DESCRIPTION: This 'atlas' was the work of a family of Catalonian Jews who worked in Majorca at the end of the 14th century and was commissioned by Charles V of France at a time when the reputation of the Catalan chart makers was at its peak.
The title of the Atlas shows clearly the spirit in which it was executed and its content: Mappamundi, that is to say, image of the world and of the regions which are on the earth and of the various kinds of peoples which inhabit it. Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.a€?The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth. The Catalan Atlas is actually a world map built up around a portolan chart, thus combining aspects of the nautical chart by employing loxodromes and coastal detail with the medieval mappaemundi exemplified by its legends and illustrations.
We know in unusual detail the circumstances in which the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (the date of the calendar which accompanies it) was produced and the career of the cartographer who compiled it. The patrons of Cresques, King Peter III of Aragon and his son, in addition to their scientific interests, were keenly interested in reports of Eastern lands, in relation to their forward economic policy, and were at special pains to secure manuscript copies of Marco Polo's Description of the World, the travels of Odoric of Pordenone Description of Eastern Regions and, what may surprise the modern reader, the Voiage of Sir John Mandeville. In the interior the position, extent, chief divisions, towns and rivers of China and the Mongol Empire are approximately represented. On the southern portion of the Cathay coast, the general uniformity of the coast is broken by three bays, and it is significant that these are associated with three great ports, Zayton [near Changchow], Cansay [Hangchow, better known in medieval records as Quinsay ] and Cincolam [Canton]. Quite a number of harbors are indicated on the eastern coast of India, a few of them still identifiable, while a sailing junk testifies to trading activity, especially with the island of Iana (?), which is here associated with the legendary isle of the Amazons (regio femarum [sic]) and symbolized by its queen. In mainland India, King Stephen has been represented: the text beside him indicates that this Christian ruler is a€?looking towards the town of Butifilis,a€? Marco Polo's kingdom of Mutifilis. The people of Gog and Magog following their monarch, bearing banners with the emblem of the devil, detail of the map of Asia.
Sources other than those embodied in Polo have also been used for the portion of the Indian Ocean included in the map.
If the map is stripped of its legends and drawings of the older tradition, it is apparent that the main interest of the compiler is concentrated in a central strip across Asia. In the west is the Organci [Oxus] river shown, as on most contemporary maps, flowing into the Caspian, and alongside it the early stages of the traditionally used overland route, from Urganj [the medieval Khiva] through Bokhara and Samarcand to the sources of the river in the mountains of Amol, on the eastern limits of Persia. This description, with several omissions, was in outline the route followed by Maffeo and Nicolo Polo (Marco Polo's father and uncle) on their journey to the Great Khan's court.
Scarcely less valuable, and certainly of special interest for the student of geographical theory, are the Catalan speculations concerning the unexplored territories of the earth. Hardly any place on the west coast of Africa is identified only one name, perhaps a mythical spot, is found south of Cape Bojador in the former Spanish Sahara, but we are told that Africa, land of ivory, starts at this point and that by traveling due south one reaches Ethiopia. East of the Sultan of Mali appears the King of Organa, in turban and blue dress, holding an oriental sword and a shield.
In northeast Africa, a knowledge of the Nile valley as far south as Dongala, where there was a Catholic mission early in the 14th century, is apparent. On one matter, however, the mapmaker Cresques could hardly refrain from speculating, for the following reason: land exploration had, for a long time now, outrun oceanic discovery, and so, concerning Africa, much more was known of the Sudan by the end of the 14th century than was known of the oceanic fringe area in the same latitudes. In Asia the Red Sea stands out, being shown as red, a characteristic that derives, we are told less from the color of the water than from that of the sea bed.
Moslem traders from cities along the Barbary Coast of North Africa began to cross the Sahara in the Middle Ages in an effort to bring back gold, rumored to be in great supply in the Sudan. Within the means of cartographic representations on this Atlas there appears to be no specialities, those symbols and other graphics used by Cresques correspond to those commonly used in the Middle Ages.
The compiler of the prototype used by Cresques for the Catalan Atlas had recourse to different, sometimes even contradictory sources. In summary, the merit of the Catalan Atlas lay in the skill with which Cresques employed the best available contemporary sources to modify the traditional world picture, never proceeding further than the evidence warranted.
Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth.
As a response to this interest, Cresques extended his chart to include all that was then known of Asia, notably from Marco Polo's narrative. This town [Beijing] has an extent of 24 miles, is surrounded by a very thick outer wall and has a square ground plan. The description emphasizes the richness and urbanity of the Chinese capital at the edge of the civilized world. To the north is Catayo, the Great Khan and his capital of Chanbaleth; to the south Manji, with its great cities of Zayton and Cansay. These pages represent the work of an amateur researcher and should not be used as the sole source by any other researcher. Research Notes: Some disagreement whether last name was Pabst or Papst, but Papst is most likely. Birth Notes: Lorna Wallace, daughter of Edith Poapst, believed Eva Maria Hamm was born in Baden-Baden. Anna married George Henry Snyder 10 in 1783 in Schoharie Lutheran, Schoharie, Albany (Schoharie), New York, United States.
Birth Notes: According to Rosemary Benson (quoted by George Cloakey 21 Dec 2009), his sons Daniel and John Joseph list their father's birthplace as New York.
Rudolph married Elisabeth Zettell 10 31 32 on 2 Nov 1786 in Reformed Church, Schenectady, (Schenectady), New York, United States. Maria married Franz Otto,5 50 51 son of Frantz Otto 52 53 and Marie Elisabeth Schnell,54 55 on 20 May 1783 in Saint Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Schoharie Twp, (Schoharie), New York, United States.
