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Emotions such as fear, anger, grief and many others can negatively affect us long after the original event that caused them. Stress has the power to make anyone acquire more sickness as the stress hormones attack the immune system at the first place hitting the internal energy of both body and mind. Have you been experiencing a downward spiral in your emotional well-being and a consequent effect somewhere in your body in the form of pain or discomfort? Mistrust, anxiety, and worry can lead to poor digestion and difficulty with regard to waste elimination.
Stress also becomes harmful when people use alcohol, tobacco, or drugs to try and relieve their stress.
Seventy-five percent to 90% of all doctor’s office visits are for stress-related ailments and complaints.
Stress can play a part in problems such as headaches, high blood pressure, heart problems, diabetes, skin conditions, asthma, arthritis, depression, and anxiety.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) declared stress a hazard of the workplace. The lifetime prevalence of an emotional disorder is more than 50%, often due to chronic, untreated stress reactions.
It's hard to imagine someone getting to adulthood without experiencing the pain of a broken heart. I remember the girl in high school who said, "I don't think so" when I called to ask her to the movies. There is actually something called broken heart syndrome, the name for sudden heart failure that comes on after emotional trauma. During a heart attack, the heart muscle is cut off from its supply of oxygen, either from a blockage or a spasm in one of the arteries that supplies blood. Many stressors can trigger the syndrome, according to a 2005 study by Johns Hopkins Hospital researchers published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The good news is that unlike a heart attack, broken heart syndrome is rarely fatal and most people make a full recovery.
Stress is normal as our life is full of challenges, deadlines, frustrations, and pressures. Adriana Galvan, a neuroscientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, is studying the effects of stress on brain function in adolescents. Chronic stress, which is the response to emotional pressure endured for a prolonged period which an individual recognizes they have no control over, directly affects the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, the parts of the brain responsible for attention and memory. Over prolonged periods of time, these changes in adolescents’ brain can influence their ability to make decisions. Teaching our kids how to effectively use social emotional intelligence as a tool will help them understand and manage emotional distress, learn better ways to deal with social situations, build and maintain meaningful relationships, and make responsible decisions..
Our young people are learning about human intent and motivation, how to deal with struggles and deal with accountability, irresponsibility and malevolence. Author: Divya Parekh (ACC, CPC, LL, MS) is an international career leadership coach, Head Career Coach at International Coach Academy, and CEO of The DP Group. Sign up for my newsletter below to download this powerful Special Report that will very likely change your life for the better … forever! Please be assured that we respect your privacy and will not sell or share your contact information to anyone, for any reason whatsoever. Missing Kidnapped, Abused, Hostage, Victim Man With Hands Tied Up With Rope In Emotional Stress And Pain, Afraid, Restricted, Trapped, Call For Help, Struggle, Terrified, Locked In A Cage Cell. Missing kidnapped, abused, hostage, victim man with hands tied up with rope in emotional stress and pain, afraid, restricted, trapped, call for help, struggle, terrified, locked in a cage cell. Hands of a missing kidnapped, abused, hostage, victim man tied up with rope in emotional stress and pain, afraid, restricted, trapped, call for help, struggle, terrified, locked in a cage cell. Hands of a missing kidnapped, abused, hostage, victim woman tied up with rope in emotional stress and pain, afraid, restricted, trapped, call for help, struggle, terrified, locked in a cage cell.
A missing kidnapped, abused, hostage, victim girl alone in emotional stress and pain, afraid, restricted, trapped, call for help, struggle, terrified, threaten, locked in a cage cell try to escape. Missing, kidnapped, abused, hostage, victim girl with hands tied up with rope in emotional stress and pain, afraid, restricted, trapped, call for help, struggle, terrified, locked in a cage cell.
Hands of a missing kidnapped, abused, hostage, victim woman in emotional stress and pain, afraid, restricted, trapped, call for help, struggle, terrified, locked in a cage cell.
