to realize that hea€™d been hired as a pawn in a vast conspiracy to keep Portugal's greatest cultural wonders out of sight and out of mind, till they could be obliterated. One, because any plan to remove the friezes not only meant assigning a value to them, but keeping the controversy alive. The mountainous dirt road forked, meandered and even skirted an imposing castle,51 but several classes of children were making the long dusty pilgrimage on foot while carloads of adults in their Sunday best made the excursion to see the only engravings to have escaped the censors - either because the site at Penascosa was so far from Lima Montiero's spyglass or because the valley was gentler here and had always been farmed.
I hadn't passed the first olive tree when I happened upon a well-knapped hand-axe, and then another! On-line commentary entitled a€?Some corrections about the CA?a petroglyphsa€? in TRACCE no. While Chauveta€™s name was given to the cave itself, the names of his co-discoverers were given to two of its large chambers.


Mila SimAµes de Abreu and Ludwig Jaffe were the founders of the APAAR (AssociaA§ao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre), which has been a member of IFRAO (International Federation of Rock Art Organisations) since Sept. In an on-line commentary, Jaffe denounced what he perceived as a continuation of the scandal under new management: a€?In December 1994 IPPAR passed the responsibility for the rock art in the Coa valley to Mario Varela Gomes and Antonio Martinho Baptista. Their critics often subscribe to the doctrine that modern ethnographic evidence cannot be used to interpret ancient cultures.
Although Bednarik was one of the earliest crusaders for CA?a - calling for the EDP to stop building the dam in Nov. The leftist press and Portuguese archaeological milieu reacted with just as much reflection, ignoring both Bednarika€™s qualifiers and his pioneering role in organizing the world campaign to fight for the whole valleya€™s salvation (see Dossier CA?a p. Of the 66 contributions written by individuals, not one is by Nelson Rebanda, whose ghost a€“ to anyone interested in intellectual property a€“ haunts every line.
After the CA?a scandal served its purpose as an electoral issue that helped the Socialists to win power, the new government kept its campaign promise by protecting the CA?a Valley but used the goodwill engendered by the decision to blunt criticism while flooding other huge assemblages of rock art.
3; Catherine Vincent, writing in Le Monde on March 11, 1995, goes into much more detail about one particular vineyard, Ervamoira, that would have been lost, along with its exceptional Port wine. The first was to prove that the engravings were not Paleolithic a€“ an effort that entrapped researchers who wanted to apply experimental direct-dating techniques. Starrett was then on the other side of the world, but returned in 1937 and sent Smith a reply that began a cordial correspondence lasting twenty-three years. In his notice, Smith had given the location as a€?Madisonville Road, corner North Maple Avenuea€? in Basking Ridge, with explicit directions: a€?turn off at Morristown center (around square) into Route 32 (Bernardsville). There he had the secretarial resources to be the BSIa€™s Buttons and to edit works like Profile by Gaslight and, beginning in late 1945, the Baker Street Journal. He had started to look for a retirement site after the war, and in 1950 had bought sixteen acres of wooded land a couple of miles west of pleasant and historic Morristown. The papers mention a€?quasi-Victoriana€? chairs and a sofa, and a portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Smitha€™s son Edgar P. Here we looked over the wonderful library, the editions of the Canon, the variant illustrations, the Beetona€™s, the volumes of higher criticism, the collections of essays, the correspondence with President Roosevelt, and all those other gems of Sherlockian learning that made Edgar W.
He remained active as a management and international trade consultant, and traveled a good deal, for pleasure as well as business: to Europe repeatedly, to Egypt once, to Hawaii, and no doubt elsewhere a€” usually by ocean liner, in that final decade of elegant travel.
They inspected the cottage (then used to store swimming-pool equipment), and were permitted to remove the plaque placed there 40 years before. Smitha€™s cottage is demolished, the plaque commemorating its role will remain in our hands. Manasquan, Maniquan, Mannisquan, Manasquam, Squan and Squan Village are mentioned in various old records, among them a deed dated 1685. They claimed a€zfrom the mouth of Squan River to the mouth of the Shrewsbury River, to the streams of each to their heads and across from one head to another.a€Y This claim was satisfactorily settled at a subsequent conference held at Easton, Pennsylvania, in October, 1758.
The patentees were William Goulding, Samuel Spicer, John Bowne, Richard Gibbons, Richard Stout, James Grover, John Tilton, Nathaniel Sylvester, William Reape, Walter Clark, Nicholas Davies and Obadiah Holmes. Many of these had previously lived in the Colony of Massachusetts Bay and had left there on account of the religious persecution to which they had been subjected.
By the terms of this document the title derived by the settlers from Governor Nicholls was absolutely ignored and they were required to take out new patents under the proprietors, whom they were to acknowledge as land-lords and to whom they were to pay stipulated quit-rents.
Defiance, disputes, appeals, friction, riots, and imprisonments, covering many years and many changes of ownership, were the outcome. Hartshorne came to New Jersey from London in September 1779 and for a time resided at Wawake.
There were a few exceptions, among whom was Indian Will, who fished and hunted from Shrewsbury to Barnegat, camping at various places. By the middle of the last century, there were two stores, one kept by Hatsell (Hadsell?) and Curtis and the other by John Gifford. This route was from Freehold by Squankum, Manasquan (Manasquan here means large settlement in the vicinity of what is now the Route 70 Bridge over the Manasquan River), Toms River, Cedar Creek and Manahawkin to Tuckerton. In this movement, Osborn Curtis took a very active part and he became the unanimous choice of the people for post-master. Haight established a stage coach service between the boat terminal at Red Bank and Manasquan.
