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DESCRIPTION: During the late Middle Ages a Venetian by the name of Giovanni Leardo compiled a series of wall-maps that were based, in their general arrangements, upon earlier cartographic designs. The oldest, as well as the crudest and simplest, of these four Leardo maps is preserved in the Biblioteca Communale Library at Verona, Italy and carries the date 1442. Commentaria in somnium Scipionis, 20:20, a treatise by Macrobius, gives the diameter of the earth as 80,000 stades, which might, if converted into Arabic miles, be approximately 6,857 miles of Leardo, other figures are even more at odds.
The astronomical details are followed in the third paragraph by the explanation of the calendar. The second circle shows the names of the months, beginning with March, which was officially reckoned the first month of the year in the Republic of Venice until as late as 1797; it also tells the day, hour, and minute when the sun enters each of the twelve signs of the zodiac. The seventh circle gives the dominical, or Sunday, letters; these are indicated opposite the days of the month (fourth circle) on which Sunday falls in the years designated by the first letters (seven) of the alphabet. The four figures in the spaces between the calendar and the outer edge of the parchment represent the four evangelists: the lion for St. Leardo draws a circular landmass, or oikoumene [known world], surrounded by a narrow strip of water. In its orientation, with East and the Terrestrial Paradise at the top and with Jerusalem at the center, the map follows the Christian tradition of the earlier Middle Ages, hence the long axis of the Mediterranean runs vertically up the southern half of the disk. Later medieval contacts between Europe and remote lands are revealed in names derived from Western travelers such as Marco Polo who had visited the Far East, as well as in the Arabic names in Asia and Africa.
In contrast to the earlier medieval cartography, such as the T-O maps (Book II, #205) that were symbolically drawn, in the Leardo map the contours of the Mediterranean and of Western Europe are surprisingly well drawn and easily recognizable, obviously being based upon sea-charts known as portolanos.
This Leardo map, which was painted on parchment, displays the seas as a uniform blue color, with of course the exception of the Red Sea that is appropriately colored. Winds blowing from the four cardinal and four intermediate points of the compass are shown by eight faces around the edge of the disk.
Although decorative, the Leardo map lacks many of the pictorial elements such as animals, birds, preposterous monsters that enliven the blank spaces on other medieval maps. Among the existing maps dating from the 14th and early 15th centuries this Leardo map of 1452 is very closely related to the group of maps drawn by the famous Catalan cartographers of Majorca in the Balearic Islands. A brief discussion of each of the four major geographical areas, Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean and Europe, will reveal some of the salient points of this map as outlined in the enclosed numbered sketch-map (from J.K. ASIA: In the extreme north (left-hand side) there is a large structure that looks like an Italian church with its campanile (#13).
South of the sepulcher can be seen the River Volga (items #6, #7) flowing into the northwestern corner of the Caspian (item #250). Farther east, beyond a row of six castles representing towns on the borderlands of China (#35-40), we come to a gulf of the encircling ocean and to a great system of mountains.
Immediately west of the statues appears Mount Tanacomedo (item #48), apparently Leardo copied Montana Comedorum from a Ptolemaic map, combining the last part of the first word with the first part of the last. In central Asia there are two rivers entering the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, the Jaxartes (item #117) and the Oxus (item #118). The Tigris and Euphrates (#165, #166) join, reaching the Persian Gulf (#267) as a single stream flowing between two large edifices that represent Susiana (#172) and Babylonia (#173). The most prominent feature in Arabia is Mecca (#211), a large domed and towered building in good Italian Renaissance style and presumably representing a mosque.
AFRICA: On Leardoa€™s map, this continent, like that of the Catalan-Estense map, has a very unusual shape (see outline map comparisons below). THE MEDITERRANEAN: The outlines of the Mediterranean (#433) and Black Seas (#431) are more correct than any other features which Leardo draws. Leardoa€™s place-names along the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts are all derived from the portolan charts, although Leardo wrote names only where it was easy to do so without crowding.