Hands tied up with rope of a missing kidnapped, abused, hostage, victim woman in pain, afraid, restricted, trapped, call for help, struggle, terrified, threaten, locked in a cage cell.
All plans come as a Standard license, and can be upgraded to an Enhanced license at any time. When our body fails to  “let go” of these emotions we can find ourselves with unexplained aversions, self-sabotaging behaviours, destructive beliefs, phobias and many chronic physical problems! Though alternative medicine and even common belief dictates that mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual well-being are intertwined and what affects one component affects the others, too many people ignore their emotional health.
For instance, extreme stress has been known to cause gastric ulcers and high blood pressure even in people who do not have a family or past history of these conditions. Unfortunately, instead of relieving the stress and returning the body to a relaxed state, these substances tend to keep the body in a stressed state and cause more problems.
Then there was that high school dance when I'd finally gotten the courage up to ask a special girl to dance only to spot her across the room dancing with the guy who would become her boyfriend. It was first recognized by Japanese doctors in the 1990s who named it takotsubo cardiomyopathy after noting a resemblance between a Japanese octopus trap, a takotsubo, and the shape of the affected heart on X-ray. Broken heart syndrome, on the other hand, is thought to stem from a surge of hormones that impairs the ability of the heart muscle to pump. While stress can be productive, in that it can help us produce better work and meet our goals, too much stress is known to result in severe emotional and physical changes.
Of these hormones, adrenaline and cortisol are two that arrive on the scene, increasing the heart rate and blood pressure. Chronic stress is common in young people because for many, they are in the initial phase of life learning the skills needed to deal with life’s demands. Of course, the way a young person responds to stress is based on their previous experiences, making it all the more imperative to teach young people about social emotional intelligence.
There comes a point when young people begin to actively judge and address life’s dangers on their own. She assists executives, professionals, coaches and students plan, develop and achieve their career and leadership goals. Everyone who signs up gets full access to our entire library, including our curated collections. Our Standard license allows you to use images for anything, except large print runs over 500,000+ or for merchandising.
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In the pursuit of material security and the struggles to keep up with the pressures of a fast-paced life, individuals end up getting extremely stressed, sapped, and even depressed.
Such physical signs are a way of telling us that we need to sit up, take notice, and turn our lives around for the better. Stress becomes negative when a person faces continuous challenges without relief or relaxation between challenges.
You can use this list to note any symptoms which apply to you (i) right now; (ii)  at times in the past when things have been better, and (iii) to check again say in a couple of weeks from now. But on this Valentine's Day, I wanted to answer a question I've been asked: Is it really possible to die from broken heart?
And while the symptoms are similar to a heart attack - 1 to 2 percent of people who are diagnosed with a heart attack are really suffering from the broken heart syndrome - what's happening to the heart is quite different. Indeed, one person was struck down after being startled by their own surprise birthday party!
If you think you are having a heart attack after emotional stress, call 911, and keep broken heart syndrome in mind as a possibility. To ensure continued organisational performance and to maintain the competitive advantage, organisations must therefore constantly implement changes in strategy, structure, process and culture (Higgs, 2002; Langley, 2000). When the right amount of pressure is added, the marble turns into a masterpiece, however, when too much pressure is applied, the marble crumbles into pieces. We’ve heard for years that too much stress can cause damage to the heart and immune system, but what about areas of the brain?
Once the stressful situation has ceased, the brain stops the production of these hormones and eventually, the body returns to its natural state. Galvan’s new research showed that chronic stress also affects the adolescents’ amygdala, the part of their brain associated with aggression and anxiety. They are suddenly confronted with situations where they need to decide how to intervene – whether to use violence or counter violence – confrontations that require intense physical and emotional reactions. However, with the right skills, with the learned skills of social emotional intelligence, they can come out on top, be successful academically and socially, happier and less stressed. She has been recognized by Worldwide Who’s Who as ‘VIP of the Year’ for showing dedication, leadership and excellence in leadership coaching. If at any time you're unsatisfied with your experience with us, you can cancel your subscription. This way you can keep track of changes; watch for things getting better (good!) or getting worse (a sign that something in your life might need attention). You could guard yourself from situations that might one day lead to emotional pain, like being in love. Goleman (1998) proposes a solution of self-awareness as a key skill in handling stress, thereby indicating that a lack of emotional intelligence in such an unstable environment means possible failure that can impact on everyone's future.