After a brief stop, the coach would proceed to the Trap-Tavern in Hamilton (at the intersection of Route 33 and Old Corlies Road) where the travelers usually had their lunch. When they are out of their time, they have land for themselves, and generally turn Farmours for themselves. This time, to Elizabeth Hill, who before her marriage had lived in Hopewell NJ and there had been a loyal member of the Baptist Church. Anna Havens and Samuel Havens, her step-children, were convicted of sin, and brought to a saving knowledge of the truth. At the death of their father, the eldest sons, Samuel and John, continued to occupy and farm these portions of the domain.
Clarissa bore John 10 children: Ephraim, John, Ann, William, Cynthia, Clarissa, Henry, Esther, George, and Walter.
William Henry Havens (single), Mary (Havens) Wilson, Bradley Wilson her husband, Ann Nebecker and Henry Nebecker her husband, all of Payson, in the territory of Utah, the said William Henry Havens and Mary Wilson being the only children and heirs at law of John Havens, late of the County of Hudson, and the said Ann Nebecker being the widow of the said John Havens, did deed, on 6 Jul 1870, to Harvey M. John Hopper, guardian of minor Peter Smith Havens, appointed by Orphana€Ys Court on 19 Sep 1870, sold to Sarah Havens (Petera€Ys mother), on 10 Jan 1871, property in 12th Ward of Jersey City belonging to said minor. Sarah Havens of Jersey City (formerly Hudson City) NJ, on 26 Aug 1874, bought from Charles H. Sarah Havens, of Jersey City NJ, sold to Mary Josephine Wade, on 17 May 1877, land in Lot #3, in West Hoboken NJ, for $1600.
Sarah Havens of Jersey City, Hudson, NJ, on 5 Apr 1877, sold land in Jersey City to Charles F. The patentees were William Goulding, Samuel Spicer, John Bowne, Richard Gibbons, Richard Stout, James Grover,A  John Tilton, Nathaniel Sylvester, William Reape, Walter Clark, Nicholas Davies and Obadiah Holmes.
The reason is that the man that was to buy my farm, backed out and I had made sale on the 27th day of March and sold everything to come and then after that man backed out I was to sell to another man and his wife died just two days before the time was for us to start and that knocked me all wrong all that I had and the balance of the company before I could rent again.
My wife has been sick nearly ever since we have been in Ohio and is not sadis ficte [sic satisfied] to go any farther west and she now has the agure [ague] and two of my children has got it and I have concluded to take them where the Agure seldom comes any more, that is in Pennsylvania where they was born.
The themometer was at one time 14 degrees below zero, that was perty cold, but they have had two feet of snow on the level back at our old home place this winter.
18th1, but Europea€™s biggest open-air gallery of Paleolithic animals was reported just a month earlier in the CA?a Valley of northeastern Portugal2.
Regardless of how old the CA?aa€™s art turns out to be, it is unique in its richness above ground and astonishing in its illustrations of movement - with animals tossing their heads with the same stop-action dynamism found at Chauvet and only millennia later in photography and Futurist painting. The Chauvet Cavea€™s prehistoric bestiary was proudly splashed across magazines around the world.
Soon, the guard turned into a regular lad, wrote down the chief engineer's name and pointed beyond the ramp-laced moonscape - into the wilderness.
In this walled garden, the conflicting passions of archaeologists had exploded around a campfire, set a president and prime minister against each other, and cowed the emissaries of UNESCO.
Lizards skidded into fissures, a rusty blade wedged in a nook beside a sliver of cliff garden spoke of an emigrant who had never returned, but the walls seemed barren. Over and over again, the scene seemed set, the rock stretched, but its lines were just fractals. I yanked myself up to a platform less than a step wide and a ten-foot long cow - an auroch! By holding the animal's form and movement vividly in mind, the maker had poured himself into its body and experienced a power beyond abstraction, beyond even tool-making, to thrill to the new power of passing through the looking-glass into another being.
A stream, running pure as its springs over crisp cresses between alternating bull rushes and crags, almost made it to the river unaltered, but met it just below the threshold and sank into an estuary.
We had arrived at Pandemonium and would try to insinuate ourselves into an audience with the Chief Engineer himself.
Only one was so spotless and redolent of perks, though, with its rolled lawn incongruous in the desert, that we knew right where to head among forking roads.
I was hardly surprised when these well-fed pros passed the buck to the only gaunt and partially toothless fellow traveler among them. So they decided to play it safe by dumping me on their pet nemesis, the organizationa€™s own archaeological a€?hirelinga€?, Dr. He could have added to his hoard of exclusive photos and measurements, imposed interpretations, and generally lorded it over his peers - for who could have naysayed him with his treasures locked a hundred meters deep in so many great watery safes?10 And to think that all the dam-builders' pet archaeologist and his accommodating superiors at the Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IPPAR)11 in Lisbon - to whom Rebanda had reported his discoveries at least twice12 - had had to do to pull off this economically patriotic (not to say mutually beneficial) stunt was keep their mouths shut!
After having suffered at the hands of his mentor, Professor Jorge, why had Rebanda put himself at the mercy of two similar academics and representatives of an international body to boot - Mila SimAµes de Abreu and her archaeologist husband, Ludwig Jaffe, who represented the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO)?
At least such nuisances would keep him from getting up to more mischief by turning up new discoveries. But, finally, a secretary answered my summons and let me into a vestibule empty except for a display of postcard-sized photographs of some of the engravings, and a cartoon caricaturing the scandal - which I reckoned had been knowingly posted to co-opt criticism. I couldn't quite make out the man's features through the crack, but it was obvious he was gushing recriminations - and no wonder: the entire archaeological profession had ganged up on the pariah. We all knew I had crossed a threshold, but, after all, I had paid my dues, and in any case, I padded off to the foyer again.