The maps vary among themselves, but all are oriented with East and Paradise at the top and Jerusalem in the center.
The computus and theological framework of the Leardo maps show their purpose: to illustrate the totality of Goda€™s creation in both space and time. Crivellari, Giuseppe, Alcuni cimeli della cartografia medievale e sistenti a Verona (Firenze: B. Crivellari, Giuseppe, Alcuni cimeli della cartografia medievaleesistenti a Verona (Firenze: B.
Wright, John Kirtland, The Leardo Map of the World, 1452 or 1453, in the Collections of the American Geographical Society (New York: American Geographical Society, 1928).
NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897).
NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897), pp. Uzielli, Gustavo and Amat di Filippo, Pietro, Mappamondi, carte nautiche, portolani ed altre monumenti cartografici specialmente italiani dei secoli XIII-XVII, 2nd ed.
American Geographical Society 1928 (colored, original size) The World Encompassed: an exhibition of the history of maps, Plate V. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Genoese world map, 1457 (New York: American Geographical Society and Hispanic Society of America, 1912), Plate 56.
Stevenson, Edward Luther, Genoese world map, 1457 (New York: American Geographical Society and Hispanic Society of America, 1912), 56. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Descriptions of early maps, originals and facsilimes (1452-1611) (New York, 1921), 1, no. Wright, John Kirtland, The Leardo map of the world, 1452 or 1453, in the collections of the American Geographical Society (New York, 1928). Leardo draws a circular landmass, or oikoumene [known world], surrounded by a narrow strip of water.A  One cannot, however, question his belief in the sphericity of the earth, for otherwise he would hardly have held the views expressed in the panel below the calendar. Although decorative, the Leardo map lacks many of the pictorial elements such as animals, birds, preposterous monsters that enliven the blank spaces on other medieval maps.A  With the exception of the eight wind faces and the symbolic figures of the evangelists no living creatures, whether animals or men, are graphically represented.
A brief discussion of each of the four major geographical areas,A  Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean and Europe, will reveal some of the salient points of this map as outlined in the enclosed numbered sketch-map (from J.K. In central Asia there are two rivers entering the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, the Jaxartes (item #117) and the Oxus (item #118).A  The Lake of Aral, in which these great streams actually have their outlet, seems to have been wholly unknown to the geographers both of antiquity and of medieval Europe.
The most prominent feature in Arabia is Mecca (#211), a large domed and towered building in good Italian Renaissance style and presumably representing a mosque.A  Several corrupted Turkish place-names, along with classical names appear in Asia Minor.
The Indian Ocean is filled with yellow and red islands.A A  A legend asserting that pepper and spice are found in these islands (#275) comes from Marco Poloa€™s description of the East Indian archipelago. Like most medieval cartographers, Leardo makes the Nile (#312) rise in West Africa (#338).A A  In this he follows Herodotus, Pliny, Mela and other ancient authorities. AUGUST 2013 If this message is corrupted or you are unable to view images please click here. According to the results of International Cedar Nut Processors Association the company Ringing Cedars of Russia is Number One for producing the Best Quality Products!


Indeed, at the moment of the collapse of the Soviet Union, when the exchange rate of the national currency had been devalued by ten times, the savings of the population had vanished, and the government had nothing with which to pay wages, the people were not left hungry, there was no general uprising, and the country did not collapse completely thanks to the fact that the majority of the population had parcels of land under cultivation, parcels of land called dachas. At first, the parcels were transferred through companies to their workers and office employees to use for an indefinite period after the employees had worked at the company for five years from the time of receiving the parcel. The peak of the dacha boom was in the 1980s, when problems with food became evident in the country. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, land passed completely over to private ownership, the various types of conditions and restrictions fell away.
Dachniks first planted fruit and berry trees in the middle and along the borders of their parcel, and bushes along the perimeter, which served as a fence.