Elisabeth married Johan Gottlieb "Gottlieb" Otto,57 58 59 son of Frantz Otto 52 53 and Marie Elisabeth Schnell,54 55 in 1784 in Albany (Schoharie), New York, United States. Research Notes: The spelling of the family surname varied from Papst to Poapst, sometimes Pabst. Margaret married James Edward Dixon 98 on 16 Dec 1832 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada).
Jacob married Elizabeth Empey 100 101 on 16 Apr 1839 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada).
Catharina married Amasa Stebbens 102 on 26 Sep 1809 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada). Johannes married Elizabeth McWilliams,120 121 daughter of John McWilliams and Jean,10 122 on 10 Jun 1800 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada.
Sophie married Cyrus Winters 136 on 12 Apr 1838 in Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada.
Jacob married Mary Bradshaw,140 141 daughter of John Bradshaw, on 19 Jan 1812 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada).143 Mary was born about 1791, died after 1851, and was buried in Mt. Maria married Henry Shook.145 Henry was born in 1808, died on 22 Apr 1882 in Erindale, Peel, Ontario, Canada at age 74, and was buried in St. Charlotte married Burton Campbell 150 on 20 Oct 1845 in Toronto, York, Canada West (Ontario), Canada. Johann married Margaret Moke 157 on 6 Mar 1810 in Osnabruck Twp, Eastern District, Stormont (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada. Peter married Mary Ann Hahn,5 176 daughter of Peter Hahn 177 and Margaret Poapst,123 on 2 Mar 1841 in Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada).
Susan married John Meek 214 215 on 20 Jan 1864 in Cornwall, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada. Sensing Daniel is still confused about his feelings for Sarah, Emily tries to get him to agree about going public about their pregnancy but he doesn’t want to. Believing he has an interview with Time Magazine, Conrad walks into a meeting setup by Lydia. George Louis, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Luneburg (later King George I of Great Britain). King Charles requested this map from Peter of Aragon, patron of the best Majorcan mapmaker of the time: Abraham Cresques. Originally the Catalan Atlas consisted of six large wooden panels that were covered with parchment on one side. To the right, from top to bottom, is a diagram of the tides; another lists the movable feasts, and a third drawing represents a blood-letting figure. The result is that the Atlas represents a transitionary step towards the world maps developed later during the Renaissance, especially by its extensive application of contemporary geographical knowledge and ambitious scope. Although the sailors were used to plainer charts whose importance lay principally in their utility and accuracy, even ordinary marine charts begin to follow the Catalan tradition with regards to their use of standardized color patterns. When in 1381 the envoy of the French king asked King Peter of Aragon for a copy of the latest world map (proof in itself that the reputation of the Catalan school had been widely recognized) he was given this example, which has been preserved in Paris ever since.
For the first time in medieval cartography this continent assumed a recognizable form, with one or two notable exceptions. From west to east, the main divisions of the Mongol territory include the Empire of Sarra [the Kipchak Khanate], the Empire of Medeia [the Chagtai Khanate of the middle], and the suzerain empire of the Great Khan, Catayo [China]. Each side has a length of six miles, the wall is 20 paces high and lo paces thick, has 12 gateways and a large tower, in which hangs a great bell, which rings at the hour of first sleep or earlier. The vertical waterway is the Grand Canal built by Kublai from Manji to Cambulac; below are the 7548 islands, rich in all manner of spicery, placed by Marco in the Sea of Chin. Of these, Canton is not mentioned by Marco Polo; it was, however, much frequented by Arab navigators and traders, upon whose reports the compiler was probably drawing.
Yule points out that Kao-li was the name given for Korea, and he therefore considers that the island Cresques depicts here represents confused notions about both the Korean peninsula and Japan; otherwise there is no obvious graphic reference or hint of Zipangu [Japan].
The first is difficult to explain; to make up for it the cartographer has inserted a great island of Jana [Java], which however was probably intended for Sumatra. The notion that there were Christian rulers east of the Islamic world stems largely from the legend of Prester John; also important, however, were the real Christian minorities in India and the fact that the tomb of Saint Thomas was thought to be in Mailapore, a suburb of Madras, the Mirapore of the map.
And it sometimes happens though rarely, that the widow of the dead man throws herself into the flames,a€? a practice that recalls widow-burning (sutti) of India.
There we are told that Satan came to his aid and helped him to imprison the Tartars Gog and Magog.
The Persian Gulf, extending almost due west, has an outline similar to that on the Dulcert map, but is otherwise superior to any earlier map. Herein lies a succession of physical features: mountains, rivers, lakes and towns with corrupt but recognizable forms of their medieval names as given in the narratives of the great travelers of the 13th century. It is also possible to discern traces of their second journey, accompanied by Marco, in which they employed the 'south road' of the silk route, and, except for a detour through Ormis at the bottom of the Persian Gulf, ran from Trebizond through Eri [Herat], Badakshan, and along the southern edge of the Tarim basin from Khotan to the city of Lop. Unlike many classical and fellow medieval scholars, the draftsman of Majorca showed praiseworthy restraint in this respect. For here, as is often the case in other maps of the period, the cartographer compensated for the dearth of known geographical points by including historical facts. The delineation of the Nile river system is vitiated, however, by the conception that it flowed from a great lake in the Guinea region, Lacus Nili. As previously mentioned, the early draftsmen insisted upon cutting the continent short just beyond the limit of coastal knowledge, that is, in the vicinity of Cape Bojador. It is cut in two by a land passage, a conventional allusion to Moses' miraculous crossing (Exodus, 14:2122). Between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea appears the King of Tauris [Tabriz] and north of him Jani-Beg, ruler of the kingdom of the Golden Horde, who died in 1357. Stories reached 14th century Europe of the splendor of Mansa Musa, ruler of the Mali and lord of Guinea, one of the reputed richest of the 'Negro Kingdoms' of the Sudan, whose pilgrimage to Mecca created a sensation in 1324.