Yet they'd prattled to the press that they had found the art a year ago, and then more like two years ago, and now, word had it, a€?onlya€? three years ago25 - when it was always somehow too late to stop the process leading up to construction, which had only started in September a€™94.26 The gall!
Instantly, I whipped out paper and scribbled the fastest copy of the main map that my hand could draw.
After SimAµes de Abreu and Jaffe had unleashed the scandal by revealing the conspiracy to flood Europea€™s richest assemblage of open-air Paleolithic art, the IPPAR and Portuguese Ministry of Culture had scrambled to get their own expert witness a€“ and, in a further twist, had asked UNESCO to recommend an expert to challenge the power companya€™s growing efforts to prove the art wasna€™t Paleolithic but recent27 a€“ in which case, the EDP seemed to think that the public would drop the subject as being the relatively recent work of peasants drawing their cows.
For all their heightened sensitivity to having CA?aa€™s fate evaluated by a foreigner, the Portuguese press viewed Clottes as a referee and expected a verdict. Then, as fate would have it, Clottes was back in the headlines within the week, announcing drastic measures to protect Francea€™s new crown jewel, Chauvet. And as if anyone could even find new art during the two weeks a lake might be emptied (every hundred years) while everything was coated with algae and grime! Opposition editorialists had a field day with Clottesa€™ apparent hypocrisy and dismissiveness towards Portugal - and demonstrators flooded the streets. Two, because people are often driven to produce their greatest work and worst mistakes by similar drives.
Rebanda was even fooling himself on this score, I thought - after all, the Foz CA?a photographs would probably end up belonging to Portugala€™s own ministry or even the EDP.
Scientists - like lawyers - ply an adversarial trade, but the chance to put Portugal into the archaeological heavens a€“ and to boost their own reputations with it - had given many researchers more ulterior motives than usual.
Personally, I couldn't see anybody bedding down for the night and traipsing out the next morning with people who had announced that they were going to expose him.
In essence, my heart a€“ if not my mind - had taken his side for the moment; he was the underdog, on the verge of a nervous breakdown, and I was concerned that he might even attempt suicide. If I didn't mind coming back at 9 the next morning, he apologized, the approval should be there. But basically the dam was a streamlined machine without much need for local intervention or maintenance. My unequivocal certification of their global importance only made him uneasier, as he didn't know whether to feel flattered or upset. We peered into a dovecot, a squat white tower lined inside with empty compartments like a city after a plague. Suddenly, a deeply hammered auroch on the rock stood out boldly as a road sign - alerting us to an entire herd.
The geology, erosion, & silica skins protecting engravings all seem similar on both slopes, so I theorize that this positioning is not simply a taphonomic illusion created by the disappearance of engravings on the southern slopes. I wasn't expecting anything when I ambled down at dawn, but there it was: a big mound under the bank!
From what I could tell, even his draftsmen had decided to take the day off 49, once they realized the coast was clear. By God, I thought, if the flooders don't save them, I hope the townspeople storm the valley! If the guards hadn't been under strict orders not to sell admissions, they'd have made a killing; but then any financial association with the art is anathema to the dammers: the next thing they knew, they'd have a revolt on their hands! And like the first guard, when he realized that I had somehow gotten authorization despite my evident opposition to the reservoir, he let out his pent-up indignation - for we were insiders.
As we passed the threshold between the deadened depths and virgin current with its billowing water-foliage, we had to skirt and climb over a sheer wall blocking the side-valleya€™s entrance. The intertwined couple, spanning the length of a single real horse, was still necking in Eden after twenty millennia. Rock Art and the CA?a Valley Archaeological Park: A case study in the preservation of Portugal's prehistoric parietal heritage. Although it is true that one must be extremely circumspect about doing so, such evidence often opens new perspectives that have more in common with the subsistence systems of ancient cultures than does our own, and the two authors showed considerable originality and courage in exploring it. 1994 - most Portuguese archaeologists with access to the CA?a sites now shun him as thoroughly as they do Clottes and Rebanda.
539, for a resolution, written in defense of CA?a, by Bednarik, in a book filled with vitriole against him). These retractions confirmed that some of ZilhA?oa€™s criticisms of the direct dating attempts were well founded, but dona€™t necessarily reflect on other matters raised in his disputes with Bednarik and Jaffe. In the English sections, Jorge generously credits numerous associates and generations of Portuguese prehistorians by full name, while studiously avoiding any mention of Rebanda except where it is unavoidable, and then only with his last name between brackets.
The second was to make casts of panels for a museum a€“ which may have damaged some panels. It was The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes by Vincent Starrett, and the reader was Edgar W.
He told Smith about the BSI, and put him in touch with Christopher Morley, though it was two years before Morley called another BSI dinner that Smith could attend. Of the three houses at the corner of Madisonville and Maple today, planning board records indicate that Thorneycroft is 173 Madisonville Road, a a€?Second Empirea€? house built around 1885. His secretary a€?Deea€? Alexander, who worked for him from 1946 through 1948, reported that Smith dictated most of his BSI correspondence to her, while occasionally bring-ing handwritten drafts from home to be typed. 221B Baker Street, Morristown, until Smitha€™s death in 1960, was the headquarters of the BSI. The property was sold to an elderly couple whose heirs soon resold it to Herbert Epstein, the owner of the local independent department store, who lived there until his recent death. Remembering William Gillettea€™s concern for his Connecticut castle, the idea has been floated to move it to some local park and preserve it, as a€?The Knothole,a€? Morleya€™s writing shack from the grounds of his Roslyn, Long Island, home, has been.
One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7. Nicholls, who was unaware of the transaction until the arrival of Philip Carteret, a brother of Sir George Carteret, late in the summer of the same year.