What kind of harvest can be obtained from a dacha parcel plot six ares in size [an "are" is one-hundredth of a hectare, or 100 square metres]?
It should be mentioned that dachniks also love collecting wild mushrooms and berries in the adjacent forests. Also during the crisis in the post-Soviet period, people took additional land for potatoes. The dacha movement was and is one of the most widespread and popular movements in the Soviet Union and in post-Soviet Russia. Some believe that the dacha movement is fading away, and that modern youth is not interested in the land. At a distance of 50 kilometres from Togliatti on the great Volga River, we, together with Anastasia and God, conceived the idea of creating a Space of Love, restoring the fertility of the soils, planting forest and fruit trees, planting flowers, improving the landscapes, creating water reservoirs, breeding fish, welcoming birds and wild and domestic animals, and beginning a new life. The main purpose of our settlement is the creation of a kin's domain, a harmonious interrelation with nature, deliberate work for the benefit of our offspring and Homeland, the passing on of the heritage of our Ancestors and our experience to our Successors in our family, the fostering of love for our Mother Earth, respect for work and for the other settlers. As of today, 795 hectares of land have been purchased, making allowance for the development of the village and agricultural activity. The farmyard was due for re-development and the area was considered to have high potential for surviving archaeology.
After several weeks digging, the team had gathered information that reflected a long history of activity on the site.
The nature of the geology was very suitable for the ULAS team, who, used to the more heavy soils of the region, were enjoying the sandy conditions.
ULAS would like to thank the many site staff involved in the project, without whom it could not have been completed successfully: Jennifer Browning, Sandie Bush, Chris Clay, Lynden Cooper, Michael Derrick, Anthony Gnanaratnam, Cain Hegarty, Tim Higgins, Andrew Hyam, Wayne Jarvis, Keith Johnson, Steve Jones, Dawn Keen, Roger Kipling, Barry Martin, Matt Parker, John Thomas and volunteers Michael Hawkes, Clare Kelly-Blazeby, George Marchant and Jen Wooding.
The project also benefited considerably from the input of the various specialists involved: Roger Jacobi and Gill Cook (British Museum), Andy Currant (Natural History Museum), Simon Collcutt (Oxford Arch. Ear infection occurs mostly in summer months when people indulge in water related activities.
All of the four world maps attributed to Leardo have characteristic features of both the T-O diagrams of Isidore (Book II, #205), and the zonal maps of Macrobius (Book II, #201).
This map does share a special feature with the others, namely the exceptional addition of a series of rings surrounding the circular map-disk, which constitute an elaborate calendar. In the third circle the first nineteen letters of the alphabet represent, in order, the years of the Metonic Luni-solar cycle. From this we see that the vernal equinox fell on March 11, inasmuch as the calendar was constructed before the Gregorian reform.
Other features reflecting the religious or scriptural influence are Noaha€™s Ark resting on top of Mt.
In most cases the names have been written upon the vignettes themselves; since the latter are also colored pink or green, the letters are frequently obscured and quite illegible. Those to the north, northwest and northeast are blue, suggesting cold blasts from these quarters; the other faces are ruddy.
In its general outlines it is so similar to the Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246) that we may assume a common cartographic ancestor of recent vintage. The gulf (item #11), which contains three islands, appears in almost the same position and form on the Estense map, where there is a legend explaining that on the islands griffons and falcons are found and that the natives are not allowed to kill them without the permission of the Grand Khan of the Tatars.
In the 12th century, reports spread through Europe of the vast realm of a fabulous Christian monarch in the heart of Asia. The least successful portion of Leardoa€™s Mediterranean coast is that of Spain: the shore here is unduly elongated as compared with that of the Catalan-Estense map, Barcelona (#475) and Ampurias (#476) being placed too far northeast on what ought to be the French shore line. The Red Sea is red, Gog and Magog are confined in the northeast, along with griffins and cannibals, and Noaha€™s Ark and Mt.