However, there are great differences to be observed between what is labeled by some the a€?portolano sectiona€? (sheets 3 and 4, Europe and North Africa) and the rest of the map sheets.
The legendary Insula de Brazil, for example, which is found on various medieval maps of the North Atlantic and later gave its name to Brazil, is shown here twice, once west of Ireland and a second time farther south. Elsewhere, however, the weight of received opinion is still felt, as, for example, in the various islands with fabulous names; they cannot represent the Madeiran group, as these islands were discovered only in 1418-1419. In the same spirit he removed from the map many of the traditional fables which had been accepted for centuries, and preferred to omit the northern and southern regions entirely, or to leave southern Africa blank rather than fill it with the anthropagi and other monsters which adorn the bulk of medieval maps.
This contrasts strongly with the people of the islands farther east who are described as savages living naked, eating raw fish, and drinking sea water.
Anna Maria Papst 5 11 14 was born about 1761 in Albany (Schoharie), New York, (United States) and died on 17 Feb 1848 about age 87. Maria Barbara Papst 10 14 15 16 was born on 7 Nov 1762 in Schoharie Twp, Albany (Schoharie), New York, (United States),17 died in 1798 in Wisconsin, United States at age 36, and was buried in Perkins Twp, Erie, Ohio, United States. George was born about 1765 in Schoharie, Albany (Schoharie), New York, (United States) and died on 1 Dec 1843 in Albany, Albany, New York, United States about age 78.
Elisabeth Papst 5 14 18 19 was born about 1765 in New York, (United States) and died about 1787 in Osnabruck Twp, Lunenburg (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Quebec (Ontario), Canada about age 22. Margretha Papst 20 21 was born on 8 Aug 1767 in Palatine, (Montgomery), New York, (United States)10 and was christened on 24 Sep 1767 in Reformed Church of Stone Arabia, Palatine, (Montgomery), New York, (United States). Ron also said Rudolph came to Osnabruck area with father and 200 other German settlers after Indian raiders burned their homes at Schoharie for the third time. John was born on 28 Jan 1751 in Helderberg, Albany, New York, (United States) and died on 28 Nov 1810 in Osnabruck Twp, Eastern District, Stormont (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada at age 59.
Anna Johanna Fetterly 42 was born on 9 Jan 1781 in Berne, Albany, New York, (United States) and died about 1810 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada) about age 29. Peter Fetterly 43 was born on 6 Jul 1782 in Schoharie, Albany (Schoharie), New York, United States and was christened about 1782 in Schoharie Lutheran, Schoharie, Albany (Schoharie), New York, United States. Johann Adam Franz Fetterly 44 was born on 21 Mar 1784 in Schoharie, Albany (Schoharie), New York, United States. Rudolph Fetterly 45 was born on 2 Feb 1786 in Schoharie, Albany (Schoharie), New York, United States, was christened about 1786 in Schoharie Lutheran, Schoharie, Albany (Schoharie), New York, United States, and died on 17 Nov 1839 in Osnabruck Twp, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada at age 53. Eve Fetterly 46 was born in Aug 1794 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Lunenburg (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Quebec (Ontario), Canada and died on 29 Nov 1883 at age 89.
Elizabeth Otto 10 56 was born about 1801 in Angelica, Livingston (Allegany), New York, United States and died in 1840 in Lockport, Niagara, New York, United States about age 39. Gottlieb Otto 60 61 was born on 4 Jan 1787 in Schoharie, Albany (Schoharie), New York, United States and died on 15 Mar 1855 in Osgoode Twp (Ottawa), Carleton, Ontario, Canada at age 68. Margreth Otto 66 was born on 10 Feb 1801 in Cornwall Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada. Francis Otto 67 was born about 1803 in Cornwall Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada.
Mary Papst 82 83 was born on 23 Mar 1798 in Schenectady, New York, United States,81 died on 18 Dec 1877 in Bay Port, Huron, Michigan, United States at age 79, and was buried in Old Bay Port Cemetery, Bay Port, Huron, Michigan, United States.
Elizabeth Popps 82 87 88 was born on 23 Jul 1800, died on 8 Apr 1896 at age 95, and was buried in Willis United Cemetery, North Lunenburg, Osnabruck, Stormont (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada. Peter Papst 84 89 90 was born on 17 Jul 1802 in Osnabruck Twp, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada. Catherine Poapst 87 91 92 was born on 10 Aug 1807 and died in 1842 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada at age 35. Fulton 95 on 16 Oct 1833 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada). Elizabeth was born about 1814 in Osnabruck Centre, Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada, died on 16 Jul 1886 in Osnabruck Centre, Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada about age 72, and was buried in Waterdown Cemetery, Osnabruck, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada. Balthasar Sheets 110 111 was born on 5 Jul 1796 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada) and was christened on 21 Aug 1796 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada).


Elizabeth was born in 1784 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and died in 1861 in Osnabruck Centre, Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 77.
Margaret Poapst 123 was born about 1801 in Osnabruck Centre, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada.
Rudolph Papst 1 124 125 126 was born about 1803 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada, died in 1875 in Osgoode, Russell, Ontario, Canada about age 72, and was buried in Beechwood Cemetery, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Frederick Poapst 131 was born on 29 May 1809 in Osnabruck Centre, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada,5 was christened on 6 Aug 1809 in Osnabruck Centre, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada, and died about 1810 about age 1.