He became interested in the Nichollsa€Y Patent controversy and in 1685, with several others, he took up 2500 acres of land on the coast, extending from a€?Rack Ponda€? on the North, to the head of Barnegat Bay, on the south. Landing in the river, they selected their home sites, cleared the land, built their homes in which they installed their families and few, and often scant possessions.
Another Meeting House, the Old Free Church on the Hill (later to be known as the Ocean Mill (Hill) Methodist Protestant Church) was built in what is now Atlantic Cemetery. The coach then proceeded along country roads to Tiltona€Ys Tavern at Baileya€Ys Corner and thence to the Squan House at Manasquan, the end of an arduous daya€Ys journey.
It is scituate in a good Aire, which makes it healthy, and there is great conveniency for traveling from places throw the Province in Boats, from a small Canoe to Vessels of 30, 30, or 50 Tun, and in some places 100.
There is likewayes Gum tree, Cedar, White Wood, like our Fir tree; Walnuts Chestnuts and others lye thick upon the ground.
I have sent for servants myself to settle a farme, for if the Proprietors will not do so, I see not what they can expect. In the deed of purchase, a plot of A? acre a€?in the northwest corner of the orcharda€? was set aside for use as a burying ground.
Through this lady, the first Baptist Church in [that] section of the state was established in 1804. Samuel thought of uniting with the Methodist Church, as there was no Baptist Church near, nor the most distant prospect of one being established. In the will of John Pieterse Van Houten (Marya€Ys father), he refers to her as a€?Polly, wife of Halmagh I. Some of the children may have been baptized in the Reformed Dutch Church at Ponds (now Oakland, Bergen County) which is closer than Pompton Plains, in Morris County, but unfortunately 150 years of Ponds Reformed Dutch Church records were destroyed by fire, so we do not have all the pertinent information about Halmagh and Pollya€Ys family.
Bliss, of Hudson city, about 1.75 acres, for $1200, being the same premises conveyed by Garret Vreeland, his wife and others to John Havens by deed of 14 Apr 1856 and recorded in Deed Book 53, p. Wynnkeep, County Auditor, sold to Eugene Stevenson, on 23 May 1881, Jersey City, land that formerly belonged to Sarah Havens, then living out of state.
Buck a visit now, so must bring these few lines to a close by asking you to please write soon as this reaches you. While the paintings in the French cave, which became known as the Grotte Chauvet, often have engraved contours, the Portuguese menagerie may also have been painted, but, being outdoors, their pigments have usually weathered away.
As shadows welled from the valley, we turned from the scarps and trundled downwards into the cleavage, till the road turned into a path to the water through a profusion of poppies. Finally, I discerned a flock ambling down through dry brush, then a shirt flashed a white dot, and we converged within hailing distance on opposite banks.
Even ideal panels on either side of a fig tree bulging titanically from a small cave were barren.
A stand of poplar trees crackled like Chinese New Year with small birds, abundant as leaves. It was a good thing we had his name, Lima Monteiro, because the Securitas guard on this side meant business. Our compact car slid in among Mercedes and I stepped into glare, drawing cool stares from fleshy faces.
My interlocutor explained that the Chief Engineer was powerless to help me, so he couldn't be bothered to give me an audience. Of course, the stories went, the honorable witnesses had refused to become accomplices and had immediately denounced the whole plot a€“ writing open letters to the Portuguese President, Vice President and Director of IPPAR - with carbon copies for the press.13 If only his employers had known that Rebanda was so naive! She announced that it was no use disturbing the doctor, who I could see through a jarred door talking to someone over the phone with peevish vehemence. Finally, I suggested that she didn't need to keep me company while I waited for the good doctor to get off the phone. That's strange, I thought as I wandered off again, mulling over a mental photograph of the site distribution. And here were others, even closer to the construction site, at "RA?go de Vide", which had been submerged by the same old dam!
Still, she caught me; whereupon I went on elaborating it, asking questions, and then padded back to the foyer again to continue my vigil. After all, the archaeologists and reporters had allowed the Tagus petrogylphs to be drowned with hardly a whimper. Not only did the contrast with his actions in Portugal now smack of a double standard, but there was a piquant irony. With stakes this high, both parties unleashed their opinion-making machines, making hash of Clottesa€™ carefully weighed words as quickly as theya€™d vilified Rebanda.
Clottesa€™ words may have been earnest, but with stakes this high and politicized they were about as reasonable as Pontius Pilatea€™s attempts to keep the peace. I prefer to think the latter, and that his only mistake was thinking that people on both sides were lucid and reflective enough to interpret his verdict correctly. In Rebanda's place, I'd have calmed down and let the traitors fall to sleep, but then I'd have snuck away - trekking fast through the dark, picking myself up when I fell, but getting out - bloody knees and all - and calling that alarm first! Furthermore, I had no doubt - whatever pacts he'd struck - that he would make up for them if only approached constructively.
After we'd faxed it, I was sorry to see him having to still recall and refax, as he nudged the request repeatedly through the unyielding bureaucracy. Sebastian and I scrambled and tacked among the carious cliffs, till there was nothing left but rock overhanging the water itself. But a huge horse, leaning over the depths, was both more graceful and cryptic, for someone had wedged a rusty horseshoe into a crack between its hooves. No sooner had I chipped the thin device and steadily shoved each curve straight, than the hook slipped smoothly free. Only Rebanda's long-suffering secretary had to keep her post and occupied herself by taking up the relay of calling and faxing.
These red and gray devices were not only customized to match the guards' uniforms, but showed off the latest in high-tech materials and molding.
As we wound our way down towards the reservoir among towering red cliffs, he took quiet pride in pointing out the hidden elements of scattered engravings. But then Piscos Brook ran between trees, pastures and cane-groves, with cliffs full of shelters and stone panels at each bend. La Pintura, The Official Newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association (Member of IFRAO) Volume 21, Number 3, Winter.