The general aim of this research was to determine whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and stress management in a group of managers.
This was done through a quantitative study of the relationship between stress management and emotional intelligence. These constructs were operationalised by means of a combination of scales present in the Feelings and Emotions domain of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32i) and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On EQ-i).


The correlation and regression results seem to indicate that stress management (the ability to cope with stress) is a component of emotional intelligence, while stress can be either an input or an outflow of emotional intelligence or the lack thereof.
Furthermore, the restructuring of organisations, ongoing technological revolutions, market changes, higher levels of unemployment, deregulation, privatisation, mergers, acquisitions, the movement of labour towards less expensive economic locations and the empowerment of consumers, coupled with changes in demand patterns, create added pressures in the working environment. As a result, organisations constantly have to implement changes in strategy, structure, process and culture to ensure continued organisational performance and to maintain the competitive advantage (Higgs, 2002; Langley, 2000).
Significant challenges to and forces on South African organisations are the introduction of new business strategies and new management systems, increases in labour costs, changes in technology and government policy (Vermeulen, 2002).
However, organisations tend to focus on the symptoms of stress and not the causes and this can exacerbate the stressful situations in which managers may find themselves (Rees, 1997).
Self-awareness is thus a key skill in handling stress, as are emotional intelligence competencies, such as stress management and adaptability. A lack of emotional intelligence in such an unstable environment means possible failure and this can impact on everyone's future (Bar-On, 1997; Goleman, 1998). Individuals with higher emotional clarity and repair experience fewer negative emotional responses and intrusive thoughts after an acute stressor, which enables them to adapt more readily to the experience (Ramos, Fernandez-Berrocal & Extremera, 2007).
It can therefore be advantageous to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and stress in an attempt to assist managers in their development and stress management. Developers of management programmes should be encouraged to incorporate findings on emotional intelligence and stress management in their course material so as to alleviate stress in organisations (Mikolajczak & Luminet, 2008). Studies conducted with nurses and nursing students show that emotional intelligence is a skill that minimises the negative stress consequences. The results indicate positive correlations between clarity and social support, social support and repair, and social support and well-being. Clarity and emotional repair are predictors of social support and emotional repair is the main predictor of well-being. These results show the importance of perceived emotional intelligence in stress management (Montes-Berges & Augusto, 2007). However, 'it is worth acknowledging that we are only beginning to learn about emotional intelligence' (Mayer, Cobb & Casey, 2000a, p.
278) and therefore 'future research will clarify the importance of specific, social, emotional and practical skills for adaptation over the life course' (Lopes & Salovey, 2004, p. Emotions within an individual, both positive and negative, arise from a response to either an internal or an external event.
Emotions can be distinguished from the closely related concept of moods in that emotions are shorter and generally more intense. It is apparent that the evolution of the definition of emotional intelligence is echoed in the various definitions of these constructs. The construct of affective orientation refers to the extent to which people are aware of their emotions. The construct of emotional competence is defined as a demonstration of capacity and skill in eliciting emotional-social transactions and is regarded more as a transaction than a characteristic. The definitions of alexithymia, affective orientation and emotional competence parallel the definition of emotional intelligence, incorporating the aspects of thinking, feeling, being aware and expressing emotions as defined by Mayer and Salovey (1997) and Goleman (1998). The construct of social intelligence incorporates the ability to think, feel and behave in order to achieve social tasks while functioning in a social environment.