Mary Papst 132 was born in 1813 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada and died on 26 Dec 1906 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 93.
Alfred Poapst 5 133 was born on 12 Mar 1815 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada and died on 1 Dec 1891 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 76.
Sophie Julianne Papst 5 134 135 was born in 1817 in Cornwall Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada and died before 1901 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada. Cyrus was born on 10 May 1816 in Cornwall Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada and died on 28 Aug 1906 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 90. George Adam "Adam" Poapst 137 138 was born on 11 Dec 1818 in Williamsburgh, Dundas, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada),5 was christened on 3 Jan 1819 in Cornwall, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada), died on 28 Jan 1911 in Cornwall Twp, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 92, and was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery, Cornwall, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada. Cornelia was born about 1825 in Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada) and died on 20 Mar 1886 in Brampton, Peel, Ontario, Canada about age 61. Peter Henry Fetterly 166 was born about 1816 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada). Sarah was born on 1 Jan 1787 in Albany (Schoharie), New York, United States and died on 31 Aug 1856 in Osgoode Twp (Ottawa), Carleton, Ontario, Canada at age 69. John Otto 174 was born on 27 Oct 1811 in Osnabruck Twp, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada and died on 9 Feb 1871 in Snowdon, Haliburton, Ontario, Canada at age 59.
Peter Otto 175 was born on 9 Jun 1819 in Williamsburgh, Dundas, Upper Canada (Ontario), Canada and died on 21 Feb 1896 at age 76. Elizabeth Poapst 191 192 was born in Sep 1823 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada, died on 8 Apr 1896 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 72, and was buried in Willis United Cemetery, North Lunenburg, Osnabruck, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada. Alexander Poapst 82 198 199 200 was born on 10 Jun 1829 in Osnabruck Centre, Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada, died on 8 Nov 1910 in Cornwall, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 81, and was buried in Waterdown Cemetery, Osnabruck, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada. Benjamin Poapst 201 202 was born on 12 Dec 1831 in Cornwall Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada, died on 20 Jun 1901 in Aylmer, Elgin East, Ontario, Canada at age 69, and was buried in <St.
John was born on 18 Jun 1834 in Cornwall, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada.
Archibald Poapst 210 was born in 1838 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada and died on 1 Nov 1912 in Hennepin Co., Minnesota, United States at age 74.
Susan Martha Poapst 212 213 was born on 22 Nov 1840 in Cornwall, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada and died on 13 Nov 1921 in Avonmore, (North Stormont), Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 80.
John was born in 1832 in Roxborough Twp, (North Stormont), Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada and died on 31 Aug 1912 in Avonmore, (North Stormont), Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 80.
John Daniel Papst 230 was born on 4 May 1828 in Osnabruck Twp, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada, died on 12 Sep 1906 in Osnabruck, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 78, and was buried in Pleasant Valley Cemetery, Osnabruck, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada. Lydia is back, thanks to Margo, and we learn she never boarded the plane that we all thought she died on a couple of season ago because Victoria saved her.
While visiting with Victoria to go over the seating arrangements for the wedding, Lydia shows up and words are exchanged. She follows him on his run where he reveals how he was perfectly okay with the way his life was heading before Sarah reappeared. In preparation for the big day, Aiden sets up a candlelit meditation for Emily to relax and de-stress. Then share with your friends and followers by hitting the ‘Like’ button above and using the social media links below!
This form later was transformed into a block-book, in which each sheet formed a double page, the parchment itself serving as a hinge between each of the two wooden panels.
The latter is accompanied by a long text describing the world; it deals with its creation, the four elements of which it is composed, its shape, dimensions, and divisions.
Though the Catalan Atlas is the earliest complete example of its kind which has survived, it was undoubtedly preceded by other similar attempts at extending the range of the portolan chart. Thus, pilots knew at a glance, for instance, that any port lettered in red offered revictualing and a safe harbor; dots and crosses, on the other hand, indicated underwater hazards.
Continental interiors are filled with detail, compass lines drawn, and decorative items are added to enhance the nearly up-to-date picture.
Its capital at Cambalucr or Chanbaleth [Beijing], the city of the Great Khan which so intrigued the chroniclers of the 14th century, receives due prominence, with a long legend describing its magnitude and grandeurs. When it has finished ringing, no one may pass through the town, and at each gate a thousand men are on guard, not out of fear but in honor of the sovereign. The attempt at representing the configuration of the coast suggests at least that his informants were interested from a maritime point of view. Altogether, as mentioned above, we are told there are 7,548 islands in the Indian Ocean; they are rich in gold, silver, spices, and precious stones, so much so that a€?great ships of many different nationsa€? trade in their waters. Farther north is the realm of Kebek Khan, a historical figure who reigned from 1309 to 1326: a€?Here reigns King Chabeh, ruler of the Kingdom of the Middle Horde. Here the text contains information from Marco Polo's account of how in the province of Malabar the death of criminals, who are compelled to commit suicide, is celebrated by their relatives with his observation on the custom of widows immolating themselves on the pyres of their dead husbands, mentioned a few lines later. In the Gulf, the island of Ormis [Hormuz] is shown, opposite the former settlement of the same name on the mainland.
These are jumbled together in a manner sometimes difficult to understand, but with the help of Marco Polo's narrative, it is possible to disentangle the itineraries which the map was evidently intended to set out. East of this lies the lake, Yssikol [Issik Kul], and Emalech the seat of the Khan, the Armalec of other travelers, in the Kuldja region.
The compiler, however, perhaps because he confused this desert area with the Gobi, has transferred this stretch to the north of the Issik Kul.