In the same book, which Jorge compiled to record the campaign he was spear-heading to save CA?a a€“ a laudatory effort, if there ever was one, that made Jorge synonymous with yet another of Rebandaa€™s finds - Bednarik is repeatedly dismissed as a a€?charlatana€? (pp. Jaffe accused the trio, who had taken over responsibility for the archaeological resources of the valley, of endangering art panels and refusing to allow qualified foreign researchers or even Dr. Whatever the case may be, the problem of rock art conservation is still as far from resolution in Portugal as it is in most other places in the world. The photograph shows it during the 40-year occupancy of the original owner, the secretary-treasurer of the Childs Restaurant chain. In 1953 he built his retirement home with a swimming pool there, but this was preceded on the property in 1951 by Highcroft Cottage. The cottage, and the house that followed (dubbed Holmcroft), were the only dwellings on the private quarter-mile drive Smith cut from the countya€™s Lake Road bordering the property.
There were Smitha€™s Irregular papers, his Sherlock Holmes collection, and, in the kitchen turned into a storeroom, his stock of BSJ back issues and other BSI publications. For some time he continued to receive mail addressed to 221B Baker Street, which he forwarded to Edgar W.a€™s son Edgar P.
Curtis went to Washington with his petition and after he had made known the grievances of the people to the Postmaster General, the request was granted. This entire tract of land had formerly belonged to John Allen, father of James Allen, and had been purchased by him from William Bills.
She missed the services of the sanctuary and longed for a Baptist Church where she could worship.
He, however, was advised to accompany his step- mother to Hightstown, that they might take counsel of the Rev. The second daughter, Ann (our direct ancestor), was born 24 Mar 1817 and married John Havens on 13 Feb 1839, in Bergen NJ. NJ to Thomas Andrews of Hudson, Hudson, NJ, on 23 Oct 1855, for a mortgage totaling $3,000. Van Winkle and his wife Mary Ann, of Hudson, Hudson, NJ, sold 1.63 acres to John Havens for the sum of $1. 1843, David Garlick also passed away at the age of 63 and was buried in the old Pioneer Cemetery on the SE corner of that city.
Corn up here, the folks that has corn is just pulling the ears off leaving the foder so that stops the work from off the farms hands so there is no work to do. William is clerking in a grocery store and drives a delivery wagon for the store part of his time. Maybe you can mind old Peter Weaverling that used to live east of my father, it is one of his boys she married, sister to Daisy Garlick. All that remains, where jagged outcroppings of schist jut from brushy slopes - exposing terminal facets perfect for murals - are hauntingly sinuous outlines of deer, horses, ibexes, and wild cattle called aurochs.
The first flurry of press articles had mentioned that many of the engravings were already submerged by the cofferdam holding the river back for the more monstrous wall rising downstream from it.
I sent greetings and the shepherd expostulated and gestured animatedly upstream towards towering slabs. For me, all of mankind's later accomplishments, all our later experience of good and evil only become possible after such art. The irrelevant exchange had sparked sympathy as we both waited - and waited, in similar irrelevance to someone too consumed to give us heed. I would have to go to Lisbon, and no, it wouldn't do any good for him to fax; he didn't have an iota of authority.
Despite all the insinuations about Rebanda and IPPAR, they were actually the first to try blocking the philistines with the clout of an institution as important as UNESCO. About thirty years before, Francea€™s equivalent to the EDP had taken the entire Ardeche Gorge, where the Chauvet Cave had just been found, from its entrance at Sauze to a rainbow-huge, natural arch - Vallon Pont da€™Arc, next to Chauvet - by eminent domain, to build a dam. These conscientious people know that theya€™re barely tolerated by the forces of Mammon - scraping crumbs from the tables of vast enterprises armed with dynamite and bulldozers - and make compacts all the time with them, telling themselves, for instance, that the alluvial strata that cement plants exploit are always too tumbled to contain intact Acheulian hearths. If only he'd announced the discovery, co-opted his employers, and splashed masterpieces across magazine covers while the art's existence was still fresh, he might have won honor, fame, a very small fortune (and maybe even kept his job). Within weeks, local academics had begun signing their names to Rebandaa€™s discoveries, tracings, and interpretations while forgetting to cite him. I'd have been the one to announce the existence of the largest gathering of open-air Paleolithic engravings in Europe to the world. Slate slabs, thoughtfully laid into a wall as steps, led down through a canopy of fig trees into a cavernous wallow between cliffs. I woke Sebastian in time to see the beast lumber over the bank and glide away, and then it was high time we checked out our other line at the doctor's office. Noon passed as we still waited together like an old couple, talking about the doctor's misery, Australian rock art, translations; whatever. The guards stiffened as Sebastian and I had the gumption to breach a forbidden zone and stride blithely forward.
There were so many warblers piping and whistling, there must have been a dozen species with overlapping territories. Botha€? - Baptista and Gomes a€“ a€?were closely involved in the rationale to submerge the rock art (to 'protect it from vandals'); in fact, on 8 November Baptista spoke of how sedimentation behind dams should protect rock arta€? - my italics. After our departure, Bednarik and three other researchers (Alan Watchman from Canada, plus Fred Phillips and Ronald Dorn from the USA), who believed that they had found ways to date rock art directly, studied some of the CA?aa€™s engravings during separate visits. 1995 that was led by Mounir Bouchenaki, the IPPAR formed a scientific committee consisting of Antonio BeltrA?n, Emmanuel Anati and Jean Clottes, who came back for a second round.
So far had Smith come that it contained his biographical dictionary of the Canon, Appointment in Baker Street, published the year before by Smitha€™s own a€?Pamphlet Housea€? imprint. It is large for a a€?country hang-out,a€? but the Smiths were numerous, with a son from Mrs.
