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If the bone conduction levels differ from the air conduction levels, sound waves are probably being obstructed on their passage through the eardrum and middle ear.
If air and bone conduction are the same, it indicates that the problem is likely to be located in the inner ear.
So, if you have a moderate sensorineural unilateral hearing loss caused by infectious parotitis don’t panic. It is just the medical way of saying you have nerve deafness in one ear caused by mumps and have problems hearing sounds which are quieter than 41dB.
Please do not be afraid to ask the ENT doctor or audiologist to explain your hearing chart to you.
Low-voltage electrical injuries are < 380 volts, while high-voltage types of electrical exposures are above -- for example, power lines. Neurologic injuries attributed to an electrical injury should include the injured part of the nervous system in the path between entrance and exit. According to Morse, internal heating of tissues is negligable in low-energy electrical contacts. Grube and others reported their experience with 22 patients who had low-voltage injuries (1990).
In our experience, electricians are the main group of individuals who report symptoms after low-voltage electrical exposures. We are grateful that the parents of the patient in case 2 allowed us to use her audiogram for illustration.
Here we report a case of VACTERL ASSOCIATION in a twenty three years old married female patient primigravida with 3 months of amenorrhea admitted with history of fever and gastroenteritis along with congenital developmental defects such as scoliosis (V) , small ventricular septal defect (C), right sided hemifacial dysmorphic features (right mandibular hypoplasia), small sized right sided kidney (R), bilateral hypoplastic thumb (L). A 23 years old married female, primigravida with 3 months of amenorrhea was admitted with history of fever with chills, headache and bodyache since 10 days and multiple episodes of vomiting, loose motion and giddiness since 3 days before admission to our hospital.
Patient was hydrated adequately with intravenous fluids and treated with intravenous antibiotics such as Ceftriaxone, Metronidazole, antiemetics, antacids and oral haematinics. VACTERL association is a non random association of birth defect of structures derived from embryonic mesoderm 1. Though the overall prognosis is poor it depends on the particular association of anomalies.
At the age of 9, I was diagnosed with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears. At 27 and as a first time mom, Shanna began loosing her hearing.  "Hearing aid wearing mom? I went back to the doctor.
Gael Hannan is a writer, actor and public speaker who grew up with a progressive hearing loss that is now severe-to-profound. Read her blog.


Deafness Chronicles is a blog by Brazilian, Paula Pfeifer, who chronicles her hearing loss and how she is in the world of sounds after her cochlear implants.
The blog, In My Head, is about a freelance journalist, mom, voracious reader, pop culture and sugar junkie who happens to be deaf. The author has a cochlear implant, reads lips, speaks, types fast, and has a lot to say. By comparing the air conduction thresholds (O or X) with the bone conduction thresholds ([, ?, ] or ?) at each pitch, we can determine if a hearing loss is conductive or sensorineural. With age related hearing loss a person can usually hear low-pitched sounds better than high-pitched sounds.
Thus, the person with this audiogram will be able to hear high-pitched sounds better than low-pitched sounds in the left ear. However, there have been neurologic complications reported (other than burns) include cognitive complaints, sensory complaints, and motor weakness. The distribution of electric shock in the animal body: an experimental investigation of sixty cycle alternating current. For the diagnosis of VACTERL atleast three out of seven anomalies should be present while our patient had four anomalies. On physical examination patient was having tachycardia, hypotension, pallor, alopecia areata and previous mid line vertical abdominal surgical scar mark. Electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia with poor progression of R wave from V1 – V4.
As per the diagnostic criteria our patient had more than three (four) of the seven anomalies required for the diagnosis of VACTERL association.
Today most children with the VACTERL association survive as our patient has because according to the recent literatures there has been a steady decline in mortality in patients with VACTERL association probably due to early detection of fetal abnormalities on ultrasonography by second trimester of pregnancy6 and early intervention in the form of prompt surgical repair and rehabilitation.
The contribution of the adriamycin - induced rat model of the VACTER association to our understanding of congenital abnormalities and their embryogenesis. Hearing Sparks is a way for me to share my story of hearing loss, as well as news about accessibility, and other geeky stuff about deafness.When I was four years old I was diagnosed with a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Kirsteen is a working mum in Scotland writing about her cochlear implant and experiences of deafness. The audiograms below show (a) bilateral mild sensorineural hearing loss and (b) bilateral moderate sensorineural hearing loss.
The diagnosis is made if at least three of the seven defects mentioned above are present in an infant. Also patient had some dysmorphic features since birth which were as follows : vertebral anamoly in form of scoliosis (V) (Fig.


Apart from these defects our patient also had mild mental retardation and mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss not mentioned hitherto in other case reports.
III: Clinical and epide-miological study of blastogenetic anomalies and their relationship to different MCA patterns. In fact, for 22 years I often pretended to hear when I couldn't. This is my cochlear implant journey. Thus, from these data, only about 10% of patients have a residual neurological problem following low-voltage electrical injuries.
Individuals with the VACTERL association do not typically have facial dysmorphic features, learning disability or abnormalities of growth, including head circumference. 4 is her repeat electrocardiogram showing normal sinus rhythm, normal axis and poor progression of R wave from V1 – V4). On her next visit to our medicine OPD (after 5 months of her discharge) we repeated her abdominal and Obstetric ultrasound which showed right sided hydronephrosis in addition to the previous finding of small sized right kidney (Figs.
We could not do other radiological investigation as our patient was pregnant and these investigations were planned after delivery. My left ear is my good ear - my right ear hears barely anything. There's more info right this way! Many babies with VACTERL are born small and have difficulty with gaining weight although development and intelligence in survivors is usually normal. Mechanisms for peripheral neuropathy are suggested to be due to necrosis or fibrosis of perineural tissue. The most frequent peripheral neuropathies involved the median nerve, followed by ulnar, radial and peroneal nerves (Grube et al, 1990).
Transient spinal cord complaints have also been reported, as well as occasional progressive and permanent injuries. Neither her mother had diabetes mellitus nor she received any lipid lowering drug or adriamycin.
After birth also patient did not have difficulty in deglutition, breathing, cyanosis and passing motion.



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