The construct of psychological mindedness is more encompassing and refers to the desire to learn the possible meanings and causes of both internal and external experiences as well as to the ability to look inwards rather than only outwards at environmental factors, thus allowing the conceptualisation of the relationship across thoughts, feelings and actions within an environment. The constructs of social intelligence and psychological mindedness are therefore closer to the definition of emotional intelligence as defined by Bar-On (1997) below because they incorporate the concepts of thinking, feeling and actions within a certain environment. Additional influence on this thinking can be traced to Thorndike's description of social intelligence and its importance for human performance (1920) and to Wechsler's observations relating to the impact of non-cognitive and conative factors on what he refers to as 'intelligent behaviour' (1940; 1943). Sifneos' description of alexithymia (1967) on the pathological end of the emotional-social intelligence (ESI) continuum and Appelbaum's conceptualisation of psychological mindedness (1973) on the eupsychic end of this continuum have also impacted on the ongoing development of the Bar-On model (Bar-On, 2006).
According to this model, ESI is a cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate to them, and cope with daily demands. The emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators referred to in this conceptualisation include the five key components described above, each of these components, in turn, also comprising a number of closely related competencies, skills and facilitators. Consistent with this model, to be emotionally and socially intelligent is effectively to understand and express oneself, to understand and relate well to others, and to cope successfully with daily demands, challenges and pressures.
This is based, first and foremost, on one's intrapersonal ability to be aware of one's feelings, to understand one's strengths and weaknesses and to express one's feelings and thoughts non-destructively. On the interpersonal level, being emotionally and socially intelligent encompasses the ability to be aware of others' emotions, feelings and needs and to establish and maintain cooperative, constructive and mutually satisfying relationships. Ultimately, being emotionally and socially intelligent means to manage personal, social and environmental change effectively by realistically and flexibly coping with the immediate situation, solving problems and making decisions. To do this, people need to manage emotions so that their emotions work for them and not against them and to be sufficiently optimistic, positive and self-motivated (Bar-On, 2006). The researcher has adapted the model to a table format in Figure 1 to facilitate reading (Bar-On, 2000, p.
According to McCallum & Piper (2000), the model proposed by Bar-On is perhaps the clearest and most comprehensive to date. The art of emotional leadership includes the completion of real work demands without unduly upsetting others (Goleman et al., 2002). One of the oldest laws in psychology holds that, beyond a moderate level, increases in anxiety and worry erode mental abilities. Distress not only wears away at mental abilities but also makes people less emotionally intelligent (Yang & Gu, 2007).
People who are upset thus have trouble reading emotions in others accurately, thereby decreasing their social skills. Another consideration is that, according to a new finding on job satisfaction, the emotions that people feel while they work reflect their quality of work - when people feel good, they work at their best with increased levels of mental efficiency and hence demonstrate a more positive outlook.
Early studies show that, when people have a drive for power, that very desire for power has the same arousing effect as that of being under actual biological stress. When a person's stress levels increase, however, the body's stress hormones are released, thus hampering learning. Furthermore, those who react with hardiness and who see work as exciting and as a chance to develop rather than seeing work as an enemy bear the burden of stress much better, indicating that, with the right emotional resources, that which seems threatening can be handled as a challenge and can be met with energy and enthusiasm (Goleman, 1998). The term 'stress' refers to a pressure or demand that is placed on an organism to adapt or adjust (Nevid, Rathus & Greene, 2005). In essence, stress is any event that places a demand on the body, whether mentally or physically. Furthermore, implicit in most descriptions of coping is the notion of effectiveness (Matthews & Zeidner, 2000). Coping involves cognitive and behavioural strategies and represents either an adjustment to a situation or an adjustment of a situation. Coping is regarded as successful if the source of the problem is dealt with or if the experience of the stress is directly reduced.
This view is supported by the developers of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ), which indicates that certain combinations of extreme OPQ dimensions can be indicative of a generalised vulnerability and increased susceptibility to the negative effects of stress.
Conversely, a greater degree of resilience can be inferred from the opposite trends in scores (bipolar). This relates to findings described by the 'Hardy Personality' and 'Type A and B' behaviour.