As the drive ran entirely inside his property, he persuaded Morris Townshipa€™s supervisors to let him name it Baker Street, with a street sign at his expense. How many visitors there were in its six years of Irregular occupancy is unknown, but the 1958 dinner of The Five Orange Pips took place there, and other pilgrimages as well. Also in the works were red-covered incunabula reprinted by the BSI, Inc., and collections like Introducing Mr. A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted. Thus we have one of the earliest, if not the earliest mention of the name of Manasquan, in American records. They have sent over many servants, and are likewayes sending more; They have like wayes sent over many poor Families, and given them a small stock, and these Families, some some for 7, some for 10 years, give the half of their increase to the Landlord, except the milk, which the tennant hath to himself.
Peter Wilson, on the evening preceding the first Lorda€Ys Day in November 1801, and went directly to Mr. Other family members believe he married Rachel Baker on 8 Sep 1840, as there is a marriage record to that effect.
She was divorced later because of her joining the Mormon Church and later married Henry Nebeker while preparing to move to Utah.
They had held property in trust that had been previously purchased by her husband John Havens. Beckham of Hoboken NJ, on 28 Jul 1879, land obtained from Edward Dubois in the city of West Hoboken, for $800. And so, forgive me, but in comparison to these ancient windows, cathedrals seem to have anti-climatic and overwrought power. Except for the absence now of bigger species, this was how Solutreans had experienced the world - with whistling, mooing, barking, roaring and trumpeting not just on the Serengeti, but to the frozen north! So much will go unrecorded because of all this fuss.a€? a€“ So, Rebanda is resigned to the inevitability of the flooding, I thought. If the dam had been built, a dozen known art caves would have been flooded or affected by rising water tables. So rather than condemn Clottes, perhaps the Portuguese should simply admit his diplomacy opened the debate, even if one might wish that hea€™d been a crusader. From Chauveta€™s pinnacle, its gatekeeper was probably right to dismiss the scratchings, which I too thought could have been the kneading of bears, but the contrast between the levels of encouragement was striking. Although they granted him the discovery of Hella€™s Canyon (in footnotes), other sites that Rebanda had already noted were soon claimed by competitors as Rebanda was effectively silenced. And Vitor and his wife, Susanaa€? - was it my imagination or did her name stick in his craw?
Their stingy hypocrisy and philistinism revolted me: they wouldn't spend a penny on protecting such discoveries, but they'd drown the world up to its headwaters to keep driving Mercedes. Goldfinches sparked into the air, a crested hoopoo flashed orange and black, and the shaggy canes were a tumult of avian chatter. Jaffe was also the IFRAO representative of the SocietA  Cooperativa Archaeologica, Le Orme della€™Uomo, Italy (Bednarik 1994).
But not before signing controversial non-disclosure agreements with the EDP, which was hoping that their techniques would yield dates so recent that they could be used to ridicule stylistic daters who had identified the engravings as Paleolithic (Baptista & Fernandes 2007, p. Smith did not neglect Sherlock Holmes on weekends; for example, it was from there that Smith wrote to President Franklin Roosevelt on July 27, 1942, offering him membership honoris causa in the BSI (which FDR accepted). Smitha€™s first marriage a€” she was a young French war widow when they met around 1919 a€” and three of their own. It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak. I wish thee would send over some to set up a Brew-house, and a Bake house to bake Bread and Bisket, for a Bisket-Maker we must have to vend our meat to the Plantations. His wife, Rebecca Jeffrey, had died 6 years before, leaving four sons and one daughter, the eldest, Samuel, 19 years of age and the youngest, Abraham, a child of 3. Pollya€Ys grandfather, Pieter Adrianse Van Houten, was the grandson of Pieter Helmighse, who was the brother of Catlyntje Helmighse Van Houten, who married Johannes Gerritse Van Wagene--the youngest son of immigrants Gerrit Gerritse and Annetje Hermanse; thus making two direct lines back to Gerrit Gerritse and his wife, Annetje Hermanse, and two lines back to Helmigh Cornelise Van Houten and his wife, Jannetje Pieterse Marselise. The first two were sons: John Halmagh, (after his grandfather and father, according to Dutch tradition) and Henry R. The Chancellor decreed that within 30 days the defendants provide her a deed for the contested land. New York, which I may need to pursue, since Sarah lived in New York at times.) Recorded in Deed Book 310, p.
A piece; and then to work they go, 2 or 3 men will in one year clear 50 acres, in some places 60, and in some more.
Intermittent splashes smacked echoes off the walls, a frog croaked and some beast keened a cry we had never heard. When I asked if they could intercede on our behalf, she said one had to apply in person, in Lisbon, and have connections. In fact, paw prints indicated that we had missed cornering another feral dog or fox in its lair. Surgically, it was a nightmare: I'd have to pry its head out, keep its neck extended, wedge open its powerful beak and finally thrust the treble barbs down its throat, so as to carefully extract their burr, without snagging them again!
Finally, they agreed that one of them would walk parallel to us, down the fence-line, to let us in the distant gate. At our feet, frogs skipped like pebbles and painted turtles rowed earnestly in tangled water blossoms - all for the taking. Unless you and I and all of us together add our voices to those of the Portuguese citizenry trekking down for a last look, and reclaim what is OURS! The story of the denunciation is from Bednarik (1994) and Simons in the New York Times (1994).
Scion societies also grew in number, with letters (as Morley had once complained) that had to be answered.