In addition to Asia, the narratives of contemporary travelers were also extensively used by Cresques in Africa.
We are told, for example, that merchants bound for Guinea pass the Atlas mountain range, shown here in its typical form of a bird's leg with three claws at its eastern end, at Val de Durcha. This rare speculation on the part of Cresques contained at least some partial truth because the Lacus Nili, the Pactolus of Strabo, and the Palolus of later maps, which in the Catalan Atlas and subsequent works is located in the neighborhood of Timbuktu, may reasonably be identified with the flood region of the Niger.
By so doing, however, they found themselves reducing the vast extent of the Sahara almost to a vanishing point.
The port of Quseir is clearly marked, and the accompanying text specifies that it is here that spices are taken on land and sent to Cairo and Alexandria. The importance of Baghdad as a center of the spice trade is emphasized; from there, precious wares from India are sent throughout the Syrian land and especially to Damascus. This African prince appears in the Catalan Atlas in a stately fashion with crown, orb, and scepter, with the inscription: The richest and noblest King in the world. In this section the coastlines are greatly differentiated and the abundance of names is in great contrast with the quantity of information, literally and graphically, supplied in sheets 5 and 6 (Asia).
Nor can they be the Azores, which are first mentioned in 1427, or the Cape Verde Islands discovered only in 1455-1456. They are obviously to be identified with the Ichthyophagi, one of the fabulous races traditionally placed in Asia or in Africa. Lawrence Valley Union Cemetery, Long Sault, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada. Poapst 99 was born on 24 Feb 1818 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada, died on 29 Jul 1848 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada at age 30, and was buried in Waterdown Cemetery, Osnabruck, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada. Poapst 128 129 130 was born in 1807 in Osnabruck Centre, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), Canada and died in 1875 in Osnabruck Centre, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 68. Papst 146 was born about 1819 in Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada) and died on 13 Apr 1898 in Bothwell, Kent, Ontario, Canada about age 79. 154 155 and Elizabeth Brown,156 on 23 Nov 1797 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada).
George was born on 3 Mar 1796 in Williamsburgh Twp, Dundas, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), (Canada) and died on 18 Jun 1882 in Williamsburgh Twp, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada at age 86. Poapst 203 204 was born on 2 Feb 1834 in Osnabruck Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Ontario, Canada and died on 28 Oct 1902 at age 68. She tells her she can’t trust her and severs ties with her, believing she only came back to rekindle a relationship with Conrad. When she opens her eyes he proposes to her, she accepts and he reveals the new identities Nolan set up for them.
Since Conrad had a bunch of old boxes of memories pulled to go through for his book Lydia decides to take a look in them. I do feel like she had legit feelings for him in season one but she’s totally all Aiden this season. This arrangement led to the folds of the precious sheets becoming worn through with use, so that these sheets were divided into 12 half-sheets, mounted on boards to fold like a screen. Then come geographical accounts of countries, continents, oceans, and tides, as well as astronomical and meteorological information.
Abraham Cresques, a Jew of Palma on the island of Majorca, for many years was 'master of mappaemundi and compasses', i.e. From the Mar del Sarra [Caspian Sea] in the west, with a fairly accurate outline in the style of the portolan charts, the Mongol domains stretch away eastwards to the coasts of Catayo [China].
Some of the islands off Quinsay may stand for the Chusan archipelago, and further to the south is the large island of Caynam, [Hainan]. The kingdoms of India as enumerated by Polo are absent from the map, and there are significant differences in the towns appearing in the two documents.
The reference is to the gate that Alexander is supposed to have built in the Caspian Mountains to exclude Gog and Magog, who are here equated with various Central Asian tribes. The Southern Arabian coast has names differing from those given by Polo, and in one of them, Adramant, we may recognize the modern Hadhramaut.
The delineation is then confused by the repetition of the Badakshan uplands, the mountains of Baldassia, a mistake that probably arose from confusion over the river system of southern Asia. In fact the section illustrated by #235B is thought to represent Nicolo and Maffeo Polo, with their Mongol envoys, crossing the Tien Shan mountains on their way through what is now China's Sinkiang Province, to Beijing (south is at the top).
Here the special feature of interest on the Catalan Atlas is the inscription and picture of the vessel recording the departure of the Catalan, Jacome Ferrer, on a voyage to the 'river of gold' southwest of the new Finisterre of Bojador in 1346.
More geographical information is given on the Maghreb, which, after all, is part of the Mediterranean. Thanks to their notorious capacity to travel long distances without water, they completely transformed African trade, opening sub-Saharan areas to Islam. In Arabia, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, is located the kingdom of Sheba; the queen, who came to visit King Solomon, is shown crowned and holding a golden disk as symbol of her wealth.
Navigational information is also recorded: a€?From the mouth of the river of Baghdad, the Indian and Persian Oceans open out. The mountains in the European and African section are arranged in chains or chain-like symbols, in Asia they appear as regular humped garlands of rocks. The Catalan Atlas, in fact, marks the progress in the gradual discovery of the Atlantic and the west coast of Africa with an illustration of Jaime Ferrera€™s ship, which, we are told, set sail on lo August 1346 bound for the fabulous Rio de Oro [River of Gold] in Africa.
In this spirit of critical realism, Cresques and his fellow Catalan cartographers of the 14th century, threw off the bonds of tradition and anticipated the achievements of the Renaissance.
The city stands near the apex of a triangle formed by two rivers and the ocean; each of the two rivers divides into three before reaching the sea, a representation embodying a somewhat confused notion of the inter-linked natural and artificial waterways of China.