Modern features are included where that can be done without violating the integrity of the model, but the basic format is the traditional one. However, Leardo does not specify the years to which the dominical letters in his calendar refer. Furthermore, his two legends relating to the fiery and frozen deserts echo a theory that was propounded in classical times and based upon the hypothesis of a spherical earth. Wrighta€™s analysis).A  For a more detailed account of all of the numbered features of this outline map see Wrighta€™s monograph. A  Marco Polo adds that at the time of the funeral of Mongol Khan 20,000 persons were thus slain. This mis-location error is also to be found on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235) and the Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246). Many of the place-names in India correspond with those of the Catalan maps and in turn were derived from Marco Polo.A  The scene of St. Moslem scholars, however, were aware of its existence.A  Leardo places the castles of Organa and of Organzia [Urganj] (items #120, #121) at the mouth of the Jaxartes and his place-name Orcania (item #132) on the Oxus. The largest of these islands, lying off the coast of India, is marked Taprobana (#269) and probably represents Sumatra. Ptolemy, however, seems to have had a more correct view, placing the sources of the river in the Mountains of the Moon in eastern Africa. This is probably because of failure on the part of the makers of the original portolan charts to take into consideration the declination of the compass. In 2013 the new law was passed permitting dachniks to assign addresses to their dachas and list their dachas as their official place of residence. A small scatter of Mesolithic flints, a Bronze Age pit and the ditches, pits and post holes of more than 400 years of Medieval activity all highlighted the suitability of the area for occupation. The brightness of the sandy subsoil also helped in the definition of the dull brown archaeological features. It was possible, because of the recent use of the site as a farmyard, that the bones were the remains of a fairly recent animal burial. The most common causes are extreme cold conditions, excessive exposure to water through activities like swimming, scuba diving etc.
In the case of infants, during bottle feeding sometimes allows fluid to collect in the throat near the Eustachian tube which connects the ear and the throat.


When children are forced to drink milk it can enter the middle and external ear canal and cause inflammation.
When children suffer from sinusitis, cold or cough the infection travels to the ear as the microorganisms multiply and spread across the inner ear. Avoid exposure to cold and chill conditions such as rain and sudden change in temperature etc. Consume liberal amounts of ginger, garlic and onion both internally and externally to get relief from ear ache. However, Leardoa€™s use of a more precise delineation of the Mediterranean area based upon contemporary nautical or portolano charts and place names culled from the accounts of medieval travelers to the Far East, combine to make these maps significant improvements over many of the more stylized mappaemundi of the period. The third, from 1448, is somewhat more elaborate in design and belongs to the Museo Civico at Vicenza. The description and explanation of these rings or circles is found as part of a broader text in the frame or panel located below the map itself. He mis-quotes the Nicene Creed and runs the Trinity and the person of Christ together as if they were the same thing. These years were usually designated by the golden numbers, but before the Gregorian reform letters were frequently employed in place of the numbers. Islands are tinted either red or yellow, with green patches in the interior of Great Britain and Ireland. There are certain legends and place names that are found on one and not the other, however, their real similarity lies in their coastal outlines.
This is also from Marco Polo, who writes that a€?the islands where these birds are bred lie so far north that the North Star is left behind you in the southa€?.
Briefly, this theory, ascribed to Crates of Mallos (#113, Book I), states that around the equatorial circumference of the globe is a fiery zone so intensely hot that no man can cross it. Islands are tinted either red or yellow, with green patches in the interior of Great Britain and Ireland.A  The only other natural features depicted are mountains, rivers and lakes, although certain deserts are mentioned in legends. The actual place of burial of the Mongol Khans was in Cathay, far away from northern Russia where Leardo, following the model of Catalan maps, draws it.A  European cartographers of the 14th and 15th centuries seem to have known and cared little about the relative positions of places in Asia; as Italian merchants by this time had established contacts with the Mongols in southern Russia, what was more natural than to place the Mongol overlorda€™s tomb in the hinterland of the Black Sea? Thomasa€™ mission and of the early introduction of Christianity into India is indicated by the inscription: Here preached St.