She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season. He was also a member of the Legislature and instrumental in bringing the railroad to the Shore. Wilson was sick and confined to bed; his sickness was so severe he could not converse with them. Like her older sisters, she emigrated to Nauvoo and then moved on to Utah with the Mormon Pioneers. There was an immediate appeal on the grounds Sarah hadna€Yt fully paid for the property and that it was originally titled in the name of her husband John, but on 16 Mar 1876 that appeal was denied. They sow Corn the first year, and afterwards maintain themselves; and the increase of Corn, Cows, Horses, Hogs and Sheep comes to the Landlord. Garlick was then baptized for John and Jacob Bumgardner and the record calls him a a€?half nephewa€? of those two men. Even the Chauvet Cave, which was unknown, might have been threatened by the changing water table! Unfortunately, Bednarik, who is one of the worlda€™s most encyclopedically informed, accomplished, and bold prehistorians, walked right into the trap. Jorgea€™s utter dismissal of Bednarik was clearly motivated by the lattera€™s implicit condemnation of the way that Jorge had appropriated Rebandaa€™s earlier discovery at Mazouco, instigating Rebandaa€™s secrecy that was one component of the CA?a a€?cover-upa€? (Bednarik 1994, p.


Smitha€™s 221B Baker Street was a beehive of activity, at a time when he could no longer draw upon the secretarial support he had enjoyed at GM. In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment.
I desire thee to encourage some of our Friends, especially the Proprietors, to send over some servants to stock some land: and when they have cleared it, if they have a mind to lett it, here are tenants to take it, and if they will sell it, here also are purchasers.
Now I have layd these things before thee, and desire thee to impart them to some of the Proprietors and other friends that they may consider of the same. Now I have layd these things before thee, and desire thee to impart them to someA  of the Proprietors and other friends that they may consider of the same. Later, Bednarik spear-headed another campaign to save a Portuguese rock-art assemblage from inundation a€“ this time behind a dam in the Guadiana Valley - and noted that a€?None of this helps the rock art of the Guadiana, condemned to inundation under billions of tonnes of lake sediment as the reservoir silts up over the next 70 yearsa€? a€“ again, my italics. Do you think I'm such a fool as to invite the man who deprived me of the credit for my first discovery, to come see my greatest wonders if it wasn't because I needed all the allies I could get; if it wasn't because I even needed the universities to help save them.
Ironically, the mandarin in Porto would come out smelling like roses for his campaign while the roles of several well-meaning prehistorians, if I may insist upon the word, were simplified so as to make them better scapegoats. The whole was 1600 or 1800 acres, whereof only 120 acres were cleared, upon which he had a house, Garden and Orchard, and Barn planted: I know several men who lett cleared land at 6 shil. First, because his dating system, which was based on determining the degree of micro-erosion undergone by a rock face, had been developed in Australia, where climate and geological conditions are different from Portugala€™s. We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction. 3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson.
This odd statement flies in the face of Bednarika€™s consistent defense of both the CA?aa€™s art and other assemblages, suggesting that it was a ploy to get the EDP to allow them to test their methods. He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. She has great conformation, exceptional movement and is the happiest dog I have ever owned.
Even though both men concluded that their observations proved that the art was no older than the Neolithic, Bednarik did not repeat the notion, when announcing his results, that a relatively recent vintage diminished the arta€™s importance or the need to protect it a€“ quite the contrary.
Her job as a therapy dog for an 83 yr old woman that had is stroke is one she takes very seriously.
Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young. We continually have Home Health therapists in daily and she greets each of them then quietly goes to her spot to watch everything that goes on. He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal.
She accompanies me into the chicken coop and is great with the chickens as well as with her cat ( yes her cat that she found in a ditch).
She passed her Herding Instinct testing at 5 months of age and now working on her Canine Good Citizen certification. Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. I have owned and worked with many breeds of dogs and Arya is by far one of the most intelligent, willing and trainable.
A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D. I would totally recommend PATCHWORK SHEPHERDS and have friends now that have bought puppies from here as well and all of them are as wonderful as Arya.
He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career. A He said, "she is really a love," and described her gentleness and cuddling even from the get-go. A She is very playful with her 'brothers' (two older choc labs), but is extremely responsive to me and is my 'watcher.' A No matter where I am, she is A watching over me. He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations. He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication.
His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite. A When we settle in the evening to watch a movie, she will quietly peruse the house, coming back to my side after she has checked everything out.
He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain. A If she could, she would hop up on my lap and sit there, just as she did when she was a fuzz-ball pup! Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster. Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883. She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before. One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way. 5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed. In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college. She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor. It was serendipity that brought you all the way over the mountains on Monday so we could get her!Also a couple of short videos if you're interested. Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time. She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years.
I was just getting to the serious stage ofshopping for a black coated GSD to raise for my own pet and protection dogwhen my nephew T.J. From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life. In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson. BlackJack (Zoey x Drake 2009) is doing fine, being a good boy that loves to be around us (Right now he is under my desk sleeping at my feet).
A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland. By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis. She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments. Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health. We had many family gattering and other partys and he is always good around people in the house. After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae. She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous".
By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out.
I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness! The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic.
Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets.
By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall.
When my kid gets around to it she will send you pictures, sorry Ia€™m not the computer savvy one. When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities.
Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf. From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure. A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family. Thank you again for Morgan, she is a gem, here is her 9 week picture (the ear did come down). A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity. In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find.
In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways.
The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found. Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons. A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help. It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work. Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication. Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work.
He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr. Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt. 13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut. The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time.
Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic. 14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut. A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet). The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers".
15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure. Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation.
She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior.
Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues. I think he will excell, and it will be good for the boys to learn how to deal with him (other than play). During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums. Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site. Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation. We purchased Pruett (black collar male from Zoey x Doc August '08 litter) and were so thrilled with him that we had to get another! Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence. A few weeks later we welcomed Daphne (hot pink collar female from Anna x Doc August '08 litter) into our lives. 17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo. Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered. People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her. A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier.