Maria's sister Elisabeth, married Gotlieb Otto, a distant cousin of mine, and they too moved to Osnabrouck (spelling?). Hieronymus was born on 3 May 1768 in Schoharie, Albany (Schoharie), New York, (United States) and died on 25 Oct 1859 in Williamsburgh Twp (South Dundas), Lunenburgh (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Quebec (Ontario), Canada at age 91.
On her way out the door, Emily approaches Lydia and Lydia tells her that she still doesn’t trust her.
She comes across a photo album from a New Year’s Eve party that shows Emily as one of the waitresses pre her Emily Thorne days.
I feel bad for Daniel because he gets the shortest stick out of this entire scenario, all so Emily can exact revenge on Victoria.
In September of the year 1728, King George II issued a Royal Patent in Virginia Colony which gave James Jr. Four half-sheets are occupied by cosmographical and navigational data, they describe the whole concept of the world, show astronomical and astrological representations, and provide information about the calendar, the sun, moon, planets, the signs of the zodiac and the tides. The second sheet presents a spectacular diagram of a large astronomical and astrological wheel.
This country makes a sweep from east to south with an approach to its actual form, and along it's coast appear several of the great medieval ports and trading centers frequented by Arab merchants.
There Cresques placed some of the fabulous and monstrous races legendary in classical antiquity and the Middle Ages: a€?On this island are people who are very different from the rest of mankind. Conspicuous on the map is the Christian Kingdom and city of Columbo, placed on the east coast.
And know that these people marry at the age of about twelve years and generally live to be 40 years old.
The island of Scotra, an important stage on the trade route from Aden to India, is misplaced to the east, and appears to occupy the approximate position of the Kuria Muria Islands. The legend above them reads, in translation: This caravan left the Empire of Sarra to go to Catayo, across a Great Desert (Sarai, on the Edil [Volga], was the capital of the Kipchak Tartars, from which the Polos had set out about 1262. This refers to the northwest coast of Africa which extends beyond Cape Bojador to a point just north of the Rio d'Oro. Later draftsmen, in order to escape the embarrassment caused by indicating the great trans-Saharan caravan routes within these narrow limits, began to speculate on the course of the west African coast, south of Bojador.
Here they fish for pearls, which are supplied to the town of Baghdad.a€? We learn that a€?before they dive to the bottom of the sea, pearl fishers recite magic spells with which they frighten away the fisha€? a piece of information that comes straight from Marco Polo, who mentions that the pearl fishers on the Malabar coast are protected by the magic and spells of the Brahmins.
The heathens believe that Paradise is situated there, because the islands have such a temperate climate and such a great fertility of the soil. For this reason the heathens of India believe that their souls are transported to these islands after death, where they live for ever on the scent of these fruits. Sarah comes to Daniel and he tells her that he plans to marry Emily and raise his child and Sarah gives him back the necklace and leaves and he throws the necklace in the water. Mind you this is a copy of the same photo that Nolan had to alter in the first season when Lydia threatened to use that revelation to expose Emily. Something’s going to go wrong no doubt, I mean, we do have the rest of the season to get through after the break.
An even earlier chart (probably covering the whole 'world' originally), that by Angelino Dulcert, of Majorca, dated 1339, also has points of resemblance to the Catalan Atlas. There are several references to world maps executed by him, though this is the only one now known. There is a further allusion to Alexander having erected two trumpet-blowing figures in bronze; these, according to various medieval legends, resounded with the wind and frightened the Tartars until the instruments were blocked up by various nesting birds and animals.


For India and the ocean to the west, therefore, we may conclude that charts were used which differed in detail from Polo's account, though similar in general features. Here unfortunately the map ends; unlike the Medici Atlas, or some others, it makes no attempt at a representation, conjecture or otherwise, of the southern portion of this continent.
The text beside a Touareg riding on a camel and also a group of tents informs us that this land is inhabited by veiled people living in tents and riding camels. Various trading stations are indicated on the shore of the Indian Ocean from Hormus, a€?where India begins,a€? to Quilon in Kerala. With meticulous care the islands in the region of the portolan chart section are displayed, they are painted in color, some of them like Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are shown in gold.
After falling, Daniel reveals to his mother that Emily is pregnant, giving Emily the opportunity to plant the news of the baby in the media. Charlotte comes and apologizes to Emily about not having her back and how she plans to be a better aunt than she was a Maid of Honor.
The other elements (fire, air, water) are incorporated into the next three concentric circles; then come the seven planets, the band of the zodiac, and the various stations and phases of the moon. In view of the possible identity of Dulcert, and the Ligurian origin of the Medici Atlas, we may conclude that this type of world map, though developed by Catalans, originated early in the 14th century in northern Italy, where the narrative of Marco Polo, which, as will be seen, supplied many of the details embodied in the map, would be most readily available. After his death in 1387, his work was carried on by his son, Jafuda, who eventually instructed the Portuguese under the patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator. This form of the name (it is rendered Coilum by Polo), and other details, suggest that the compiler drew upon the writings of Friar Jordanus, who was a missionary in this area, and whose Book of Marvels was completed and in circulation by 1340. It is marked by a line of towns up the valley of the Edil from Agitarchan [Astrakhan] through Sarra [Sarai], Borgar, and thence eastward through Pascherit [probably representing the territory of the Bashkirs east of the middle Volga], and Sebur, or Sibir, a medieval settlement whose site is unknown, but thought to be on the upper Irtish. The crowned black man holding a golden disk is identified as Musse Melly, a€?lord of the negroes of Guineaa€? - in fact, Mansa Musa, of fabulous wealth. Speculation of this sort did at least have the merit of enabling the mapmaker to draw the Sahara with greater accuracy. These proportions are of some significance, for they have undoubtedly restricted the cartographer in his portrayal of the extreme northern and southern regions. The next six rings are devoted to the lunar calendar and to an account of the effect of the moon when it is found in the different signs of the zodiac.