The remains of a large Anglo-Saxon cemetery, as well as Bronze Age cremations had been revealed and hastily recorded during the quarrying.
This constant attraction over time must, in no small part, have been due to the ridge top location of the site, which could have been a well-used route of communication for centuries. However there was something distinctly odd about the whole deposit, which could not be ignored. The inscription on this particular Leardo map is somewhat awkwardly phrased in the Venetian dialect of the 15th century; but, although the beginning of each line is missing, the meaning is fairly clear, especially when certain of the missing lines are reconstructed from the corresponding inscription on the map in Vicenza of 1448. This passage is followed by a statement that the map shows how the land and islands stand in relation to the seas and how the many provinces and mountains and principal rivers are distributed on the land.
Leardo explains that C (golden number 10) stands for 1453, D for 1454, and so on until T is reached, after which we begin over again at A. Sinai, the exaggerated length of the River Jordan and an inscription in the far northeast referring to Gog and Magog.
The mountains southeast of the gulf make an enclosure shaped something like a A? (items #42-47).
Within this conventional structure, however, Leardo has found it possible to incorporate some modern material.
Here there was more available space than in the Far East, and here also, on the Leardo map, the Grand Khana€™s tomb could be made symmetrically to provide balance for Prester Johna€™s palace on the other side of the map in Africa (item #299). The latter stream represents, perhaps, a combination of the Niger and Senegal, of which some faint knowledge may have been gained through traders who had crossed the Sahara. The site was also situated within the historic core of the village, which had been recorded in the Domesday survey. Cautious excavation of the area revealed many more bones some of which were extremely large and, sitting in the midst of the whole assemblage, a beautifully crafted flint blade.
Then, on the asserted authority of Macrobius, a very excellent astrologer and geometrician, figures are given for the dimensions of the earth and various heavenly bodies.
Nothing daunted, most of the 15th century cartographers who used the writings of Ptolemy boldly transferred the Mountains of the Moon to West Africa to suit their theory of the rivera€™s course. The Mediterranean and Black Seas are drawn according to the model of the sea chart, though the mapa€™s small size does not allow for many place-names, and the winds are eight, in seaman fashion, rather than the classical twelve. The Iron Gate was built by Alexander in the wall enclosing Gog and Magog, and the statues represent trumpeters set up to keep guard over these unclean hordes. The lower Nile is joined by the River Stapus (#313), doubtless the Astapus of Ptolemy or the modern Blue Nile. At this point the alarm bells started ringing and the whole assemblage was rushed back to the University where the reality of what had been discovered began to sink in.
These estimates are quite fanciful, bearing little relation to the corresponding figures actually cited by Macrobius.
Ptolemaic names appear, especially in Africa, where the Nile flows from the Mountains of the Moon, located in West Africa.
On the Catalan-Estense map this tributary rises in the Terrestrial Paradise, there placed in East Africa.
To the mountain range of North Africa, the Carena of the Catalan maps, Leardo has added Ptolemaic names.
The southern region is described as uninhabitable due to the heat and is colored red on all three maps. Africa is indented by a deep gulf on either side, while the southern part of the continent is fanned out as it is on the Catalan Modena map (#246), producing an Indian Ocean with an opening to the east. The Persian Gulf runs from east to west, cutting off the Arabian peninsula on the north, while the Red Sea has a right-angle bend in it, oriented north-south in Egypt and turning to run into the Indian Ocean from the west. A large Scandinavian peninsula lies along the northwestern section of the map, taking up so much room that the British Isles are pushed down to a location off the western coast of France.
There are several references to the spice trade in the Indian Ocean, and in the Sahara are some of the towns that began appearing on Catalan maps in the previous century.




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