From these dimensions, it can be deduced that the following OPQ traits are applicable: 'relax', 'worrying', 'tough minded', 'optimistic' and 'socially confident'. Some might see something as a devastating threat, while others might view it as an invigorating challenge. With the right emotional resources, what might seem threatening can be viewed instead as a challenge and be met with enthusiasm, thus allowing the brain to generate different chemicals.
Chemicals that respond to stress and threat are different from those that respond to enthusiasm (Goleman, 1998). Simultaneously, cortisol is secreted, which lasts even longer than adrenaline and, in addition, interferes with learning. This is exacerbated when stress is high and sustained as cortisol secretion continues, hampering learning by destroying essential brain cells in the hippocampus (Goleman et al., 2002).
The literature provided the following insights on the impact of the two constructs on the functioning of the manager or leader and on her or his subordinates. Such negative emotions, especially chronic anger, anxiety or a sense of futility, can cause a disruption of work and of the task at hand. This can result in employees who are not upbeat and who do not have the drive to ensure customer satisfaction, which, in turn, can result in declining revenues. It tends to make them feel more optimistic and enhances their mental efficiency, ensuring better understanding of information, flexible thinking, the ability to use good judgement in decision making, and creativity (Goleman et al., 2002). In the modern organisation, this primordial emotional task - although, by now, largely invisible - remains foremost among the many jobs of leadership in that it drives collective emotions in a positive direction and clears the atmosphere created by negative emotions (Hopkins, O'Neil & Williams, 2007). Quite simply, in any human group, the leader has maximum power to sway everyone's emotions. If people's emotions are pushed towards the range of enthusiasm, performance can soar; if people are driven towards chaos and anxiety, they can become unsettled.
When they drive emotions negatively, they cause dissonance, undermining the emotional foundations that allow people to excel. Whether an organisation withers or flourishes depends to a remarkable extent on the leader's effectiveness in this primal emotional dimension (Goleman et al., 2002). Understanding emotions includes the ability to recognise relationships between emotions, to determine the meanings that emotions convey, to understand complex feelings and to recognise how emotions change from one state to another. Understanding emotions is the ability that provides a leader with the information on what makes people tick.
This is the ability that provides a leader with an understanding of other people's points of view (Caruso, Mayer & Salovey, 2002).
Distress not only erodes mental abilities but also makes people less emotionally intelligent. People who are upset have trouble reading emotions in other people accurately - decreasing the most basic skill needed for empathy and, as a result, impairing their social skills (Goleman et al., 2002).


Keeping our distressing emotions in check is the key to emotional well-being (Goleman, 1995) and successful coping with stressful encounters is central to any construct of emotional intelligence (Matthews & Zeidner, 2000).
The realised sample, however, was 105 due to a lack of response from some employees, resignations, incomplete information and employees who declined to partake in the study.
This method of sampling falls under the category of non-probability sampling, which means that the probability of a respondent being chosen is unknown. The advantage of the method is that it is not complicated and allows one to draw information from respondents who are available at the time. The disadvantage is that, as a result, the final sample may not be fully representative and results may not be entirely generalisable to the population from which the sample is drawn (Babbie, 1986; Bailey, 1987). The normative item set was used in addition to the scale descriptions as an indicator of the ipsative item content. This helped to ensure the similarity of content between the ipsative and normative questionnaires.