The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number. Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work". A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys.
He quickly learns new commands and we are currently practicing, "seek", where we will tell him to "sit and stay" and then we go hide his ball and tell him to "seek" and he finds it.
Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator.
It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple.
On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues.
I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying. 18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday. She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries.
The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England. She loves to play in the snow!!She has been doing really well in the house, she is a very quick learner.
When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive". A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked. I know the "puppy stage" lasts for awhile, but if it continues to go as smoothly as it has been going, it will definitely be a breeze. Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement. Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls.
At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom. She loves to play fetch and she is really good at it, which is surprising to me for her age. In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus. She is such a sweet puppy, she is always trying to make friends with all the animals she meets, most which unfortunately haven't been too fond of her. In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map. After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find. Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II. The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England. Miah is starting to be a little friendly, not much, but like I said, Tymber is a persistant little pup and I believe that eventually they will be pals. When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it. We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue. We will be taking her on her second fishing trip tomorrow, which is always very exciting for us. When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus. 20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds. He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. She loves playing with any kind of plants and grass- we are hoping she grows out of that stage for our landscape's sake! He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum.
The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time. Anywho, I just wanted to let you know what a great pup she is and how much Tyler and myself enjoy having her. The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion. One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig.
At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle. This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected. He is everythingA I could have ever hoped for in a German Shepherd and I am really happy that I got him. A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III. 21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered. The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze.
Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement. Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design.
In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose.
A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games. For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity.
The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her. Several people in our training class have commented on his lovely conformation as he trots across the room while playing with the other pups. She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site. She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her. Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896. After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth.
That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation.
The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance. By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years". Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings.
They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often.
He's a great dog!A Anyway, hope all is well in your part of the world and that you are enjoying the holiday season. Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others. After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago.
A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier. With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts.
An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest. The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone.
Although I had some concerns on how Gracie would react, from the first walk that we did on the way home from Patchwork, she has been wonderful. Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone. She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding. Already they play together, with Gracie laying down so that she is on Argus' level, letting him crawl all over her. Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period.
During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained. He already knows his name, figured out how to negotiate the step up the deck, and how to run from me when he picks up something I don't want him to have. Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt. He follows us around from room to room and always sleeps next to us when we are in the room. I do have a crate and have used it but not very much, mostly I just watch him and when I catch that certain look I just take him out and tell him to go potty. Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary. Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high. When I was in shop he would play under my bench and when he was tired he would sleep under my stool.
The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22. In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written.
23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking. About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken. The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits. A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard.
There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased.
The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king.
The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections.
It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple.
In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner. It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court. The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists.
In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight. It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities.
He and Gracie had a good time exploring and finding just about every kind of poop there is out there. A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed.
This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple.
Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing. Everyone that meets her is in awe of not only her beauty and structure, but even more so of her super sweet and willing disposition.A  I cannot say enough about her. She is very gentle, smart, intelligent, super athletic, and just wants to please and love everyone.A  She loves to crawl into our laps and pretend she is a tiny lap dog. The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center.
It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration.
The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators. A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen.
The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut. A His big brother Jackson and he are the best of buds, they have really bonded into something special!
Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place. These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center.
A Also, wea€™d like to thank you for letting us come out and see him when he was a puppy, and for giving us little updates on how he was doing when he was just a lila€™ guy.A  (10lbs when we picked him up to take him home seems little compared to the size he is now!
They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler. The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it. A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts.
After working for a vet for more then 10 years my husband had to really talk me into getting a GSD. At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple. Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel". This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls.
In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered. A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken). Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues. As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse.
She has gone though a basic and advanced off leash obediance class and this comming year brings more fun with tracking and agility classes signed up.
We are now thinking of getting her a little brother and look forward to coming out to visit and meet more parents. Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions. He is adapting quickly to his new home on Orcas Island, WA A and after 3 days already knows his new name.
We have had him for two days now and he has already learned his name, learned how to come when called, walks great on a leash, has learned the command "gentle" for when he takes things with his mouth, is completely potty trained and sleeps all night long in his crate with no problems. We have never seen such a loving, well behaved, intelligent puppy before and we feel so lucky that he is now a part of our family.
John and I were so pleased to see the safety measures that you take prior to letting anyone be near or handle any of the puppies. Because of your loving care for your dogs we now have two of the greatest puppies that anyone could ever ask for in life! I am grateful for the time that we were able to spend with the puppies getting to know each and every one of them. You are wonderful about keeping everyone informed through your website just as you did while we were waiting to be able to take the Sebastian and Kasia home. We were also very impressed that you were so willing to let us come visit and you even encouraged us to do so. We thoroughly appreciate that you allowed us to be a part of the puppies lives even before they were in their new home. Through your attentive behavior to each and every one of your puppies we new the silly things they did, what they liked to play with all the way down to their little itchy spot that they liked to have scratched. Because of all your love and attention we have two beautiful, healthy puppies that we will get to love for years to come.A A Thank you so much for our beautiful puppies! A  I got hopeful when I found your pages, with your dog Penny, who reminded me so much of our Isis, who was a beautiful, athletic,and loving black and red blanket pattern longcoat.
You DID say on your page that your goal was to find the right dog for people, right down to the color.
The way you described the parents of different litters, and later the pups themselves, was exactly right.A  Patiently, you discussed all the little characteristics of each pup in a way that just about made up for our never being able to actually see the pups in person or hold them in our arms.
Pashi learned every trick all of my other dogs know in one 10 minute session at age 11 weeks, and never forgot them.A  She and Itta (9 weeks) both sit at the door automatically now, better than any of our other dogs who have been working on it for ages.



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