The Catalan Atlas says: The circumference of the earth is 180,000 stadia, that is to say 20,052 miles (this is the same calculation as Ptolemy's, yet it was given a full thirty years prior to the first known Latin translation of his Geographia, #119 ). But the day of the Jewish school of cartography at Majorca was already drawing to a close, owing to the wave of persecution which swept through the Aragon kingdom in the latter years of the century. Possibly additions were also made so that the map might serve as an illustration to his narrative.
In this quarter, the information upon which the map is based was not drawn from Marco Polo. Also its treatment of the Atlantic islands: the Azores, Canary, and Madeira groups, is more complete than any representation of earlier times.
The gap in the snake-like Atlas Mountain chain of North Africa is meant to illustrate a pass that these Arab merchants commonly used (#235A).
Either way, however this plays out will let us know how we’ll move forward for the rest of the season. This was perhaps to some extent deliberate, for two years before the composition of this map, we hear of the Infant John (son of Peter of Aragon) demanding a map 'well executed and drawn with its East and West' and figuring 'all that could be shown of the West and of the Strait [of Gibraltar] leading to the West'. Three more rings show, respectively, the division of the circle into degrees, while the last gives an account of the Golden Number. There are still other names which are not found in Jordanus either; but the commercial importance of Cambay (Canbetum, on the map) would account for the relatively detailed information about this region. To the south is a long east-west range, called the Mountains of Sebur, representing the northwestern face of the Tien Shan and Altai. His pilgrimage to Mecca, including a visit to Cairo, was famous for the enormous amount of gold he spent on that occasion. Poapst - died Oct 2, 1887 - AE 72 yrshis wifeMargaret - died April 18, 1853 - AE 59 yrsThe stone was originally in the back of the Poapst family homestead, where the bodies remain. Poapst - died Oct 2, 1887 - AE 72 yrshis wifeMargaret - died April 18, 1858 - AE 59 yrsThe stone was originally in the back of the Poapst family homestead, where the bodies remain. The Infant, in other words, was interested, not in northern Europe and Asia or in southern Africa, but in the Orient and the Western Ocean. They eat white men and strangers, if they can catch them.a€? The reference is to giants familiar from the medieval Alexander legend, specifically defined here as Anthropophagi. There is, surprisingly, no indication of the river Indus, a striking omission also from Polo's narrative. In the late 13th and early 14th centuries there were Franciscan mission stations at these localities, and the details no doubt came originally from the friars. This is plausible enough, for he controlled a large part of Africa, from Gambia and Senegal to Gao on the Niger, and had access to some of its richest gold deposits. Jeremiah moved to Oxford, NC, in Granville County, and bought land there from Israel Eastwood on February 18, 1773.
The cartographer satisfied him by cutting out, as it were, an east-west rectangle from a circular world map which would cover the desired area.
George Grosjean, in his commentary on the 1977 facsimile edition of the Atlas, stresses that the orientation of this map must be understood from its essential part. To these far distant waters are also relegated mermaids, some of them probably the traditional half-woman and half-fish, the others more siren-like half-birds.
This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.a€?The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian. Reports of the fabulous wealth of this African ruler did much to encourage an interest in the exploration of Africa. This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian. In 1991 he obtained a copy of a letter written in 1971 by Anna Alicia Papst, (died 1983) daughter of Capt. The map was constructed in the portolano style, a type of medieval navigation chart which was intended to lie on the chart-table of a ship and always was oriented to the necessities of navigation, thus there is no 'orientation of priority' of such maps. The one illustrated has two fishtails, in accordance with one of the most common medieval conventions.
Farther north appear the Three Wise Men on their way to Bethlehem and at the top (or bottom) of the map a caravan; all of the latter figures are drawn upside down, as the map was probably meant to be laid horizontally and viewed from both sides. Jeremiah was granted 118 acres of land from King George III in Brunswick County, Virginia along the Meherrin River, Stony Creek, and Great Creek.
The shape of the Catalan Atlas, therefore, must not be taken as evidence on questions such as the extent, form or knowledge of the African continent; nor does the change from a circular to a rectangular frame indicate specifically any change in ideas relating to the shape of the earth. Since the Atlas was not intended as a portolano for daily use but instead was a luxury edition for a princely library, it is useless to ask for correct orientation of the map-sheets. Camels laden with goods are followed by their drivers; behind them various people, one of them asleep, are riding horses. This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.a€?A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano.
This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano. Designed to assist mariners find their way at sea, it served a practical purpose akin to that of the future road map, but it answered this purpose by depicting not the route itself, but detailed coastlines and hazards to shipping. Mariners previously had to rely on written itineraries which can be traced back to the peripli or coastal pilots of the classical world.
Following the introduction of the mariner's compass in Europe towards the end of the 13th century, nautical or portolan charts were made as an extension of the peripli, constructed on a framework of radiating compass lines, with north at the top. Places were located and marked around the coasts, while places located further inland and usually the entire interior of the continents were left blank. The province and town of Lop mentioned by Marco Polo can be connected with the modern town of Ruoqiang (Charkhlik) south of Lop Nor. It should be emphasized that while the Atlas was drawn in the portolano style, it is not, strictly speaking, a portolan chart. The typical nautical chart, which some scholars believe had its origin with the Catalan mapmakers, had hitherto been cartographically the very opposite of the medieval theocratic or ecclesiastical maps. His girl friend and her family were emigrating from the Palatinate on the Rhine, to Philadelphia. Portolan charts traditionally displayed only known, discovered coasts, precisely detailed harbors, river mouths, rocks, shallows, currents, etc. Amidon is convinced this was Eva Maria Hamm).'Adam Pabstt's father was a wealthy merchant who became Burgomaster of Bonn and had hoped to marry his son Adam, to an impoverished baroness. However, the son Adam gave his father the slip and was hidden in a barrel on the ship until the ship sailed from Hamburg.