In each block of four, the task is to choose the item 'most like you' and the item 'least like you' (SHL, 1999b). The item pattern is balanced to ensure that items from one scale will only be in the same block of four as an item from any other scale once or twice throughout the whole questionnaire (SHL, 2006). A parallel-form estimate of reliability requires two versions of a questionnaire that measure the same constructs through the same approach. Although two versions of the OPQ32i do not exist, SHL conducted this measure using the OPQ32n because both the OPQ32n and the OPQ32i attempt to measure the same constructs (SHL, 1999b). Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used as a method of assessing internal consistency, with high values indicating a greater degree of accuracy in the scores, as well as generally more homogeneous scale content (SHL, 1999b). If reliability drops below 0.7 for abilities, however, scores become less stable and differentiate less effectively (SHL, 2006). The OPQ32 questionnaires have good face validity for occupational use, as the relevance of the questions and the scales to the style of performance can be seen by both candidates and managers (SHL, 2006). The inductive approach, which is more conducive to content validity, was used to develop the OPQ questionnaires. Furthermore, job analytical techniques were used to define the domains to be measured, resulting in high content validity (SHL, 2006). Many criterion-validity studies are based on the OPQ Concept model rather than on the OPQ32 instruments (SHL, 1999b). The criterion-related results of the OPQ32 questionnaires are thus supported by the Concept model studies (SHL, 2006). This is the most abstract form of validity and, from a theoretical point of view, the most basic. In order to build a picture of construct validity, many forms of evidence are required, including the forms of validity discussed above and the intercorrelation patterns of scales within the questionnaire, factor structures, and correlations with other instruments. The focus of such evidence can be either convergent evidence (relationships occurring where expected) or divergent evidence (the absence of relationships where not expected) (SHL, 1999b). Based on the OPQ32n scale intercorrelations, factor analysis was performed for the general population (n = 2028). Five factors (as per the Big 5 model of personality), namely extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience and conscientiousness, were extracted, explaining 48% of the total variance in the data set.
What has been developed is a theoretically eclectic and multi-factorial approach to describe operationally and assess quantitatively the complex interrelated concepts of the non-cognitive competencies and skills that influence one's ability to cope with life and to achieve psychological well-being (Van Rooyen & Partners, 2000). It renders a total EQ score, consisting of five composite scale scores namely (1) the intrapersonal composite scale, (2) the interpersonal composite scale, (3) the adaptability composite scale, (4) the stress-management composite scale and (5) the general-mood composite scale, comprising fifteen subscale scores (Bar-On, 2000).
Two South African groups were re-tested, one group after one month and the second after four months. This is an important feature for self-report measures in that it reduces the distorting effects of social-response bias, thereby increasing the accuracy of the results obtained (Bar-On, 2000).
These studies resulted in the EQ-i demonstrating good construct validity, more than adequate convergent validity, and more than satisfactory predictive validity and divergent validity. With respect to discriminant validity, it was observed that the EQ-i was successful in making significant and often fine differentiations among levels of coping with environmental demands, pressures and general emotional functioning for the population studies.
Research on special groups is pertinent to criterion validity and the profiles of various groups were therefore all considered for criterion-group validity. With regard to content and face validity, numerous series of item analyses were conducted to select the best items for inclusion in the final form of the inventory. The reliability of the data resides in the fact that the psychometric instruments were administered in a controlled test environment and were scored according to the procedures dictated by the providers of the psychometric instruments.
In commencing the data collection, the researchers obtained a list of the individuals from the relevant psychometric Assessment Department in the managerial group that was required to complete the OPQ32i and EQ-i.
The researchers contacted the participants to ensure their completion of both the OPQ32i and the EQ-i. This method was used to test whether the relationship between stress management and emotional intelligence was positive and statistically significant.
Multiple regression, using the step-wise method of regression, was calculated only where the independent variables that contributed significantly to predicting the dependent variable were included in the regression model.
The method was used to test whether the prediction of stress management was increased when sub-scales of emotional intelligence were combined. It can be observed that the average age of the sample, less the age data of the two individuals, which were not available, is 36.00. The medium-effect size difference between the two groups with regard to the worrying scale indicates that the sample tends to worry less than the norm group. The means of four of the five total scales, namely total intrapersonal scales, total adaptability scales, total stress-management scales and total general-mood scales, are above 100, with the lowest scale (98.75) being the interpersonal scale. The mean of the EQ-i is 100, indicating that the total interpersonal scale is below the mean of the norm group and thus implying that the subscales of empathy, social responsibility and interpersonal relations for the sample group tend to be lower compared to those of the norm group. Seven variables determined the variance of the worrying scale of the stress-management scale, namely stress tolerance, assertiveness, impulse control, empathy, reality testing, emotional self-awareness and self-regard. These data parallel the results of the correlation data, where a significant correlation was obtained between the worrying scales of stress management and 12 of the emotional-intelligence scales.
