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Dizziness is a term, which is difficult to define, and is often mistakenly used to describe feelings as imbalance, nausea, hypotension, weakness, double vision, blurred vision or discomfort.
To keep us in balance, to know what position we are in relation to the environment (lying, standing, leaning, legs straight, raised arms etc.) and whether we're standing or moving, we need to provide detailed information to the brain about our bodies. Proprioception, which is the brain's ability to recognize the spatial location of the body, its position and orientation, the force exerted by muscles and the position of each body part in relation to the other, without using vision. Within the inner ear we have an organ called the labyrinth that is part of the vestibular system responsible for maintaining balance.
Information passed through the maze by moving these liquids helps the brain to interpret angular movements, linear accelerations and gravitational forces. The characterization of a dizziness as vertigo is important because this is a typical symptom of diseases of the vestibular apparatus. As cited in the introduction to this text, vertigo is a type of dizziness where there is illusion of rotatory movements. An important sign of dizziness is the presence of nystagmus: involuntary, rapid eye movements and short, usually toward the side.


About 40% of cases of dizziness are due to diseases of the vestibular apparatus, 10% is due to brain injuries, 15% - psychiatric, 25% are not truly dizziness, but pre-syncope and imbalances, and 10% are of undetermined origin. Most cases of vertigo are self-limited and although the symptoms are quite uncomfortable, they do not bring risks. The movement of these fluids is interpreted by the brain helping to identify movements and keep us in balance.
Because when we stop running, despite already being stopped, the fluid within the inner ear are still in rotational movement for a few seconds, causing the brain to interpret that we are still running.
The most common causes of vertigo are the diseases that affect the inner ear asymmetrically, either calcified areas of the maze by inflammation, by infections, trauma or excess fluid in the vestibular apparatus.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, also called positional vertigo or positional vertigo is the most common cause of vertigo, is caused by calcification in small channels within the vestibular system. Labyrinthitis is caused by an inflammation of the labyrinth or vestibular branch of the auditory nerve that carries the information of the inner ear to the brain. Intoxication drugs may cause some injury to the inner ear, including cisplatin, phenytoin and the class of aminoglycoside antibiotics.


If we close our eyes, dizziness increases further, because your eyes open vision can mitigate the wrong message that's sending the inner ear to the brain.
Positional vertigo presents short duration (seconds to minutes) and is often triggered by certain head movements. The picture is more common in the elderly, in patients with a history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking and cardiovascular disease. Patients with labyrinthitis have a sudden onset of strong vertigo, associated with nausea, vomiting and difficulty in staying upright.
The vertigo usually worsens with head movements, which is a simple way to identify the type of dizziness that the patient presents. Meniere's disease Meniere's disease is caused by excess fluid in the labyrinth, causing vertigo, hearing loss and tinnitus.



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