The ship sailed from Hamburg to Philadelphia.'Adam Pabstt was a Roman Catholic and she was a Lutheran.
After he got his grants of land cleared in Ontario and his houses and his barns built, he learned to make coffins and he gave Christian burial to the dead. Henry seems to have been a man who was always ready to make a dime, and was quiet good at it. There was a famous Civil War battle fought at the home of Henry and Ruth and is written in books that can be found in the local Library's.
She (Elizabeth) would travel fifty miles to deliver a child and show the mother how to keep her infant alive. Also, Rudolph and his wife, Elizabeth, fed Indians every Sunday.'My papa, (Rudolph Papst, b. The next morning a battle was fought between Cox's Army and the Flat Top Copperheads, captained by the famous Richard Foley. 183 and son of John Joseph Papst) was premature and the doctor from York, Ontario, was not going to bother with him.
She had to be a very brave lady to stay and face the Union Troop's without Henry there to back her up. She prepared boxes and filled them with cotton and placed little bottles filled with hot water in the boxes and thus made an incubator.
I am sure that they were more than happy to depart her home the next morning, and the fight with Richard Foley and his Copperheads had to be mild to what she had put them through. I have also wondered where Henry was, that Ruth was in the home alone except for her small children? Maybe, as his daughter Christeen was married in York in 1811, he could have left the area ca 1811 and then returned in 1814 to sell the lands. There was probably a certain amount of fear among the locals at the start of the war of 1812 and getting away from a potentially 'hot' area might have been seen as a good move. It is very likely that he did and was unable to get back, or he could have fought with the Copperheads.
When the State of West Virginia tore down and burned the Clark home to make a new road, Josiah Carl Clark says there were balls still in bedded it the logs from the battle fought there in 1862.
It would have been nice if the State could or would have saved the home as an Historical building. Virginia, then sometime before 1860 they sold that to a William Clark ( don't know what relation, but am sure there is one) and bought the property in Camp Creek where they lived out their lives.
Henry gave the property to their son John and lived there with him until he died sometime before 1890." 1~Mary A. One was the original Papst was an officer in the German army, and he fell in love with a serving maid, and as is the custom in then German army an officer can not marry beneath their rank, so the tale goes. He had her sent over to England and resigned his office in the German army and married the gal, and brought her to U.S. Isaac was a farmer in Estill Cty, adjoinng Estill Springs at Irvine, which he owned at one time. The German (or Hessians) sympathized with the English and as the account says, when the colonial army was right on the heals of the Hessians the Germans just got across into the Canadian border with the American army at their backs.
So they got into Toronto, and I understand that is where they the Papst Hessians got their 160 acres on Young Street in Toronto, and which grandfather John Papst sold when he went to California. The story goes that Old Granny Papst had when she fled the colonial army was baby on one arm and a black cooking pot on the other. I have often heard my mother say "old Granny Papst couldn't speak English, so she must have lived a long time. Isaac Mize was one of the leading citizens of his community in Estill County, where he was engaged in farming and stock trading, and served in the State Legislature and Judge.
It has been said that the first fighting in the Civil War, warbetween the States, was on his farm in Boone Cty, Missouri. Walker, had The Virginia Pharmacy in Independence, MO (father of Henrietta Walker Childers of Independence).
Nancy Walker's sister, Betsy married Thomas Gaddy in Estill Cty in 1815, They went to Illinois about 1833.
D.I Adam Papst of the Township of Osnabruck in the County of Stormont and Eastern district of the Province of Upper Canada Yeoman do make this my last Will and Testament in manner following, that is to say I give devise and bequeath unto my Son John Papst all and every my real and personal Estate and Effects - whatsoever and wheresoever which I shall or may be possessed of or in anyways entitled unto at the time of my decease To hold to him his Heirs and Assigns, absolutely for ever Subject as follows. Eubank:  2~Simpson Grant Eubank lived in Howard Cty, Missouri, where he died in 1906, near Armstrong. Also my said Son shall give to the said Eve Mary Papst two good Cows at the time she chooses to depart from him for her better support. And my said Son shall give to the said Eve Mary Papst six pounds of good wool yearly and every year from the time of my decease for her own Sole use and benefit whether she shall reside with him or not and permit her to enjoy and dispose of such goods and furniture as are now her own Sole and Seperate property.
And I do hereby revoke all former Wills by me made and declare this to be my last Will and Testament. Mize, married Luella Cockrell and was a merchant at Hazel Green, where he died, and enrolling clerk in the House of Representatives for several terms. He was a fine Christian gentleman and passed away at the age of sixty-five years at Hazel Green, where his son, Carl, lived. Greene Mize, the eldest son in the large family of Isaac Mize, the younger, was a leading merchant of Vaughn's Mill, Powell County. There was a famous Civil War battle fought at the home of Henry and Ruth and is written in books that can be found in the local Library's.
The next morning a battle was fought between Cox's Army and the Flat Top Copperheads, captained by the famous Richard Foley. She had to be a very brave lady to stay and face the Union Troop's without Henry there to back her up. Virginia, then sometime before 1860 they sold that to a William Clark ( don't know what relation, but am sure there is one) and bought the property in Camp Creek where they lived out their lives.



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