With the exception of the problem-solving, impulse-control and flexibility scales, the remainder of the results of the multiple regressions parallel those of the correlation studies above. These results confirm our hypothesis, which states that a combination of the emotional-intelligence scales, rather than each on its own, leads to a stronger and more significant prediction of the relaxed scale, worrying scale, tough-minded scale, optimistic scale and socially confident scale. The 'individual characteristics, skills, abilities to meet the demands and cognitive appraisal or interpretation of the situation' reflect the mental and mixed models of emotional intelligence, while the 'demands on the person or perceived stressors' and 'the outcomes of the behaviour (psychological, physiological, disease and observable behaviour)' reflect the stress aspect of stress. In evaluating the relationship between emotional intelligence and stress management, the researchers are thus of the opinion that stress management (the ability to cope with stress) is a component of emotional intelligence, while stress can be either an input or an outflow of emotional intelligence or the lack thereof. The results support the researchers' view that stress management, which is coping with stress by being 'optimistic' and 'socially confident', is a component of emotional intelligence, while 'worry' can be either an input or an outflow of emotional intelligence or a lack thereof. In the researchers' opinion, their research therefore contributes to the growing understanding of the many facets of emotional intelligence. It is recommended that such research be conducted with a larger sample size to make the results more generalisable to a larger population. These findings are very relevant, as the sample group comprised a managerial group, which has a significant influence on staff morale. The findings are (1) the development of emotional intelligence as a skill for coping with stress, (2) a more in-depth use of psychometric instruments, namely the OPQ32i and the EQ-i, to ascertain developmental areas in the arenas of stress management and (3) the development of the levels of empathy, social responsibility and interpersonal relationships of the sample group. It is therefore recommended that emotional intelligence be developed as a skill to aid in coping with stress. Ideally, this should lead to a solid understanding of emotional intelligence and better management of stress.
It is recommended that further intercorrelated studies be conducted with these two instruments to conceptualise a more focused and rigorous development programme for the group of managers in order to target specific developmental areas in the arenas of stress management and emotional intelligence.
For instance, the OPQ32i could indicate that a person has a tendency towards lower levels of social confidence on the OPQ32i scales and lower levels of assertiveness on the EQ-i scales. This would indicate that the person should attend assertiveness training, which might contribute to boosting her or his social-confidence levels and hence enhancing levels of emotional intelligence and allowing for better stress management.
These should be included in the development plans of the sample group to facilitate personal growth. The areas of empathy and social responsibility could be cultivated by exposing managers to more community work under the banner of the organisation, simultaneously promoting the organisation's commitment to community development. Alternatively, managers could work within the organisation, alternating between the department that deals with the well-being of employees and their own departments.
This would enhance interpersonal skills, although the researchers are of the opinion that courses targeted to develop interpersonal skills, added to practical experience, would be more beneficial.
There's more to the picture than meets the eye: A comparison of downsizing survivors with changed and unchanged job content.
Research on the emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and achievement motivation of business managers. Emotional intelligence and manement development implications: Insights from the Lebanese context.
Trait emotional intelligence and the cognitive appraisal of stressful events: An exploratory study. Explaining the protective effect of trait emotional intelligence regarding occupational stress: Exploration of emotional labour processes.
Exploring the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence, coping, social support and mental health in nursing students.
Perceived emotional intelligence facilitates cognitiveemotional processes of adaptation to an acute stressor. A comparison of reasons and objectives for organisational downsizing in South Africa and Australia.



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