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Waardenburg Syndrome - The hearing loss in Waardenburg Syndrome may be present in one or both ears and is a sensorineural type of loss. Usher Syndrome - There are three (3) types of Usher syndrome with different types of hearing loss. For patients unsuitable for surgical intervention, careful attention should be payed to keep the ear clear of infection, which may require antibiotics.
Surgery aims to completely remove the cholesteatoma; the keratinised squamous epithelium and its surrounding cyst-like structure must be completely excised. External Auditory Canal Otitis Externa Defenses include cerumen which acidifies the canal and suppresses bacterial growth. External Auditory Canal Otitis Externa Cerumen prevents water from remaining in canal and causing maceration. External Auditory Canal Otitis Externa-Management Topical antibacterial drops such as Neomycin otic, polymyxin, Quinolone otic Otic steroid drops containing polymyxin-neomycin and a topical corticosteroid.
External Auditory Canal Chronic Otitis Externa Duration of infection greater than four weeks, or greater than 4 episodes a year Risks: inadequate treatment of otitis externa, persistent trauma, inflammation or malignant otitis externa.


External Auditory Canal Malignant Otitis Externa Inflammation and damage of the bones and cartilage of the base of the skull Occurs primarily in immunocompromised Most common etiology is pseudomonas aeruginosa. External Auditory Canal Malignant Otitis Externa Need IV antibiotics Might need surgical debridement. External Auditory Canal Cerumen Impaction Cerumen is produced by apocrine and sebaceous glands in external ear canal. External Auditory Canal Foreign body Can include toys, beads, nails, vegetables or insects. External Auditory Canal Foreign body- Management Irrigation is best provided the TM is not perforated Destroy insect with lidocaine or mineral oil. Tympanic Membrane Bullous Myringitis Vesicles develop on the TM second to viral infections or bacterial infection Usually associated with middle-ear infection May extend into canal. Middle Ear Acute Otitis Media Viral respiratory infections cause inflammation of ET When ET is blocked, fluid collects in the middle ear.
The striking features of Waardenburg syndrome may include: premature graying hair, white forelock, fused eyebrows (synophrys), two different-colored eyes (heterochromia irides, usually bright blue and brown), widely-spaced eyes (hypertelorism), high nasal bridge, under-developed nose tip (hypoplastic alae nasia) and partial albinism.


Therefore any surgical procedure must aim to get clear excision margins, while preserving important local anatomical structures.
This involves making an incision behind the ear in order to gain access to the middle ear and mastoid bone.
Conductive hearing loss URI symptoms Vomiting, diarrhea Fever TM bulging and erythematous with decreased or poor light reflex. This usually involves removing the cholesteatoma itself, as well as the tympanic membrane and mastoid bone if they are involved.



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